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Microservices and functional programming

Microservices and functional programming



A talk I did recently on microservices and functional programming. Microservices are small, single purpose apps that are run as a service, which are usually composed together to provide the real app.

A talk I did recently on microservices and functional programming. Microservices are small, single purpose apps that are run as a service, which are usually composed together to provide the real app.



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    Microservices and functional programming Microservices and functional programming Presentation Transcript

    • Microservices and FP Michael Neale @michaelneale developer.cloudbees.com Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Microservices and FP Given that: We have lots of services - Everything has an API Functional programming: - quality improvements, popular - applied easily to “new” services/projects Combine them! Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Definitions Functional programming: - avoid/manage side effects - immutability over mutation - higher order functions - first class functions - composition using functions over OO Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Definitions Micro-service: - remotely accessible service (typically http) - does “one thing” (and does it well?) - executes stand alone in a container (JVM - in this case) - may depend on other services - can be composed into a larger service Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Definitions Micro-service: - “small” - independently deployed - loosely coupled - not necessarily reusable (but may be) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Definitions Like a unix command line app that does ONE THING AND ONE THING ONLY! service1 | service2 | service3 .... Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Example scenario Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Jenkins CI PaaS repos autoscale management console web apps how to compose??? provisioning licencingsubscriptions Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Identify some micro services repos: artifact storage - store blobs in users account (via s3) autoscale: - look at a stream of stats - decide to scale app (note: won’t scale app - just recommends) subscriptions: - check entitlements, record usage Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • All in common: All small! All do one thing! Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Aside: FP (more later) Some services lend themselves to “purity” eg: Automatic scaling F(last minute stats) = recommendation to scale up, or down (or no change) No state, no persistence. Perfect candidate for FP. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Why not monolithic? Can easily do @Produces(MediaType.JSON) @Path("/apps") @POST ... Thanks to jax-rs in one app? why not? Different endpoints via @Path, different methods, different classes? Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Why not monolithic? Apps grow (teams grow too!) Different parts change at different rates Different execution container needs (resources) Different teams? Company grows? But most of all: Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Why not monolithic? Fear. Risk. Fear of deploying a change. Risk of trying a new technique, new framework. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Why not monolithic? Deploying a change to a microservice does not increase blood pressure as much as deploying the ONE MASSIVE APP THAT RUNS EVERYTHING Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Monolithic debugging (Often in production) ??? Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • micro-service debugging Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Shift to dev-ops More deployment expected More *people* doing the deployment Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Smooth deployment Microservices need: - easy rollback - no “over the wall” deployment - easy as-needed deployment - accessible deploy environment A PaaS can help (private or public) - they were born for this. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Transport Typically (but not always) HTTP Typically (but not always) JSON (autoscale service was message bus + thrift name/ value pairs) But *are* always loosely coupled (ie never RMI) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Containers Execution environment: - anything really - consumers of APIs don’t care - but developers do, deployers do - JVM ideal: enough controls/constraints - many languages - many frameworks If you had to pick one: JVM wins. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Convinced? By this point I hope I have convinced you microservices are good. Right? Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Functional Programming with microservices First, some background... Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Context New Company New Team New Product You might not be this “lucky” Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • History 2010 Started: JVM stack parts - Scala not controversial (I had experience) - working mostly “lone wolf” 2011 - another team added - brought Erlang Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Erlang! Me other team members Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • More FP Given “success” with Scala, more FP (services, languages) was not viewed as a great risk. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Observation FP means one person can do more && People like me like to work alone ∴ risk of staying with one-person-per micro service (is this a bad thing?) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Objections and resistance Ask why: - resistance to the “new” (unnecessary risk) - resistance to FP ideas (hype?) - polyglot fear (realistically multiple languages will be used) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Maintainability objection It goes: - how will anyone be able to maintain this after you? My Experience: - projects featuring FP handed over successfully - new developers able to pick up FP easily - seasoned developers too Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Where we may differ Small teams - many systems. ∴ Little overlap in jobs. We get to use a great PaaS ! (our own!) for all these micro services Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • What did we do with FP Manage horrendous public cloud APIs Automatic scaling (microservice) Github crawling (microservice) Subscription/signup/entitlements (microservice) ... and microservices Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Surprisingly practical things No real calculations, no explicit maths. Just boring every day error prone stuff. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • For example (provisioning) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Providore Evil cloud api Build masters build workers Workspace storage Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • New build required. Check the pool, talk to the Evil api, ask for a new server, it fails, ask again. Wait for server to be up, no, I mean really up. Ask for a new disk, wait for a new disk, it fails, try again, attach the new disk, is the disk attached? fails, try again, damn it the snapshot isn’t available. The problem: Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • How can we solve this? TDD? problems only manifest under load/in- production. APIs are buggy, change over time. Industry best practice: hack something together as a script and some of the time it works. Can FP help us? Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Yes Types (providore is written in scala) - Specifically: Option, Either - Closed Data Types (servers only in so many states) The M word: Monads Currying Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Cloud API launch_server: Server at best hopes to be: launch_server: Option[Server] launch_server: Either[Server, OhGodWhyWhyWhy] (not an actual pure function of course) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Cloud Monad Cloud APIs are like IO Slow, horrible, misbehaving IO ...and then the APIs other people write All want to be monadic Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • val validation: String / Subscription = (for { account <- extractAccount _ <- validateSubscription(account) callback <- extractCallBack plan <- validatePlan billing_day <- extractBillingDay subscription <- createSub(account, plan, callback, ... } yield subscription).run(req.body) (scala) ReaderT to help you compose http://debasishg.blogspot.com.au/2011/07/ monad-transformers-in-scala.html Need to “organise code in monadic way” Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Types So hard to catch things without them Monadic IO + types mean you catch things before you try Trying/experimenting can be $$ expensive... (still learning this, all new to me) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Types helped with Ignored messages Bad pattern matching Misconfiguration/timing of server creation Avoiding “stringly typed” messages All “real world” things types have help us catch with a friendly compile error** ** may not actually be friendly Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Types didn’t help with... Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • def ec2 Fog::Compute.new(:provider => 'AWS', :aws_secret_access_key => ENV['EC2_SECRET_KEY'], :aws_access_key_id => ENV['EC2_ACCESS_KEY']) end   def tenured? (instance) instance.created_at && (instance.created_at < Chronic.parse('50 minutes ago')) end   def alive? (instance) instance.state == 'running' or instance.state == 'stopped' end   zombies = ec2.servers.select { |i| i.tags.empty? && tenured?(i) && alive?(i) } Parallel.each(zombies, :in_threads => 15) do |zombie| begin puts "Terminating zombie node #{zombie.id}" ec2.servers.get(zombie.id).destroy end end Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • True story Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Currying Server lifecycle: Reserved->Launching->Update (user data)->Volume Create->Volume Attach- >initialise/start Accumulate setup data via partial application Instead of an object that has mutating state, a function you partially apply to accumulate data. Good “beginner” FP concept (powerful, simple) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Small things But every little bit helps. The pure FP is my ideal, rarely reached (so far) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Another example (autoscale) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Message Bus Autoscale Controller apps/statistics Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Auto scaling F(last minute stats, previous data window) -> “Suggestion” to scale up, or down (or in or out) Fundamentally calculation, fundamentally functional. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Side effects Push out side effects to other side of the message bus Let a nasty app handle the side effects Messages are signals, suggestions, idempotent Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Advocating to Developers Don’t “sell” to your developers by: - saying monad too often - saying “it’s easy” - showing that it can be just as easy/familiar as what they have Instead... Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Find the functions Find the functions in what they do Find the calculations (eg core of autoscaling) Advanced: Separate the program definition from the execution (monads) Intermediate: Currying, Higher order functions, Types (good ones) Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • ‘Unlearning’ OO Clojure: excellent at teaching people to forget about OO. Scala: challenge. Temptation always there. ∴ Use object/package as namespace (avoid classes) Aside: lack of implicit state allows “Erlang Magic” Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Some Frameworks for FP & Microservices Quick tour: Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Quick development for web apps and APIs RESTful by design “batteries included” - has everything. Easy reuse of all java libraries. www.playframework.com Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Easy deployment (jar/zip file) Can support DBs/evolution Excellent JSON/http/web support Security, Async, Background jobs, and more Scala or Java. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Compojure: just enough web framework Light - small apps Deploy as war, or embedded jetty Great libraries, reuse java libs Effortless JSON -> clojure https://github.com/weavejester/compojure Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • (:use cheshire.core) (let [clojure-data (parse-string json-data)]) (generate-string clojure-data) ;;magic! https://github.com/dakrone/cheshire Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • To the Cloud! Want to try things at your company: Cloud Platforms (hint! vendor shilling!) make it easy to try things out that may be used seriously. Clojure anywhere, Scala anywhere Say “cloud cloud” a lot and people will listen. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Mixed language projects Good idea?? Relevant to JVM Ease-into-it Jury is out... Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Bad questions to hear (when advocating) If you hear these asked, probably will have a bad time: How will we hire people? Does it work for large teams? Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Final Observation Developers who have fondness for emacs/vim (over IDE) find things easier FP invites “change this small bit, see what happens” exploration No real tool barriers. If I can do this, anyone can. Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Conclusion FP and Microservices *naturally* go together Can be about Risk Reduction in new rapid deployment world Cloud A good place to try FP Wednesday, 9 October 13
    • Thank you Michael Neale https://twitter.com/michaelneale http://www.cloudbees.com Wednesday, 9 October 13