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HAD04Building it Right the First Time;Best Practice SharePoint 2010 Infrastructure Advice Michael Noel CCO @MichaelTNoel
Michael Noel• Author of SAMS Publishing titles “SharePoint 2010 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2007 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2003 Unleashed”, “Teach Yourself SharePoint 2003 in 10 Minutes,” “Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed,” “Exchange Server 2010 Unleashed”, “ISA Server 2006 Unleashed”, and many other titles .• Partner at Convergent Computing (www.cco.com / +1(510)444-5700) – San Francisco Bay Area based Infrastructure/Security specialists for SharePoint, AD, Exchange, Security
What we will cover• Examine various SharePoint 2010 farm architecture best practices that have developed over the past year• Examine SharePoint Best Practice Farm Architecture• Understand SharePoint Virtualization Options• Explore SharePoint DR and HA strategies using Database Mirroring• Explore other common best practices (RBS, SSL, NLB)• Examine best practice security for SharePoint• A large amount of best practices covered (i.e. Drinking through a fire hose,) goal is for you to be able to take away at least 2-3 useful pieces of information that can be used in your environment
Architecting the FarmUnderstanding the Three Tiers of SharePoint Infrastructure Web Service Apps Data
Architecting the Farm Small Farm Examples• „All-in-One‟ (Avoid) DB and SP Roles Separate
Architecting the Farm Smallest Highly Available Farm• 2 SharePoint Servers running Web and Service Apps• 2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)• 1 or 2 Index Partitions with equivalent query components• Smallest farm size that is fully highly available
Architecting the Farm Best Practice „Six Server Farm‟• 2 Dedicated Web Servers (NLB)• 2 Service Application Servers• 2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)• 1 or 2 Index Partitions with equivalent query components
Architecting the Farm Scaling to Large Farms• Multiple Dedicated Web Servers• Multiple Dedicated Service App Servers• Multiple Dedicated Query Servers• Multiple Dedicated Crawl Servers, with multiple Crawl DBs to increase parallelization of the crawl process• Multiple distributed Index partitions (max of 10 million items per index partition)• Two query components for each Index partition, spread among servers
Architecting the Farm FAST Search• Previously a third party product ($$$$)• More reasonable pricing now• Highly tuned and specialized search engine for SharePoint and also as an enterprise search platform• Replaces SharePoint 2010 Native Search if used• „Net new‟ features built-in.
Architecting the Farm FAST Search – Comparison Matrix – Slide 1 of 2 SharePoint Search Search SharePoint FAST Search Feature Foundation Server 2010 Server 2010 Server 2010 Server 2010 2010 Express for SharePointBasic search X X X X XBest Bets X X X XSearch Scopes X X X XCrawled and Managed X X X XPropertiesQuery Federation X X X XQuery Suggestions X X X XRelevancy Tuning by Document X X X Xor Site PromotionsShallow Results Refinement X X X XWindows 7 Federation X X X X
Architecting the Farm FAST Search – Comparison Matrix – Slide 2 of 2 SharePoint Search Search SharePoint FAST Search Feature Foundation Server 2010 Server Server Server 2010 2010 Express 2010 2010 for SharePointPeople Search X XSocial Search X XTaxonomy Integration X XMulti-Tenant Hosting X XVisual Best Bets XSimilar Results XDuplicate Results XSearch Enhancement based on user context XSort Results on Managed Properties or Rank XProfilesDeep Results Refinement XDocument Preview XRich Web Indexing Support X
Virtualization of SharePoint Servers Sample 1: Small Single Server Environment / No HA Allows organizations that wouldn‟t normally be able to have a test environment to run one Allows for separation of the database role onto a dedicated server Can be more easily scaled out in the future
Virtualization of SharePoint Servers Sample 2: Two Server Highly Available Farm High- Availability across Hosts All components Virtualized Uses only two Windows Ent Edition Licenses
Virtualization of SharePoint Servers Sample 3: Mix of Physical and Virtual Servers – Best Perf Highest transaction servers are physical Multiple farm support, wit h DBs for all farms on the SQL cluster
Virtualization of SharePoint Servers Sample 4: Scaling to Large Virtual Environments
Virtualization of SharePoint Servers Virtualization Performance Monitoring• Processor (Host Only) • Network Bandwidth – ● <60% Utilization = Good Bytes Total/sec ● 60%-90% = Caution – <40% Utilization = Good ● >90% = Trouble – 41%-64% = Caution• Available Memory – >65% = Trouble ● 50% and above = Good ● 10%-50% = OK • Network Latency - Output ● <10% = Trouble Queue Length• Disk – Avg. Disk sec/Read or – 0 = Good Avg. Disk sec/Write – 1-2= OK ● Up to 15ms = fine – >2 = Trouble ● 15ms-25ms = Caution ● >25ms = Trouble
Virtualization of SharePoint Servers Quick Farm Provisioning using VMM/Virtual Center1. Create new Virtual Guest (Windows Server 2008 R2)2. Install SP2010 Binaries. Stop before running Config Wizard3. Turn Virtual Guest into Template, modify template to allow it to be added into domain4. Add PowerShell script to run on first login, allowing SP to be added into farm or to create new farm End Result - 15 minute entire farm provisioning…quickly add servers into existing farms or create new farms (Test, Dev, Prod) on demand
Data ManagementDistribute Data Across Content DBs and Site Collections• Start with a distributed architecture of content databases from the beginning, within reason (more than 50 per SQL instance is not recommended)• Distribute content across Site Collections from the beginning as well, it is very difficult to extract content after the face• Allow your environment to scale and your users to „grow into‟ their SharePoint site collections
Data Management Binary Large OBject (BLOB) Storage• BLOBs are unstructured content stored in SQL• Includes all documents, pictures, and files stored in SharePoint• Excludes Metadata and Context, information about the document, version #, etc.• Until recently, could not be removed from SharePoint Content Databases• Classic problem of structured vs. unstructured data – unstructured data doesn‟t really belong in a SQL Server environment
Data Management Getting your BLOBs out of the Content DBs• Can reduce dramatically the size of Content DBs, as upwards of 80%-90% of space in content DBs is composed of BLOBs• Can move BLOB storage to more efficient/cheaper storage• Improve performance and scalability of your SharePoint deployment – But highly recommended to use third party
SQL Database OptimizationContent Databases Distributed Between Multiple Volumes• Break Content Databases and TempDB into multiple files (MDF, NDF), total should equal number of physical processors (not cores) on SQL server.• Pre-size Content DBs and TempDB to avoid fragmentation• Separate files onto different drive spindles for best IO perf.• Example: 50GB total Content DB on Two-way SQL Server would have two database files distributed across two sets of drive spindles = 25GB pre-sized for each file.
SQL Database Optimization TempDB Best practices• TempDB is critical for performance• Pre-size to 20% of the size of the largest content database.• Break into multiple files across spindles as noted• Note there is a separate TempDB for each physical instance• Note that if using SQL Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) for any databases in an instance, the tempDB is encrypted.
SQL Database Optimization SQL Maintenance Plans• Implement SQL Maintenance Plans!• Include DBCC (Check Consistency) and either Reorganize Indexes or Rebuild Indexes, but not both!• Add backups into the maintenance plan if they don‟t exist already• Be sure to truncate transaction logs with a T- SQL Script (after full backups have run…)
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – Clustering vs. Mirroring• Clustering is Shared Storage, can‟t survive storage failure, makes Mirroring more attractive• Clustering fails over more quickly• Mirroring is not supported for all databases, but Clustering is• Both Clustering and Mirroring can be used at the same time (Instance to Instance)
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – SQL Database Mirroring• Introduced in SQL 2005 SP1• Greatly improved in SQL 2008 and now SQL 2008 R2• Available in Enterprise and Standard (Synchronous only) editions• Works by keeping a mirror copy of a database or databases on two servers• Can be combined with traditional shared storage clustering to further improve redundancy• SharePoint 2010 is now Mirroring aware!• Upcoming SQL 2012 has some great Mirroring improvements (Multiple copies of databases, both asynch and synch, and read-only copies in remote!)
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – Database Mirroring Model #1 – Single Site• Single Site• Synchronous Replication• Uses a SQL Witness Server to Failover Automatically• Mirror all SharePoint DBs in the Farm• Use a SQL Alias to switch to Mirror Instance
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – Database Mirroring Model #2 – Cross-Site with HA• Two Sites• 1-10 ms Latency max• 1Gb Bandwidth minimum• Farm Servers in each location• Auto Failover
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – Database Mirroring Model #2 – Remote Farm• Two Sites• Two Farms• Mirror only Content DBs• Failover is Manual• Read-only Mode possible• Must Re- Attach and Re-Index
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – Database Support for Mirroring – Slide 1 of 2 Synchronous Asynchronous Mirror Mirror Support SupportConfiguration XCentral Administration content XContent Databases X XUsage and Health Data CollectionBusiness Data Connectivity XApplication Registry service * (BDC Upgrade)Subscription Settings service * (PowerShell XEnabled)Search – Search Administration XSearch - Crawl XSearch - Property X
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Data Tier – Database Support for Mirroring – Slide 2 of 2 Synchronous Asynchronous Mirror Mirror Support SupportUser Profile - Profile XUser Profile - SynchronizationUser Profile – Social TaggingWeb Analytics - StagingWeb Analytics - Reporting XSecure Store X XStage XManaged Metadata XWord Automation Services XPerformancePoint X
High Availability and Disaster RecoveryTwo Node/Two Instance Cluster – Take Advantage of bothservers
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Network Load Balancing• Hardware Based Load Balancing (F5, Cisco, Citrix NetScaler – Best performance and scalability• Software Windows Network Load Balancing fully supported by MS, but requires Layer 2 VLAN (all packets must reach all hosts.) Layer 3 Switches must be configured to allow Layer 2 to the specific VLAN.• If using Unicast, use two NICs on the server, one for communications between nodes.• If using Multicast, be sure to configure routers appropriately• Set Affinity to Single (Sticky Sessions)• If using VMware, note fix to NLB RARP issue (http://tinyurl.com/vmwarenlbfix)
High Availability and Disaster Recovery Windows Software Network Load Balancing Recommendations• Best Practice – Create Multiple Web Apps with Load- balanced VIPs (Sample below) ● Web Role Servers • sp1.companyabc.com (10.0.0.101) – Web Role Server #1 • sp2.companyabc.com (10.0.0.102) – Web Role Server #2 ● Clustered VIPs shared between SP1 and SP2 (Create A records in DNS) • spnlb.companyabc.com (10.0.0.103) - Cluster • spca.companyabc.com (10.0.0.104) – SP Central Admin • spsmtp.companyabc.com (10.0.0.105) – Inbound Email VIP • home.companyabc.com (10.0.0.106) – Main SP Web App (can be multiple) • mysite.companyabc.com (10.0.0.107) – Main MySites Web App
SharePoint Installation Scripted Installations• Good to understand how to install SharePoint from the command-line, especially if setting up multiple servers.• Allows for options not available in the GUI, such as the option to rename databases to something easier to understand.• Use PowerShell with SharePoint 2010• Sample scripts available for download…
SharePoint InstallationSome Manual Service Apps Still Required• Due to complexity and/or bugs, certain Service Apps will need to be manually configured in most cases.• This includes the following: ● PerformancePoint Service Application ● User Profile Service Application ● Web Analytics Service Application
SharePoint InstallationDocument the Configuration and Monitor Changes• Document all key settings in IIS, SharePoint, after installation• Consider monitoring for changes after installation for Config Mgmt.• Fantastic tool for this is the SPDocKit - can be found at http://tinyurl.com/spdockit
SharePoint SecurityLayers of Security in a SharePoint Environment• Infrastructure Security and Best practices ● Physical Security ● Best Practice Service Account Setup ● Kerberos Authentication• Data Security ● Role Based Access Control (RBAC) ● Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) of SQL Databases ● Antivirus• Transport Security ● Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) from Server to Client ● IPSec from Server to Server• Edge Security ● Inbound Internet Security (Forefront UAG/TMG)• Rights Management
SharePoint Security Infrastructure – Sample List of Service AccountsService Account Name Role of Service Account Special PermissionsCOMPANYABCSRV-SP-Setup SharePoint Installation Account Local Admin on all SharePoint servers (for install of SP).COMPANYABCSRV-SP-SQL SQL Service Account(s) – Should be separate Local Admin on Database Server(s) admin accounts from SP accounts. (Generally, some exceptions apply)COMPANYABCSRV-SP-Farm SharePoint Farm Account(s) – Can also be N/A standard admin accounts. RBAC principles apply ideally.COMPANYABCSRV-SP-Search Search Account N/ACOMPANYABCSRV-SP-Content Default Content Access Account Read rights to any external data sources to be crawledCOMPANYABCSRV-SP-Prof Default Profiles Access Account Member of Domain Users (to be able to read attributes from users in domain) and „Replicate Directory Changes‟ rights in AD.COMPANYABCSRV-SP-AP-SPCA Application Pool Identity account for SharePoint DBCreator and Security Admin on SQL. Create Central Admin. and Modify contacts rights in AD OU used for email.COMPANYABCSRV-SP-AP-Data Application Pool Identity account for the N/A Content related App Pool (Portal, MySites, etc.) Additional as needed for security.
SharePoint Security Infrastructure – Enable Kerberos when using Classic-Auth• When creating any Web Applications in Classic-mode, USE KERBEROS. It is much more secure and also faster with heavy loads as the SP server doesn‟t have to keep asking for auth requests from AD.• Kerberos auth does require extra steps, which makes people shy away from it, but once configured, it improves security considerably and can improve performance on high-load sites.• Should also be configured on SPCA Site! (Best Practice = Configure SPCA for NLB, SSL, and Kerberos (i.e. https://spca.companyabc.com)
SharePoint SecurityData – Role Based Access Control (RBAC)• Role Groups defined within Active Directory (Universal Groups) – i.e. „Marketing,‟ „Sales,‟ „IT,‟ etc.• Role Groups added directly into SharePoint „Access Groups‟ such as „Contributors,‟ „Authors,‟ etc.• Simply by adding a user account into the associated Role Group, they gain access to whatever rights their role requires. User1 Role SharePoint Group Group User2
SharePoint Security Data - Transparent Data Encryption (TDE)• New in SQL Server 2008• Only Available with the Enterprise Edition• Seamless Encryption of Individual Databases• Transparent to Applications, including SharePoint
SharePoint SecurityData - Use SharePoint-Aware Antivirus (3rd Party or FPS)
SharePoint Security Transport - Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Encryption• External or Internal Certs highly recommended• Protects Transport of content• 20% overhead on Web Servers• Can be offloaded via SSL offloaders if needed• Don‟t forget for SPCA as well!
SharePoint Security Transport – IPSec from Server to Server• By default, traffic between SharePoint Servers (i.e. Web and SQL) is unencrypted• IPSec encrypts all packets sent between servers in a farm• For very high security scenarios when all possible data breaches must be addressed
SharePoint Security Rights Management - Active Directory Rights Management Services• AD RMS is a form of Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology, used in various forms to protect content• Used to restrict activities on files AFTER they have been accessed: ● Cut/Paste ● Print ● Save As…• Directly integrates with SharePoint DocLibs
For More Information• SharePoint 2010 Unleashed from SAMS Publishing (http://www.samspublishing.com)• Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed and/or Hyper-V Unleashed (http://www.samspublishing.com)• Microsoft „Virtualizing SharePoint Infrastructure‟ Whitepaper (http://tinyurl.com/virtualsp)• Microsoft SQL Mirroring Case Study (http://tinyurl.com/mirrorsp )• Failover Mirror PowerShell Script (http://tinyurl.com/failovermirrorsp )• SharePoint Kerberos Guidance (http://tinyurl.com/kerbsp)• SharePoint Installation Scripts (http://tinyurl.com/SPFarm-Config)• SharePoint Documentation Toolkit• (http://tinyurl.com/SPDocKit)• Contact us at CCO.com
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Michael Noel Twitter: @MichaelTNoel www.cco.comSlides: slideshare.net/michaeltnoel