Definitions Angina Angina is the pain associated with restricted blood supply to the heart muscle. Angina pectoris is a phrase that comes from Latin and translates as 'tight chest'. Myocardial Infarction – Heart Attack Death of a section of the heart muscle, which follows interruption of its blood supply. CardiacArrest The stopping of the heart- absence of breathing and pulse.
Causes and Triggers In most cases, the cause of angina is coronary atherosclerosis: the thickening of arteries that supply blood, oxygen and nutrients to the heart. This happens when fatty deposits, called plaques, narrow the arteries over time and reduce blood flow to the heart. Symptoms may only appear at times when your heart needs more blood supply, such as when you're stressed, exercising or climbing stairs.
As your heart tries to pump faster to meet your body's increased demands, the narrowed arteries struggle to keep up. The heart then receives too little oxygen, which causes pain in the heart that is felt as chest pain. In severe cases this can also happen when the heart is at rest.
Causes and Triggers Cont. Angina can be aggravated by other illnesses, including: a sustained fast heartbeat anaemia (thin blood) heart valve diseases such as severe aortic stenosis - a narrowing of the outflow valve of the heart thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy), which can be a result of high blood pressure over several years
Signs and Symptoms Angina Shortness of breath Nausea and Vomiting Paleness and profuse sweating A suffocating pain in the centre of the chest, often induced by exercise and relieved by rest, which may radiate to the jaw, neck, back and down the arms Anxiety and emotional distress
Signs and symptoms Heart Attack The same as those for Angina, although often more severe and the pain does not usually resolve with rest or normal medication Unconsciousness Cold, pale or blue skin
Treatment Aims Angina To ease the strain on the heart by ensuring the casualty rests To obtain medical help if necessary To help the casualty with any medication Heart Attack To encourage the casualty to rest To arrange urgent removal to hospital
Treatment Angina Help the casualty sit down – ensure they are comfortable and reassure them If the casualty has any medication such as tablets or sprays let them administer them theirselves if possible if not help them. Encourage them to rest and keep bystanders away. The attack should ease within a few minutes. Angina lasting more than 10 minutes or in someone with no history must be treated as an emergency.
Treatment Heart Attack Help the casualty into a half sitting position (W position) Call for an ambulance saying that you suspect a heart attack If the casualty is conscious give one aspirin to be chewed slowly help them take their own angina medication as necessary. Encourage casualty to rest, keep bystanders away and monitor Monitor and be prepared to administer CPR if necessary
A heart-healthy diet includes lots of whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. Chickpeas, beans, and soy products can help lower your cholesterol as well as olive oil, garlic, and avocados. Nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, and pecans, can boost "good" cholesterol (nuts are high in calories, so limit the amount you eat). Incorporate fish and seafood into your meals a few times a week. Keep alcohol intake and sweets to a minimum.
Stop Smoking – Cut down first if necessary but aim to stop as soon as possible (2-4 weeks max) Take more exercise Control your blood sugar – eat less sweets and refined sugars. If diabetic take medication properly. Control your blood pressure Take time to relax and unwind