Why are these important to know? Understand what each tools measures.
Understand that different tools are designed to assess different areas of the body
This can give us excellent information from employees. I like it best when used before there are actual injuries. It can help you figure out what your priorities are for a task, job, or area of a facility based on the discomfort level being experienced by the employees. Be careful with this data also because you are sometimes going to get someone that is hurting everywhere and it may not be related to the job at all.
General information: what job should we start specific controls for Specific: In this previously identified job, what areas are the most concern
Worksite Hazard Analysis Presented By: Thomas Dean Georgia Tech
Objectives Discuss the sub elements of worksite hazard analysis Identify typical hazards in the workplace Review various techniques that can be used to identify hazards in the workplace
Hazards Vs. Unsafe Behavior Unsafe behavior sometimes leads to unsafe conditions that can cause accidents. Consider Maintenance Operations Unsafe behaviors may show weakness in the safety management system.
Effective Worksite Analysis Worksite analysis involves a variety of worksite examinations, to identify not only existing hazards, but also conditions and operations where changes might occur to create hazards Effective management actively analyzes the work and the worksite to anticipate and prevent harmful occurrences
Plan for Worksite Analysis Comprehensive Facility Surveys Change Analysis Routine Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) Periodic and Daily Inspections
Comprehensive Survey Comprehensive surveys should be performed depending on the business size and hazardousness every 1-3 years Resources for comprehensive survey: private consultants, insurance company, and state funded programs
Change Analysis Change analysis is simply the management of change in the work environment. Changes in the following items need to be reviewed: Facilities Materials Process Technology Equipment
Change Analysis A competent team consisting of managers, engineers, superintendents and employees should be involved How can you best manage change in the work environment?
Job Hazard Analysis A job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. After uncontrolled hazards are identified, take action to eliminate them or reduce risk.
Job Hazard Analysis Performing a job hazard analysis is one of the best methods to develop safe work procedures for the equipment that is operated. The JHA can also be used to train employees in the hazards associated with task and what control measures should be practiced.
JHA Team A Job Hazard Analysis requires the cooperation of all parties involved that includes: Safety Professional Engineers-Technical Advisor Supervisors-Frontline Personnel responsible for making change Employee-Person most familiar with job
Communication of the JHA Safety Meetings Distribution of Copies SOP and Operations Manual What are some other methods? ___________________ ___________________
What are the Possible Uses of a JHA 1._________________________ 2._________________________ 3._________________________
Prioritization of JHA Jobs with the highest Jobs complex enough to injury and illness rates have written instructions Jobs that have the Jobs that are new to you potential to cause facility serious injury Jobs that significantly had Jobs in which one changes in process technology or procedures simple human error could cause injury
Steps for JHA Involve Employees List, rank, and set Review accident history priorities for hazardous Conduct preliminary job jobs review Outline the steps or tasks
Involvement of Employees They have a unique understanding of the job, and this knowledge is invaluable for finding hazards. Involving employees will help minimize oversights, ensure a quality analysis. Get workers to “buy in” to the solutions because they will share ownership
Job Review Discuss with employees the hazards that they know exist. Brainstorm with them for ideas to eliminate or control those hazards. If any hazards exist that pose an immediate danger, to an employee’s life or health, take immediate action to protect the worker. Any problems that can be corrected easily should be corrected as soon as possible.
Outline the Steps Watch the employee perform the job and list each step as the worker takes it. Be sure to record enough information to describe each job action without getting overly detailed. Avoid making the breakdown of steps so detailed that it becomes unnecessarily long or so broad that it does not include basic steps.
Outline the Steps Review the job steps with the employee to make sure you have not omitted something. Include the employee in all phases of the analysis—from reviewing the job steps and procedures to discussing uncontrolled hazards and recommended solutions.
Identifying the Hazards A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following: What can go wrong? What are the consequences? How could it arise? What are other contributing factors? How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
Common Hazards in the WorkplaceStressor Hazard Hazard Type Hazard Type TypeChemical Corrosive Fire Toxic ExplosionElectrical Shock Short Circuit Fire-StaticMechanical Moving Failure Noise Parts PressureErgonomic Strain Human Error Fatigue
Common Hazards in the WorkplaceStressor Hazard Hazard Type Hazard Type TypeRadiation Ionizing Non IonizingContact Struck By Struck Caught In AgainstEnvironment Temp. Visibility WeatherMisc. Slips Trips Falls
Hazard Identification Workshop Based on the following slides of machinery, identify the potential hazards. Hint: Use the previous tables and analyze the machinery and work environment Prepare to discuss your findings.
Controlling the Hazards The order of precedence and effectiveness of hazard control is the following: 1. Engineering controls. 2. Administrative controls. 3. Personal protective equipment.
Controlling the Hazards The most effective controls are engineering controls that physically change a machine or work environment to prevent employee exposure to the hazard. The more reliable or less likely a hazard control can be circumvented, the better. If this is not feasible, administrative controls may be appropriate. This may involve changing how employees do their jobs.
Controlling the Hazards Discuss your recommendations with all employees who perform the job and consider their responses carefully. If you plan to introduce new or modified job procedures, be sure they understand what they are required to do and the reasons for the changes.
Engineering Controls Engineering controls include the following: Elimination/minimization of the hazard Substitution of equipment or process to decrease hazard Isolation of the hazard with interlocks, machine guards, blast shields, or other means; and Removal or redirection of the hazard such as with local and exhaust ventilation.
Administrative Controls Administrative controls include the following: Written operating procedures, work permits, and safe work practices; Exposure time limitations (used most commonly to control heat stress and ergonomic hazards); Monitoring the use of highly hazardous materials; Alarms, signs, and warnings; Buddy system; and training
PPE Personal Protective Equipment is acceptable as a control method in the following circumstances: When engineering controls are not feasible or do not totally eliminate the hazard; While engineering controls are being developed; When safe work practices do not provide sufficient additional protection; and During emergencies when engineering controls may not be feasible.
JHA Exercise We are going to perform an exercise on grinding metal casting. Based on the steps, please identify the hazards and controls.
JOB HAZARD ANALYSISJob Title:Job Description:Date Conducted Task Step Task Hazard Cause Hazard Control MeasuresComments:
Periodic Review of JHA Reviewing job hazard Review the JHA after analysis ensures that it accidents, you may remains current and determine that you need to continues to prevent change the job procedure to accidents and injuries. prevent similar incidents. It is possible that during the Review after all close calls review process you will and discuss the situation identify hazards that were with all employees that do not identified in the initial the job. analysis.
Safety and Health Inspections Cover entire worksite Regular intervals Inspectors trained Hazards tracked to correction
Objectives for Inspections There may be many objectives to the inspection process: Meet OSHA or other legal responsibility Involve the team Identify areas of undue risk and control hazards Identify and develop positive attitudes Suggest better methods of doing job
Inspections OSHA recommends that you perform general workplace inspections. Check the standard so that you know what must be inspected. What are some examples of items that must be inspected?
Employee Involvement What are some reasons for involving employees in the process? Demonstrate commitment to safety Allow them to become familiar with the process safety requirement. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________
Documenting the Inspection A checklist of workplace specific hazards should be developed. To accomplish this: List the potential hazards in the workplace Examine the work areas to locate hazards Check with employees and records
Resources for Checklist Insurance and safety consultants Accident/incident investigation reports (past problems) Small business handbook Manufacturer Specifications JHA and/or employee input Standards that apply to industry
Checklist Development Avoid making the checklist: vague, excessive detail, and overwhelming. Checklist is a tool. As the inspectors become more skilled, the less reliance there will be on this checklist. You should get the point that hazards rarely are identified and hazards are corrected immediately.
Examination of the Workplace Identify conditions that might develop Location of the hazard Severity potential
Safety Inspection Workshop Mock inspection of a company is to be performed. Identify the hazards in the slides and rate the severity. Be prepared to discuss your results.
Inspection ReportDate: Inspection Team:Number & FindingsClassificationHazard ClassificationA = Loss of life, body part, extensive damageB = Serious injury or property damageC = Non-disabling injury or minor damage
Hazard Reporting Effective hazard reporting systems will: encourage employees to report hazards and effectively track them for prioritizing. create feedback between management and the employee reporting the hazard. have a system to analysis the hazards reported to determine its effectiveness.
Accident Investigation All accidents and incidents need to be investigated. What is an accident? Why do we investigate accidents? Why should near misses be investigated?
Causes of Injuries and Accidents Direct Causes Indirect Causes Root Causes
Trend Analysis Trends need to analyzed over time to identify any emerging patterns of injury and intervene to prevent its recurrence. Review injury records over time What items should be trended over time to determine any emerging pattern?
Summary Worksite hazard analysis consists of: Change analysis JHA Workplace inspections Hazard Reporting Trend Analysis Effective programs will result in the identification of potential and existing hazards.
What is a Task Analysis Tool A narrative, quantitative and/or checklist system that provides a standardized evaluation of a job/task Tools based on biomechanical and physiological information compiled and calculated providing a relative risk of injury probability Can be specific for body region and/or risk factors
Why do we need these tools? Provide guidance • Where to begin corrective actions • Helps direct efforts toward specific body division, risk factors Involve employees • Employees can perform assessments Provide a level of measurement • Shows improvement of tasks • Baseline data
How do we use them?Two criteria for use: • What are you trying to find out? General vs. Specific information • What limitations must be considered? Various tools are only able to assess specific body regions
Types of Analysis Tools Checklists • Easy to use • Less time consuming • Minimal training • Very sensitive: One check, task must be considered
Types of Analysis Tools Quantitative • Less sensitive More specific training • Provide a relative risk assessment
Types of Analysis Tools Narrative • More formal training and experience required • Provides specific areas for improvement • Very time consuming
Checklists Washington State Checklist (WISHA) NIOSH University of Michigan
WISHA Checklist system that identifies “caution or hazard zone jobs” Incorporates each of the risk factors including vibration and contact stress Has separate evaluation for heavy, frequent or awkward lifting Uses verbal cues to guide user through evaluation criteria Not generally left or right side independent
WISHA Does address combination of risk factors Great “first cut” ergonomic tool Draw Backs • High sensitivity: identify many jobs • Doesn’t separate frequency component by body part
Using WISHA 3 basic sections • Entire body checklist • Lifting hazard section • Vibration hazard analysis Entire body checklist • Identify if a particular hazard exist as a result of a risk factor for a body part • If a hazard exists then corrective action is needed
Using WISHA Lifting hazard analysis • Calculated weight limit is adjusted by: • Compares the actual weight lifted to a calculated weight limit • Actual weight lifted > Weight limit = Hazard exists
Using WISHA Vibration hazard analysis • Compares the time an employee uses the machine to a pre-measured vibration value • Plot time vs. vibration data on graph • Intersection point indicates degree of hazard • Vibration data: www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/ergo
Job Strain Index Only evaluates hand, wrist and elbow (distal upper extremity) Assess task based on posture, frequency and force FORCE driven Doesn’t consider vibration or contact stress Index based on a relative risk (1-1053) • 7 considered hazardous
Job Strain Index Can assess right and left sides independently as well as worst case Used in meat packing, small part assembly, keyboarding and other highly repetitive hand motions
Strain Index Elements Intensity of exertions (force) Duration of Exertion (% cycle) Efforts per minute Hand/wrist posture Speed of work Duration of task per day
Using the Job Strain Index Assign a value for each of the 6 elements Multiply each element = strain index Compare calculated value to decision threshold provided Decision Threshold • <3 safe • 3-5 uncertain • 5-7 some risk • >7 hazardous
JHA/Work MethodsVideotaping Tips Announce the name of the job on the tape Tape 5 to 10 minutes for each task At least 3-4 cycles Start with whole body shots and then zoom in on problems areas Try different angles to get the best shot
JHA/Work MethodsStep 1: Breaking The Job Down List each step in order of occurrence Be sure to record enough information Can use Gilbreth’s terms to describe steps Can use video or photos
JHA/Work Methods Gilbreth’s Table of Work Elements Search Assemble Select Disassemble Grasp Use Reach Unavoidable Delay Move Avoidable Delay Hold Plan Position Rest to overcome fatigue Inspect
JHA/Work MethodsStep 2: Identify the Hazards Look for Risk Factors in each job Repeat the job observation until all hazards identified • Video and photos can be especially helpful Consider abnormal activities and conditions
JHA/Work MethodsStep 3: New Procedure or Protection Can the job be performed in another way? Can you make physical changes to the job? Does the job have to be performed? Can it be done less often?