Seminar paper the grammar exercises of MICHAEL M. MAGBANUA, MA

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This contains 10 selected areas being tested for grammar exercises. A separate summative test and answer key accompanies these exercises.

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Seminar paper the grammar exercises of MICHAEL M. MAGBANUA, MA

  1. 1. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESUnit I. THE SUBJECT-AND-VERB AGREEMENTA. Directions: Read the sentences carefully. On your answer sheet,copy the appropriate verb form of your choice found inside theparenthesis. 1. Different authorities (present—presents) their own definitions of the term guidance. 2. Some (define—defines) guidance as a point of view from the thinking of a guidance-oriented person. 3. Others (define—defines) the term based on their personal observation as practiced by others who (extend—extends) help to people (meet—meets) their needs. 4. Others (consider—considers) it as a part of the educational process. 5. Jones (stress—stresses) that guidance personally (assist—assists) someone (solve-solves) his problems. 6. In the process, it (do—does) not solve problems for the individual but the counselor (help—helps) him to solve his problem. 7. The focus of guidance (is—are) not on the problem itself but on the person. 8. Guidance (aim—aims) to promote the growth of the individual toward self-development and self-direction. 9. Crow and Crow (give—gives) their definition of guidance by stating what guidance (is—are) not. 10. According to them, guidance (is—are) not giving direction. It (is— are) not imposing one’s point of view upon another person, neither making decision for the person seeking assistance, nor carrying burden of another life. 11. Tolbert (1959) (state—states) that counseling is a face-to-face relationship which (provide—provides) the client with a learning situation and (help—helps) him to make use of his characteristics and potentials. 75
  2. 2. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES*See more exercises on next page! 12. Blocker (1966) (say—says) that it (is—are) the process which the structure of the self (is—are) relaxed in the safety of the relationship with the counselor and previously denied experiences (is—are) perceived and then integrated into an altered self. 13. According to Thoresen (1969), counseling (refer—refers) to a variety of procedures systematically undertaken by a counselor to promote specific changes on the behavior of clients. 14. There (is—are) three types of counseling given by Kapunan: directive or clinical counseling, non-directive counseling, and eclectic counseling. 15. Directive or clinical counseling (allow—allows) the counselor to give the counselee information about himself, his opportunities, his problems. 16. Here, the counselor (guide—guides) the discussion or (suggest— suggests) action to take. 17. The information (is—are) obtained from school records, test result, which he (use—uses) in the interview. 18. He (try—tries) to evaluate the facts objectively. He (explain— explains) these facts without offending the counselee. 19. The counselor (do---does) not criticize, judge, or condemn. This method (help—helps) the counselee (make—makes) final decision. 20. Prognosis (refer—refers) to the prediction made by the counselor on the clients’ future developments of the problem.B. Directions: Read and analyze the sentences carefully. On youranswer sheet, write the correct form of the given verb inside theparentheses. 1. Research in this age and time (mean) searching for a theory, for testing theory, or for solving a problem. 2. Kerlinger (1973) in Sevilla, Ochave, et.al (1992) (define) scientific research as “a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical invetigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomenon. 76
  3. 3. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES*See more exercises on next page! 3. One of the critical steps that you a researcher will take in thesis writing (is) the choice of problem. 4. A great number of students (find) this stage stimulating 5. In some schools, courses such as Research in Child Study, Research in Educational Administration (expose) the students to some possible topics for investigation. 6. One of the first considerations of a good problem (is) that the topic should be of great interest to the researcher. 7. A further characteristic of a good problem is that it (possess) novelty. 8. A good problem (is) one which (invite) more complex design. 9. Title (serve) as a frame or reference for the whole parts of the study. 10. It also (enable) the researcher to claim the title as his own, and (help) other researchers to refer to the work for possible survey of theory. 11. Gay (1976) (define) hypothesis as a “tentative explanation for certain behaviors, phenomena, or events which have occurred or will occur. 12. Relationships among variables (come) in many ways. This (be) found most usually in experiments where the researcher (be) interested in finding out the effects of a procedure, material or treatment. 13. First and foremost function of hypothesis is that it (introduce) the researcher’s thinking at the start of the study. 14. Second, the hypothesis (structure) the next stages or procedures of the study. 15. In some theses or dissertations, a special section known as assumptions (occupy) a prominent place in the report. Here the assumptions (be) enumerated. 16. Any endeavor that concerns people (be) challenging. Thus stimulating. This (stem) from the fact that people (be) varied; hence their behaviors (be) complex. 77
  4. 4. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 17. Some sources (describe) the independent variable as the cause and the dependent variable as the result.*See more exercises on next page! 18. Twenty substantive words, function words not included, (be) the maximum allowable length of a title. 19. The null hypothesis (mean) no existence of an effect, an interaction or relationships, or of difference. 20. A problem (exist) when there (be) absence of information resulting in a gap in our knowledge; there (be) contradictory results; and a fact (exist) and the researcher (intend) to make his/her study (explain) it.C. Directions: Choose the appropriate verb form. On your answersheet, copy the verb of your answer from the series of choices insidethe parentheses. 1. Independent variables such as sex, mental ability, socio-economic status, brain damage, aptitude, race, and age (is—are—seem— seems) non-manipulative because you cannot change theses statuses. 2. Variables such as reinforcement, method, use of instructional materials, use of feedback, and others (give—offers—is—are) manipulable. 3. Theory (processes—provides—produces—protects) the study with a conceptual framework justifying the need for investigation. 4. It also (present—presides—presents—prevents) the relationship among variables that have been investigated. 5. The review of related literature (performs—presents—perform— present) some functions like, it (provide—provides—mean—means) the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research. 6. It (provides—produces—argues—supports) information about past researches related to the intended study. 7. It (predict—predicts—give—gives) the researcher a feeling of confidence since the researcher will have on hand all constructs related to his/her study. 8. Conceptual literature (is—are—pertain—pertains) to articles or books written by authorities giving their opinions, experiences, 78
  5. 5. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES theories or ideas of what is good and bad, desirable and undesirable within the problem area.*See more exercises on next page! 9. According to Kerlinger (1973), theoretical framework (is—are— refers—refer) to the set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables. 10. The theoretical framework (become—becomes—yield—yields) the basis of the research problem. 11. It (seems—seems—are—is) also an organized body that (shares— is--explains—introduces) what has been done and what has been said on the topic or problem. 12. Basically, all research methods (is—are—follows—follow) well- defined general procedures, be they basic, applied, or developmental. 13. Action research, which (explains—presents—is—are) popularly used in schools, (are—is—gives-give) a feature of applied research since the former involves discovering and identifying a problem in the local setting. 14. Writing the historical report (focuses—focus—report—reports) the concern of the historical researcher to all the mechanical problems of documentation, the logical problem of selection and arrangement of topics as well as subtopics, and the philosophical problem of interpretation. 15. Many historical works, however, (is—are—present—appear) to follow the individual bent of the author rather than to conform to any one of the schools of historical interpretation. 16. The researcher (faces—face—tries—try) a number of special problems in writing and in interpreting his historical data. He (is —begin—are—begins) his study of history only when he (is—are— have—has) identified a perplexing question and then correctly (states—say—state—has) it. 17. The principal aims in employing the descriptive method (is—are— appears—has) to describe the nature of a situation as it (exists— exist—presents—present) at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular phenomenon. 79
  6. 6. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 18. Descriptive research (has—do—have—is) of several types, namely: case studies, surveys, developmental studies, follow-up studies, documentary analyses, trend analyses, and correlational studies.*See more exercises on next page! 19. A case study (involve—involves—uses—use) studying one person or just a few persons over a considerable period of time. This (brings—bring—entails—entail) discovering and studying all the important variables which (has—have—give—gives) contributed to the history of the researcher’s subject. 20. Historical research (is—are—involves—involve) three major procedures. In data collection, documents and remains (comes— come—has—have) as the chief primary sources. They (have—are —do—gives) the first witnesses to a fact, hence, they (brings— bring—are—make) the only solid bases for historical investigation. 80
  7. 7. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES KEY TO CORRECTION SUBJECT-AND-VERB AGREEMENTA.1. present 11. states; provides; helps2. define 12. says; is; are3 define; extend; meet 13. refers4. consider 14. are5. stresses; assists; solves 15. allows6. does; helps 16. guides; suggest7. is 17. is; uses8. aims 18. tries; explains9. give; is 19.does; helps; makes10.is; is 20. refersB.1. means 11. defines2. defines 12. come; is; is3 is 13. introduces4. finds 14. structures5. expose 15. occupies; are6. is; possesses 16. is; stems; are7. is, invites 17. describes8. enables; helps 18. is9. serves 19. means 81
  8. 8. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 10. exists; intends; explains 20.exist; is; are C. Subject-and-Verb Agreement 1. are 11. is; explains 2. are 12. follow 3. are 13. is; is 4. provides 14. focuses 5. performs 15. appear 6. provides 16. faces; begins; has; states 7. pertains 17. are; exists 8. gives 18. is 9. refers 19. involves; entails; have 10.becomes 20. involves come; are; are*nothing follows 82
  9. 9. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESUnit II. THE TENSE AND ASPECT SYSTEMA. Directions: Read the sentences carefully. On your answer sheet,copy the appropriate verb form of your choice found inside theparentheses. 1. The 2002 BEC which (has—has been) its pilot years of implementation in school year 2002-2003, (was—are) a restructuring of the 1983 New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) and the 1989 New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC). Thus, it (are—is—was—were) also called the Restructured Basic Education Curriculum. (RBEC). 2. Each region, division, district and school (discover—discovered— will discover—have discovered) common issues and best practices and the sharing (will give—gave) insights on how the issues and problems could be addressed. 3. Curriculum development (were—is) a dynamic process, and thus the Restructured Basic Education Curriculum (will continue—will have continued) to be developed throughout the year and year thereafter. 4. The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) (promotes——have promoted) the total development of the Filipino learners and (enabled—enables) them to acquire the needed competencies and desirable values. 5. English (arrived—has arrived) in 1898 with the American colonizers, who unlike the Spanish, (saw—had seen) a need for a single language to unify the country. 6. The present implementation of the Values Education Program in the Basic Education Curriculum (requires---has required) a thorough evaluation. 83
  10. 10. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 7. In CBI, content (will become—becomes) the organizing principle; and the language structures, vocabulary, and functions (are selected—have been selected) by the teacher that are both necessary for content and that are compatible with.*See more exercises on next page! 8. There (had been—is) a substantial improvement in the provision of textbooks for the public schools, both at the elementary and secondary levels, in larger part due to multilateral assistance from the World Bank, for elementary textbooks, ADB for secondary books, and the Canadian International Development Assistance (CIDA) for the textbook paper. 9. It (had been estimated—will be estimated) that class size could be very significant when class (are—has been) relatively small. 10.While the contributions of PRODED and SEDP cannot be denied, yet in the light of subsequent developments it (will become—has become) to refocus once more on the basics and in this case, those of mathematics, the natural sciences, and English. 11.A secondary education graduate, or BSEd, who (has majored—will have majored) in history can handle four high school level subjects where s/he (has—is) considered qualified, while one who (has—is) physics will be considered fit to handle but one subject. 12. While government expenditures on education (continued—has continued) to reflect the Constitution mandate that the greatest portion of the budget (will—was) to be spent on education, over the years since the advent of the 1987 Constitution. 13.Students who (will have finished—have finished) eleventh or twelfth grade abroad should be permitted to go on to college, provided that they (take—have taken) the NCEE, if law (is—was) still valid. 14.The basic function of chartered state colleges and universities (SUCs) is—have) to provide free tertiary education to intellectually promising but financially handicapped students, not only for tuition but also for living expenses, (including—will include) board and lodging. 15.“Teaching”, according to Republic Act No. 7836 (refers—is) to the profession concerned primarily with classroom instruction, at the 84
  11. 11. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES elementary and secondary levels in accordance with the curriculum prescribed by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports, whether on part-time or full-time basis in the private or public schools.*See more exercises on next page! 16.The examinations for the elementary and secondary school teachers shall be separate. The examinations for teachers in the elementary level (was—shall) consist of two (2) parts, namely: professional education and general education. 17.No applicants shall be admitted to take the examination unless, on the date of filing of the application, s/he (had—shall have) complied with the qualifications identified by the Board. 18.The Board (shall—is) within one hundred twenty (120) days after the examination, report the ratings (report—have reported) the ratings obtained by each candidate to the Professional Regulation Commission for approval and appropriate action. 19.The registration of a professional teacher (commenced— commences) from the date his/her name is enrolled in the roster of professional teachers. 20.Until the new millennium, English in Philippines (seemed—have seemed) to be paralleling the pattern of evolution that (had occurred—will be occurring) in Malaysia.B. Directions: Choose the appropriate verb form. On your answersheet, copy the word of your answer from the series of choicesinside the parentheses. 1. Guidance (was—is—be—were—has) a form of assistance given to individuals for the purpose of bringing about changes in attitudes and values towards desirable directions. 2. The aim of guidance is to develop individuals so that they (will able—have been able—will be able—is able) to solve their own problems as far as this is possible. 85
  12. 12. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 3. As embodied in Paragraph 2 of DECS Order No. 104. s. 1999, the crippled, the “neurologically handicapped” (cerebral palsy) and the visually and hearing impaired as duly attested by the competent physician (exempts—shall be exempted—exempted—will be exempting) from taking the NEAT/NSAT. 4. All public and private schools, local and abroad, which (had—will have—have—having) DECS permit (shall be—is—will—were) the testing centers in the administration of the 2000 NEAT and NSAT.*See more exercises on next page! 5. The Certificate of Rating (have—were—had been—shall be) a requirement for graduation. This will be issued by the National Educational Testing and Research Center (NETRC) to each examinee free of charge. 6. Tests and personality inventories (was—are—had—be) useful in human resource procurement. 7. Counseling can improve both upward and downward communication. The upward direction (enables—enabled—will enable—have enabled) the employees to express their feelings to management. 8. As many employees observed, including teachers, often the top managers in an organization (did—was—have—do) not know how those at the bottom (felt—feeling—have felt—feel) 9. Individual inventory service is guidance service which (will provide —have provided—will have been provided—provides) a synthesis of information about the individual which can be used to gain an understanding of himself as he (be—was—were—is) potentially capable of becoming. 10.The process (involved—involving—has involved—will have involved) in the Individual Identification Data (included—include— have included—includes) collecting information especially those that (relate—related—have related—shall relate) to their growth and development. 11.The rating scale (shall have provided—is providing—will provide— provides) numerical scales at various degrees of behavior. 12.According to Ryan and Zeran, placement by definition (was—are— is—have) the satisfactory adjustment of the individual to the next situation whether in school or on the job. 86
  13. 13. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 13.Like a physician who checks on whether his patient (has recovered—will recover—recovered—recovers) from an illness, the counselor should also find out what (happening—will happen— happen—happened) to this counselee. 14. The counselor (will not discuss—discussed—have discussed— discuss) case matters or information obtained from a counselee with anyone outside or within his profession except at is (be—has —had—is) necessary to the welfare of the counselee or the ultimate solution of his problem.*See more exercises on next page! 15. The counselor (accepting—accepted—will be accepting—accepts) who (seeks—sought—have sought—seek) his assistance but (does —did—have done—doing) not allow the demand for his service to dilute the quality of his services. 16. When a counselee (have succeeded—succeeds—succeeded—will succeed) another counselor in dealing with a counselee, neither one should make comment or insinuations of the practices or capabilities of the other. 17. The counselor (lead—led—have led—leads) in the implementation of the guidance services whose program is approved by the administrator and (carried—carries—will have carried—carrying) with the help of teachers, parents, and significant others. 18. According to Aquino and Alvia, tests (is—has—are—had) not only tools and techniques used by the teacher or counselor to collect information about an individual, but also a means to make an individual (understanding—will understand—have understood— understand) himself better. 19. When (buy—bought—buying—will buy) tests, purchasers are asked to note the Letters to note the symbol A, B, and C (accompanying—accompanied—will accompany—have accompanied) the test titles in the lists. 20.Level A—Available only if the person administering the tests (had undertaken—undertook—undertake—have undertaken) an advanced undergraduates courses in testing or psychometrics, or sufficient training and experience in test administration. 87
  14. 14. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESC. Directions: Read and analyze the sentences carefully. On youranswer sheet, write the correct form of the given verb inside theparentheses. 1. Article IV Sec. 28 of RA 7836 states that no person (practice) or offer to practice the teaching profession in the Philippines or be appointed as teacher to any position calling for a teaching position without having previously obtained a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Commission. 2. Developmental studies (use) longitudinal and cross-section methods.*See more exercises on next page! 3. Gay (1976) (think) that experimental method is the only method or research, which can truly test hypotheses concerning cause-and- effect relationship. 4. The dependent variable, also known as the criterion variable, effect, or posttest is the outcome of the study, the change or difference in groups which (occur) as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable. 5. In an experiment that Ochave and Sevilla observed, it was known the researcher (fail) to control mental ability so that it (become) an intervening variable. 6. Campbell and Stanley (identify) eight basic threats to internal validity, which (include) history, maturation, testing, statistical progression, selection, mortality, and selection-maturation interaction among others. 7. If an experiment (employ) highly creative students of Manila achieves some results, the same conclusions are applicable to highly creative students of Makati, other variables (be) equal. 8. Quasi-experimental designs do not control as well as true experimental designs but (do) a much better job than the pre- experimental designs. 9. A lot of researchers in the field of psychology, social sciences, and education (do) not lend themselves to the experimental approach. 10.The manifestation of sex, socio-economic status, intelligence and personality (already occur). You cannot directly create 88
  15. 15. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES experimental conditions that (produce) differences in socio- economic status, personality, and more so with sex. 11.Therefore, you will have to resort to another research approach that (be) more appropriate for such type of problem. 12.In this ex post facto approach, the independent variable, smoking, was not directly manipulated. All the researcher could do (be) to select subjects who (be) non-smokers for one group and smokers for the other group. 13.He had to take these human beings as they (be) without any manipulation whatsoever.*See more exercises on next page! 14.By purposive manipulation, you will require the experimental group to smoke a considerable number of cigarette sticks for a year or even longer, while the other (be forbid) to indulge in any bit of smoking for the same length of time. 15.After having done with the step, the researcher (compare) the two groups of high and low creativity pupils in terms of the following independent variables: parent-child interaction, off-school activities, socio-economic status, intelligence, personality, and self-concept. 16.Again, these variables (already occur) at the time that the pupils (be test) for creativity. 17.In a way, the researcher (be investigate) causes for high and low creativity by the inclusion of the aforementioned variables. 18.For more than a decade now, distinguished Filipino researchers (devote) substantial efforts in exploring alternative research methods. 19.Methods used in research (has) ideological implications. 20.In quota sampling, you identify a set of important characteristics of a population and then (select) your desired samples in a non- random way. It is assumed that the samples (match) the population with regard to the chosen set of characters. 89
  16. 16. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES KEY TO CORRECTION THE VERB TENSE-ASPECT SYSTEMA.1. had; is; is 11. has majored; is; is2. discovered; gave 12. continued; was3 is; will continue 13. have finished; take; is4. promotes; enables 14. is; including5. arrived; saw 15. refers6. requires 16. shall7. becomes; are selected 17. shall have8. has been 18. shall; report9. had been estimated; are 19. commences10. has become 20. seemed; had occurredB.1. is 11. provides2. will be able 12. is 90
  17. 17. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES3. shall be exempted 13. has recovered; happened4. have; shall be 14. will not discuss; is5. shall be 15. accepts; seek; does6. are 16. succeeds;7. enables 17. leads; carried8. do; feel 18. are; understand9. provides; is 19. buying; accompanying10. involved; includes; relate 20. had undertaken*See next page for C…C. The Verb Tense-Aspect System1. shall 11. will be2. uses 12. was; were3. thinks 13. were4. occurs 14. will be forbidden5. failed; became 15. compared6. have identified; include 16. had already occurred;were being tested7. employing; being 17. was investigating8. do 18. have devoted9. do 19. have10. already occurred; will produce 20. select; will match 91
  18. 18. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESUnit III. CONJUNCTIONS and LOGICAL CONNECTORSA. Directions: Complete the sentences that follow by copying onyour answer sheet the appropriate conjunction or logical connectorsfrom the given options found inside the parenthesis. 1. The results of studies indicate that providing enough space can reduce aggressive behavior in the classroom and materials (because—so that) children do not have to compete with each other. 2. Teachers do not usually plan activities whose sole purpose is social development; (instead—hence) they think about social development (so as—as) one facet of children’s participation in a variety of classroom experiences. 3. Emotional development, (like—likewise) physical and social development, follows fairly predictable stages of growth. 4. Role-play solutions to problems in social interactions. (For example—In connection with this), children might role-play how to make an introduction when a guest comes to the classroom (and —or) ask how another child to share materials. 5. Emotional growth can be encouraged through typical classroom experiences (so as—if) the teacher is aware of the child’s level of development (and—so that) what can be done to encourage development. 92
  19. 19. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES6. The Language provision in the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, which are embodied in Article XIV, Sec. 6 (or— and) 7, provide the legal basis for the various language policies that are being implemented in the country.7. Section 6 of the said provision states that, the national language of the Philippines is Filipino. (As evolved—As it evolves), it shall be further developed (but—and) enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.8. For purposes of communication (or—and) instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and (until when--until otherwise) provided by law, English.*See more exercises on next page!9. (Consistent with—In consistent with) the 1987 constitutional mandate (but—and) a declared policy of the National Board of Education (NBE) on bilingualism in the schools (NBE Resolution No. 73-7, s.1973) the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) promulgated its language policy.10. Bilingual education in the Philippines is defined operationally as the separate use of Filipino (so that—and) English (as—as to) the media of instruction in specific subject areas.11. (In an embodied to--As embodied in) the DECS Order No. 25, Pilipino (changed to Filipino in 1987) shall be used (so as to—as) medium of instruction in social studies/social sciences, music, arts, physical education, home economics, practical arts (or—and) character education.12. English, (on one hand--on the other hand) is allocated to science, mathematics and technology subjects. The same subject allocation is provided in the 1987 Policy on Bilingual Education, which is disseminated through Department Order No. 52, s. 1987.13. The policy on Bilingual Education aims at the achievement of competence in (both—either) Filipino and English at the national level, through the teaching of (so—both) languages and their use as media of instruction at all levels. 93
  20. 20. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES14. The regional languages shall be used as auxiliary languages in Grades I and II. The aspiration of the Filipino nation is to have its citizens possess skills in Filipino to enable them to perform their functions (and—or—both of—nor) duties in order to meet the needs of the country in the community of nations.15. (While—Since) competence in the use of both Filipino and English is one of the goals of the Bilingual Education Policy, continuing improvement in the teaching of (both—neither) languages, their use as media of instruction (since—and) the specification of their functions in Philippine schooling shall be the responsibility of the whole educational system.*See more exercises on next page!16. Tertiary level institutions shall lead in the continuing intellectualization of Filipino. The program of intellectualization, (likewise—however), shall also be pursued in (or—both) the elementary (nor—and) secondary levels.17. The Department of Education Culture and Sports shall provide the means (in which--by which) the language policy can be implemented with the cooperation of government (and—or) non-government organizations.18. The Department shall program funds for implementing the Policy, in (such areas as—as to) materials production, in- service training, compensatory (and—or) enrichment program for non-Tagalogs, development of a suitable (and— yet) standardized Filipino for classroom use (as well as— and) the development of appropriate evaluative instruments.19. Guidelines for the implementation of the 1987 Policy on Bilingual Education are specified in the DECS Order No. 54, s. 1987. Among these are the needs to intellectualize Filipino (and—or) the concrete steps suggested towards its realization.20. The Commission on the Filipino Language, formerly Institute of Philippine/National Language, is ordered to formulate (or—and) 94
  21. 21. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES implement programs (and—both) projects for the full (nor—and) effective implementation of the objectives expressed in the Executive Order.B. Directions: Read the sentences carefully. On your answer sheet,copy the appropriate conjunction or logical connector of yourchoice, which is found inside the parentheses. 1. In a science (but—or—so—yet) economics class, cooperative learning is an effective strategy, (where—for—lest—which) could help pupils to understand the text better, develop more confidence in them (as well as—so that—in order that—similarly) in relating effectively with others. 2. (As in the other—Like any other—Likewise—likely to) educational practice, educational measurement is an evolutionary process.*See more exercises on next page! 3. Vgotsky agreed with Piaget that learning is dependent on the child’s development, (yet—and—or—but—nor) he believed that learning new strategies (when presented to at the appropriate level for the child) could lead to increased development. 4. We can assume two things in using the inquiry approach. (Firstly —Firsthand—First—At first) one can assume that the written record of the past is not totally exhaustive. (After this—After which—After that—After all) the historiographers cannot claim that they have obtained all the information they need to know to formulate their conclusions. 5. (Whenever—Wherever—Whosoever—While) elementary pupils are not expected to perform their own inquiry in the manner that historians do, they can already begin to develop the skill of asking questions, which will 6. The constructivist, (and—or—nor—for) developmentalist, point of view founded on the work of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) (and—or— nor—for) Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). 7. Modern interactionists, (such that—such as—inasmuch as—so that) Jerome Bruner, George Forman, (or—but—fort—if—and) others, continue to refine the theories of Piaget (and—while—in which—so that) to clarify concepts about children’s development. 8. Piaget believed that children create knowledge through interactions with the environment. Children are not passive 95
  22. 22. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES receivers of knowledge; (in other words—neither—yet—rather) they actively work at organizing their experiences into more and more complex mental structures. 9. Equilibrium is the balance achieved (whenever—wherever— whatsoever—either) information (nor—for—but—or) experiment is fitted into a schema (for—or—if—yet) a new schema is created for it. 10.Some researchers (for example—for—just like—likewise), Flavell (1985) agree that equilibration is one process that contributes to cognitive growth (since—not so—but—lest) question the idea that one process can account for all cognitive development.*See more exercises on next page! 11.Behaviorist theory does not say much about physical development, (yet—since—for—in the same manner) most authorities agree that physical development is generally determined (and thus—likewise—either—but) does not affect a child’s behavior, (lest—at least—nonetheless—rather) in optimal environment that includes good nutrition, lack of disease, and safety. 12.According to maturationist point of view, like Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), a child is like a seed that contains all the elements to produce a wonderful apple (for—if—yet—until) given the proper amounts of nutrients from the soil and water (along with—since—such as—that is) sunshine (or—but—yet—and) an ideal climate. 13.The goal of employing behavioristic techniques is for the desired behavior to become rewarding to the child (in so doing—in the same manner—so that—so) the teacher (but—nor—or—for) parent need not continue to provide extrinsic rewards. 14.Most teachers (even more—evermore—even those—even that) who believe strongly in other theories of development, employ some behavioristic strategies, (so—as—yet—for) they ignore some behaviors (and—however—since—whereby) praise others. 15.Rote learning, (and—nor---for—or) memorization according to Piagetians is not considered learning (since—because—yet—if) it does not involve assimilation and comprehension. 96
  23. 23. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 16.Some theories (such as—moreover—yet—so) behaviorism, consider memory (inasmuch as—as—as that of—for if) a form of learning and do not differentiate between it (and—of—for—like) the two kinds of learning. 17.A child develops (so as—as—likewise—because) a whole. Development in one area certainly influences development in other areas. (Like—For—As a matter of fact—For example), when a child becomes mobile, he or she opens up many possibilities for exploration and learning about the environment. 18.A positive reinforcement is something that is viewed by the learner (so—so as—as—in as much as) desirable. 19.Operant conditioning can be used to shape behavior by providing reinforcements (while—when—whenever—whichever) the learner’s behavior moves closer to the target behavior.*See more exercises on next page! 20.All young children need vigorous physical activity every day, (for— and—yet—but) no child should be deprived of the opportunities for such activities (however—at which—because of—because) s/he must complete other tasks (or—nor—or because—and yet) s/he is being punished. 21.Meaningful learning implies that the material to be learned is potentially meaningful (is appropriate for the students), the acquisition of new meaning refers to the process (because--for— that is—by which) students turn potentially meaningful material (in—to—into—on) actual meaningfulness. 22.In discovery learning, Jerome Bruner, a cognitivist, states that this learning style involves the rearrangement and transformation of material that leads to insight. 23.Gestalt theory of learning is often translated as “form, pattern, configuration, or organized whole.” 24.The Gestalists are interested on how organism perceives relationships among ideas and the effect those relationships have on memory and learning. 97
  24. 24. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESC. Directions: Read and analyze each sentence carefully. On youranswer sheet, supply the appropriate conjunction or connector onthe blank. 1. _____________ it is true that statistics requires a good deal of arithmetic computation, one does not have to acquire mathematical sophistication ______________ to pass the course. 2. Some mathematical symbols appear with great regularity in many, ________________ statistics books. Among them is X, Y, n, f, ____________ Σ. 3. The use of subscripts 1, 2, 3,…n is oftentimes very convenient ____________ we want to identify specific values of variable. _____________, X1 (read “X sub 1”) might be used to identify first value of X; the second value might be represented by X 2, the third by X3, _____________ on. 4. The first major step in a statistical investigation is the collection of statistical data. This is considered a very crucial stage in many statistical inquiries _____________ unless proper care is exercised in the way data are collected, the results may lead to false interpretations _______________ consequently bring enormous losses on the part of the end-users. 5. There are two types of data ______________ their sources. Those coming from primary sources are referred to ______________ primary data. 6. Primary sources include government agencies, business establishments, organizations, ______________ individuals who carry original data, ______________ who have firsthand information relevant to a given problem. 7. There are several techniques that may be in gathering statistical data. Those involve in marketing studies usually employ _____________the interview method ______________ the questionnaire method to gather information on consumer’s preference ______________ certain buying habits. 8. As a researcher, you are, ________________, cautioned to exercise extra care in designing the data collection procedure that you will employ in your research, especially in choosing ______________constructing your research instruments. 9. Feasibility, is concerned with the aspects of skills, cost and time. There are certain tests which require minimum skills in developing them ________________ which may also require 98
  25. 25. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES minimum training in administration, scoring, analyzing interpreting test data. 10.______________, the reverse may hold true where more sophisticated test structure s require expertise in developing, using analyzing the data obtained. 11. _______________ you have finalized your table of specifications incorporating valuable suggestions by the experts you have consulted, you can begin writing the items for each of the areas in the TS. 12._______________ the test blueprint presents the areas to be covered the areas to be covered by the test, it does not really specify the content _______________ purpose of each individual item. 13. Face validity, the crudest type of validity, pertains to whether the test looks valid, ________________, if by the face of the instrument, it looks it can measure what you intend to measure. 14. The test items are oculary inspected and later on judged superficially ________________ they are valid enough to measure the variable being measured.*See more exercises on next page! 15. ________________, an instrument that presents only its face validity, ________________ , is an open target for criticism. 16. This is ________________ generally, this type of validity is not supported by any evidence that the test really measures anything. 17. In attitude testing, ________________, Likert further states that “item analysis can be used as an objective check to determine whether the members of a group react differently to the battery, ________________, item analysis indicates whether those persons who fall toward one end of the attitude continuum on the battery do ________________ on the particular statement, ________________ vice versa.” 18. Cattell, ________________, regarded factor analysis not as a data reduction, ________________ as a method for discovering underlying causal traits. 19. He produced a comprehensive description of personality through collating personality trait names from all sources, e.g. dictionary, psychiatric, ________________ psychological literature ________________ other pertinent materials. 99
  26. 26. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES20. ________________, observations are colored or influenced by the personality background ________________ experience of the observer. KEY TO CORRECTION THE CONJUNCTIONS AND LOGICAL CONNECTORSA.1. because 11. As embodied; as; and2. instead; as 12. on the other hand3. like 13. both; both4. For example; or 14. and5. if; and 15. Since; both; and6. and 16. however; both; and7. As it evolves; and 17. by which; and 100
  27. 27. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES8. and; until otherwise 18. such areas as; and; and; and9. Consistent with; and 19. and10. and; as 20. and; and; andB.1. or; which; as well as 11. since; and thus; at least2. like any other 12. if; along with; and3. but 13. so that; or4. First; After all 14. even those; as; and5. Whenever 15. or; because6. or; and 16. such as; as; and7. such as; and; and 17. as; For example8. rather 18. as9. whenever; or; or 19. when10. for example; but 20. and; because; or becauseC. The Conjunctions and Logical Connectors1. While 11. and; As soon as2. if not all; and 12. while3. if; For example 13. but4. because; and 14. rather than5. as 15. because6. and; or 16. When; and7. to which 17. and; whether; nor8. In particular; and 18. hence9. no part of which 19. Since10. at which 20. When possible; in case 101
  28. 28. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESUnit V. ARTICLESA. Directions: Read and analyze each sentence carefully. On youranswer sheet, copy the most appropriate article that you think bestfits-in on each sentence. 1. Creative thinking involves (the—a—an) organization of ideas or experiences into new combinations in order to produce something, which has not previously existed. 2. It may stem from (a—an—the) notion that it is closely associated with the laboratory, which is a special place where actual experimentation in biology, physics, and chemistry is being conducted. 3. In reality, this technique is not limited within (the—a—an) four walls of this science room. Therefore, its use today has been extended to other subjects. 4. Laboratory technique is (a—an—the) technique in which students actively manipulate and study (a—the—an) given situation upon which a given problem lies. 102
  29. 29. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES5. Problem-solving technique is a technique that requires a learner to work actively in (the—a—an) solution of a difficulty or (an—a—the) undesirable situation in two forms, namely: rational and empirical.6. Among (the—an—a) teaching techniques, the research technique seems to be the least used by teachers. Except in special subjects like educational research, its potentials for instructional purposes are still untapped.7. Field study technique is (a—the—an) technique in which (the—a— an) student investigates a given situation by being a part or an integral component of it.8. The success of (the—a—an) use of inquiry approach is greatly dependent on the teacher’s art of questioning and his creativity.9. The teacher’s skill to ask questions in (a—an—the) developmental fashion has a tremendous effect in focusing (the—a—an) interest of the pupils on the subject matter and on the unfolding of the subsequent discussions.*See more exercises on next page!10. Developmental questions should, as far as practicable, follow(a— the—an) pattern of (the—a—an) subject matter.11. (A—The—An) teacher affects eternity, for s/he never knows where his/her influence stops.12. Because divergent thinking encourages (the—an—a) pupils to be imaginative, they are encouraged to wonder over (the—a—an) possibility of things that have not yet become or that have not yet happened.13. (The—An—A) inquiry approach develops (the—an—a) pupil’s skill to ask questions. It takes advantage of(the—an—a) innate curiosity of children; converting such curiosity into (a—an—the) capacity for scientific inquiry.14. Jerome Bruner strongly believes in providing (an—a—an) environment that will encourage young minds to discover. For him, discovery is essentially a matter of rearranging or transforming evidence to assemble new insights.15. (The—A—An) discovery approach is by nature inductive. It follows (a—an—the) particular strategy that involves presentations of examples, observation, drawing of commonality or pattern, and formulation of conclusion or generalization. 103
  30. 30. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 16. Frequent exposure to (the—a—an) approach will increase (the— an—a) pupil’s intellectual potency; develop (the—a—an) habit of discovery; enhance retention of what has been learned; and help transform extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation. 17. The conceptual approach is (an—a—the) approach that emphasizes concept building. It places (the—an—a) pupils in a vast field of ideas wherein they are given(the—a—an) opportunities to form conceptual frameworks or constructs that are composed of related ideas. 18. According to Slavin (1990) cooperative learning is (a—the—an) strategy, which gives (a—an—the) variety of learning techniques in working together. This process of group learning helps improve the pupil’s self-esteem, enthusiasm to go to school, interest to learn (the—a—an) subject, realization of their responsibilities, ability to work with others, accomplishments and interpersonal relations across ethnic and ability lines. 19. In cognitive theories of cooperative learning, (the—a—an) emphasis is on (the—an—a) effects of working together, whether or not the groups achieve a group goal. 20. The arithmetic mean, or simply mean, is(the—a—an) average of a group of scores. Like the median, it is (a--an—the) measure of central tendency. *See more exercises on next page!B. Directions: Read and analyze the following sentences. Tellwhether the italicized articles need correction or not. Should youthink correction is needed, write “I”, otherwise, write “C” if it iscorrect. Write your answer on your answer sheet. 1. In pantomime, learning is expressed through one’s feelings and actions without words, which can be a challenging experience in classroom learning. 2. Skit-script technique involves the presentation of a skit or play in which the pupils are guided by a prepared script written by pupils or selected by pupils and from commercial sources. 3. In simulation, pupils make decisions that make them assess and face the consequences of a decision, which usually deals with social process. 104
  31. 31. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES4. Simulations help pupils learn by getting them involved in the real- world view that makes them understand complicated vital issues and social process.5. Group discussion technique helps stimulate the learning process of active interaction of the pupils.6. A buzz group may consist of four to six members. They are given a short time to talk over and discuss a certain interesting topic.7. Circular response technique is organized around a circle of a maximum of 15 members of mixed age in a group.8. Panel technique aims to arouse cooperative thinking among the panel members and in the audience by presenting different viewpoints to consider.9. Forum technique gives the value of recognizing personal ideas and opinions. There is no arguing or questioning among members of speakers themselves.10. Quiz bee is also known as Social Studies Bees. Teachers can have small groups of four to five pupils to select social studies words for a spelling bee, or it can be a defining bee wherein words are presented and members of the teams are asked to define them.11. Puzzle can have a picture or word puzzle which most pupils enjoy, like completing a word defined in a word box or maybe putting together pieces of cut out pictures to form a whole.12. Directed technique is mainly associated with the well-known practice spoon-feeding.13. Rote learning technique requires students to repeat what the teacher tells them without understanding.14. Although the most common instructional material, the textbook in itself cannot provide students with sufficiently enlightened instruction but in reality it is usually used as a major basis of learning and not just an instructional aid.15. Memorization is a technique still acceptable in today’s school provided it serves certain learning purposes and more importantly if it is done coupled with understanding.16. The traditional teacher tends to see the whole world by looking through the needle’s eye. To him/her, learning is confined within three given dimensions: 2X4X8 – 2 stands for the two covers of 105
  32. 32. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES the book; 4 for the four walls of the classroom; and 8 for the eight hours of student’s stay in school. 17. Although the traditional method is still usually in some limited situations, its application has to be disregarded by many teachers in most if not all classroom encounters. 18. The traditional method of teaching is closely identified with the authoritarian education. 19. The use of lecture method is justified primarily by the following circumstances: when the major concern of the teacher is to impart knowledge that students cannot ordinarily obtain by themselves; when the material to be learned is highly abstract and complex and, therefore, not within the comprehensional level of students. 20. Another reason would be, when the element does not warrant the coverage of considerably numerous bits of information; processes like knowledge and comprehension, and when the short-term retention is desired. *See more exercises on next page!C. Directions: Read and analyze sentences that follow. Supply themissing article on each gap. Write your answer on your answersheet. 1. ______ approach is ______ set of correlative assumptions dealing with ______ nature of language teaching and learning. 2. ______ value of clarification approach is to clarify ______ value chosen by ______ learner. For instance, he should tell why he should join a cleanliness campaign in the community. 3. ______ interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary approach relates ______particular subject matter to other disciplines like science, math, music, art, and other areas. 4. ______ mastery learning approach calls for setting up ______desired performance level of success of ______pupils being taught by ______ teacher when evaluating learning or when doing activities to answer ______problems posed to them. 106
  33. 33. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES5. ______purpose of conceptual approach is to make ______ pupils learn how to get and identify facts and information.6. In ______ expository strategy, the teacher is ______ information giver. He gives all the information needed by the pupils, after which, he gives ______ evaluation or a test.7. Enabling strategy is the______ opposite of expository. The______ teacher acts as guide or facilitator of learning.8. Through ______ survey using interview and questionnaire, pupils may learn ______ problems of their community; the attitudes of ______people about certain issues; the needs of lowly people; and others.9. ______ resourceful teacher may use ______ picture chart on ______ blackboard, which is seen by all pupils.10. Classroom tests, which are also known as teacher-made tests, are among ______ most important tools in evaluating pupils’ achievement.11. If ______ purpose of ______test is to determine the prerequisite skills that pupils possess for the instruction, a readiness pretest is called for.12. In preparing ______ two-way chart of test blueprint, ______ teacher must first, list ______ general instructional objectives across the top of the table; second, list the major topics or content areas down the left side of the table; and third, he must determine what proportion of the test items should be given to each objective.13. In ______ free-response test item, ______ answer is short—a single word or phrase; while in ______essay question, ______ response is usually lengthy.14. ______ test specifications describe ______ performance to be measured and ______sample of tasks to include.15. In ______essay question, ______ pupils are allowed to organize and present ______ answer in paragraph form.16. Be sure ______ difficulty of ______ item matches the performance to be measured and the purpose of ______ test.17. Actual test construction is ______ most important and crucial step in developing ______ test because the validity of ______classroom test is determined by ______ extent to which ______ learning outcome to be measured is called forth by ______ test items. 107
  34. 34. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 18. In constructing short-answer tests, state ______ item so that the required answer is both brief and specific. 19. ______direct question is generally more desirable than an______ incomplete sentence. 20. If ______answer is to be expressed in numerical units, indicate ______type of answer wanted. KEY TO CORRECTION ARTICLESA. 1.the 11. a 2.the; the 12. the; the 3.the 13. The; the; the; a 4.a; a; a 14. an 5.a; the; an 15. The; by; a 6.the 16. the; the; the 7.a; the; 17. an; the; the 8.the; the 18. a; a; the; the 9.a; a; the; the 19. the; the; a 108
  35. 35. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 10.a; the 20. the; aB. 1. a 11. a; a 2. the; a; a 12. the 3. a 13. the 4. the 14. the; the; a; an 5. the 15. a 6. a; a 16. The; the; the; the 7. a; a 17. the 8. the; the 18. The; the 9. the 19. The; the; the; the 10. a 20. the; the; theC. Articles 1. An; a; the 11. the; the 2. the; the 12. the; the; the 3. the; a 13. A; the; an; the 4. The; the; the; the; the 14. The; the; the 5. The; the 15. an; the; the 6. an; the; an 16. the; the; the 7. The; the 17. the; a; a; the; the; the 8. a; the; the 18. the 9. a; a 19. a; an 10. the 20. the; the 109
  36. 36. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESUnit VI. NOUNSA. Directions: On your answer sheet, copy the most appropriateword/s, which you think best fits-in on each sentence. 1. (Score—Scoring—Scores) generated in the factorial designs of (experimentation—experiments—experiment) are analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). 2. An experimental study is guided by at least one (hypothesis— hypotheses) which states an expected causal relationship between two variables 3. Chomsky’s (1959) hypotheses that language is not acquired by children by sheer imitation and through a form of conditioning dependent on reinforcement and reward underscores the inadequacies of the (behavior—behaviorism—behaviors— behaviorist) approach. 4. (Reinforcer—Reinforcement—Reinforcers—Reinforcer’s) plays a vital role in the learning process because it increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again and eventually become a habit. 110
  37. 37. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 5. Philosophy is the science of (being’s—being--beings) in their ultimate reasons, causes, and principles acquired by human reason alone. 6. Metaphysics is simply described as the theory of reality. It seeks to find out what is ultimately (reals—real’s—real). 7. Epistemology is the area that deals with knowledge. Its major concerns are the nature of knowledge, the process of (knowings— knowing’s—knowing), and the grounds for establishing the (validity’s—validity—validities) of knowledge. 8. Agnosticism, as coined by Thomas Huxley means, “not being able to know.” This is the (beliefs—belief—belief’s) on the (impossibilities—impossibility—impossibility’s) of knowledge. 9. (Skepticism’s—Skepticism—Skepticisms) is the doubting or questioning attitude towards knowledge, also known as scientific attitude.*See more exercises on next page! 10. Empirical knowledge is acquired through the (senses’---senses— sense’s). The belief known is (empiricism’s—empiricisms— empiricism). 11. (Rational’s—Rationals’—Rational) knowledge is acquired primarily through reason. The belief is known as (rationalisms’—rationalism —rationalism’s). 12. Intuitive knowledge is obtained through (intuition’s—intuititons’— intuition), which means a “sudden flash of insight.” The belief is called intuitionism. 13. Authoritative knowledge is acquired through an (authority’s— aruthorities—authority) (expertise) and this is known as authoritarianism. 14. Logic is generally described as the science and art of correct thinking or reasoning. 15. Inductive logic is reasoning from particular/specifics to general. This is popular in the sciences, because it leads to the discovery of principles, laws, formulae, etc. 16. Deductive logic is reasoning from the general to the particulars or specifics. It is the exact reverse of induction. 111
  38. 38. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 17. Dialectic logic is reasoning in which the truth is arrived at through a contract or conflict of ideas. 18. Experimental logic is the testing of hypothesis, which make use of both induction and deduction. 19. Ethics is the theory of morality. 20. Aesthetics is the realm of art and beauty.B. Directions: On your answer sheet, copy the correct word/s,which you think best fits-in on each sentence. 1. Axiology is the branch of philosophy that deals with (value— values’—values) in general. 2. Religious value is a value realized through (worship—worships) experience and (services—service).*See more exercises on next page! 3. Republic Act No.7687 created the science and technology (scholars —scholarship) program for indigent but deserving youth in the country under the Department of Education Culture and Sports. 4. Utilitarian value is actualized in harmonious (adjustments— adjustment) to or efficient control of the forces of the physical environment. 5. Educational value is a value inherent in or derived from the educative (processess’—process). 6. Philosophy of education is the (studies—study) of educational problems of aims, curriculum, and methods from a philosophical perspective. 7. Though it is sometimes charged that Eastern (philosopher’s— philosophers) are essentially religions, not (philosophy’s— philosophies), it can be also said that their religions are closely intertwined with their philosophies; so profound that a separation of the two is not possible. 8. Technically, education is the (processes—process) of transmitting the cultural heritage from one generation to another through the educational(ageny—agencies) of society like schools. 112
  39. 39. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 9. As a process, education is an educative process pertains to the teaching-learning (process’—process). 10. As a (product—products), education is equivalent to learning outcomes like knowledge, skills, attitude, apperceptions, and values. 11. According to (experts—expert’s), education is viewed as an eternal process of superior adjustment of the physically and mentally developed, free conscious, human being to God, as manifested in the intellectual, emotional, volitional environment of man. 12. To John Amos Comenius, a (realists’—realist), education is formation and the school is true forging (place—places) of men. 13. John Dewey, a (pragmatist’s—pragmatist), views that education is life itself, and a continuous (reconstructions—reconstruction) of experience for social efficiency. 14. Confucianism (Kung Fu-Tze) teaches moral life through (devotion’s--devotion to the family, loyalty to elders, filial piety, love of learning, civil service, and universal love and (justices—justice).*See more exercises on next page! 15. Taoism (Lau Tzu)from the word, Tao, which literally mean, the way or the (path’s—path) ; its main (tenet—tenets) is harmony with nature; regards nature as sacred and even as an extension of human selves. 16. Hinduism suggests a (commitment—commitments) to or respect for an ideal way of life known as ‘dharma’. 17. Buddhism advocates that there is a (paths—path) whereby man can be emancipated from this (miseries of lives--misery of life). 18. Islam means a total commitment in faith, obedience and trust to the one and only God. It encompasses every (aspect—aspects’) of life—from personal faith and piety to an (understandings— understanding) of the functions of the state. 19. Naturalism believed that nature or the (aggregate—aggregation) of things in the physical world is the (be-alls and ends-all--be-all and end-all) of reality. It is the (antitheses—antithesis) of (supernaturalism—supernaturalists). 20. In idealism, (ideas—idea) are believed to be innate in the individual, as these have been endowed by a perfect (beings— being), an absolute (ideals—ideal). 113
  40. 40. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESC. Directions: B. Directions: On your answer sheet, copy thecorrect word/s, which you think best fits-in on each sentence. 1. Idealism is (ideals-centered--ideal-centered) in education with the teacher as the (personification—personifications) of reality. Thus the teacher is a model to be imitated. 2. (Realist--Realism’s) philosophy holds that objects or things exist independent of the mind along Aristotle’s doctrine of particulars. 3. Realism believes in (determiners’—determinism) and the curriculum has the function of forming the body and this interrelationship gives rise to the dictum, “Sound mind in a sound body.” 4. Scholasticism, also known as (neo-Thomism—neo—Thomasites) (after St. Thomas Aquinas, “the doctor of the Church”). This is an integration of Christian thought with the idealism and realism of the early Greeks.*See more exercises on next page! 5. Pragmatism is often regarded as an exclusive American philosophy though it has its (root—roots) in ancient (Greek’s—Greece). It has assumed various forms—practicalism, experimentalism, instrumentalism, functionalism, and even critical naturalism. 6. Pragmatism believes that the meaning of an idea can be determined by the (consequence—consequences) of its test. 7. Existentialism was particularized by Soren Kierkegaard (Danish), who believes that the central problem (humanities—humanity) is facing is the ability to cope with its (existence—existenials) 8. (Existentialism—Existentialists) clamor for freedom and individuality in schools. They oppose the authoritarian (conformists’—conformist) practices of educational (agencies— agency) as these lead only to dehumanization. 9. In language analysis, (philosophies—philosophy) is regarded as an (activity—activities) of clarifying thoughts through careful use of language and logical methods. 10. Its major (concerns—concern) in education is the constant examination and reexamination of educational ideas and (pracitice 114
  41. 41. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES —practices) through empirical researches and use of accurate language. 11. Educational (theories—theory) in the normative sense lead to programs of reform. They take on a special nature because they are conditioned by experience unique to education. 12. To a (perennilist’s—perennialist) point of view, the body of knowledge, which has endured through time and space, should form the basis for one’s education. 13. Robert Hutchins, the principal (proponents—proponent) of perennialism believes that the basic (principles—principle) of education are both timeless and recurring. 14. (Perennilist—Perennialists) advocate that the (teacher—teachers) is regarded as an (authority figures--authority figure), a master teacher whose expertise is not to be questioned. 15. They also adhere that the school’s primary (function—functions) as an institution is to develop an (intellectual’ elites--intellectual elite) and to prepare the young for life.*See more exercises on next page! 16. Progressivism, as popularized by Francis W. Parker led the (protesters—protest) against the excessive formalism of traditional education, with its (emphasis—emphases) on strict discipline, passive learning, and pointless drill. 17. It directly grew out of pragmatic philosophy, which stresses democratic experiences and (skill—skills) on how to think. 18. (Essentialists—Essentialist), like William C. Bagley emphasized (effort—efforts) in reexamining curricular matters, distinguishing the essential and non-essential in school programs, and re- establishing the authority of the teacher in the classroom. 19. Reconstructionism declares that the chief (purposes—purpose) of all educational efforts is to “reconstruct” society in order to meet the cultural crisis of the (times—time). 20. The main objective in education of naturalism is (completer livings--complete living). The school is seen as the (extension— extensions) of the home and teachers are deemed ‘surrogate parents”, hence the loco parentis idea. 115
  42. 42. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES KEY TO CORRECTION NOUNSA.1. score; experiments 11. Rational; rationalism2. hypothesis 12. intuition3. behaviorist 13. authority4. Reinforcement 14. Logic5. beings 15. specifics; sciences;formulae6. real 16. particulars; induction7. validity knowing 17. truth; ideas8. belief; impossibility 18. induction; deduction 116
  43. 43. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES9. Skepticism 19. morality10.senses; empiricism 20. artsB.1. values 11. expert; eternal process2. worship; service 12. realist; priest3. scholarship 13. pragmatist;reconstruction4. adjustment; forces 14. devotion; justice5. process 15. path; tenet; extension6. study; perspective 16. commitment; respect7. philosophers; philosophies 17. path; misery of life8. process; generation; agencies 18. Islam; aspect; understanding;state9. process 19. aggregate; antithesis10. product; outcomes 20. ideas; being; dealC. Nouns1.ideal centered; personification 11.theories2.Realism’s 12. perrenilist’s; space; basis3.determinism 13. proponents; principle4.neo- Theomism; Greeks 14. Perrenniallist; teacher; authority figure5.roots; Greece 15. function; intellectual elite6.idea; consequence 16. protest; emphasis7.humanity; existence 17. skills8.Existencialists; conformist; agencies18. Essentialist; efforts9. philosophy; activity 19. purpose; times10. concern; practices 20. extension; surrogate parents 117
  44. 44. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISESUnit VII. WORD FORM AND FUNCTION(Identifying the Parts of Speech)A. Directions: On your answer sheet, copy the most appropriateword in series found inside the parenthesis. 1. Republic Act No. 7731 in 1994 abolished the National College Entrance Examination required of all high school graduates seeking (admittance—admission) into a minimum (four years--four- year) college program as mandated by P.D. 146. 2. Republic Act No.7836 revised P.D. (1976) and created the Professional Board for teachers and (provided—provider) for a Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to be (administration— administered) by the Professional Regulations Commission (PRC). 118
  45. 45. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 3. Republic Act No.7796 created the Technical Education and Skills Development (TESDA) (head—headed) by a Director General under the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). 4. Republic Act No.772, the Higher Education Act of 1994, created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to be headed by a Chairman under the (Official—Office) of the President. 5. Republic Act No. 7784 established Teacher Education (Center— Central) of Excellence in each of the existing (regional—regions) of the country. 6. Republic Act No. 7168 approved on December 26,1991, (converter —converted) the Philippine Normal College into the Philippine Normal University under a Board of Regents. 7. Section 1, Article 1 of the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers provides that the Code shall apply with (equate—equal) force to all schools in the Philippines whether public or private. 8. The (Penalty—Penal) Provision states that (violate—violation) of any provision of the Code, after due hearing, cause the (suspend— suspension) or cancellation of the teacher’s license. 9. Department Order No. 24 s.1974 also known as the Bilingual Education Program mandates the (usage—use) English and Filipino separately as (media—medium) of instruction. 10.Presidential Decree No.1006 (promulgator—promulgated) on September 22, 1976 and made effective on January 1,1977 considered teachers as (professionals—professionalize) and teaching as a profession.*See more exercises on next page! 11.Educational progressivism is the (believe—belief) that education must be based on the fact that humans are (socialized—social) animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. 12.Progressivists claimed to rely on the best available scientific (theories—theorists) of learning. Most that children learned as if they were (scientific—scientists), following a process similar to Dewey’s model of learning. 13.Given this view of human (natural—nature), a progressivist teacher desires to provide not just reading and drill, but also a real-world experiences and activities that center on the real-life of the students, hence, “learning by doing”. 119
  46. 46. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 14.The early I (children’s—childhood) education professional incorporates core knowledge content in classroom experiences and activities. 15.Perennialists believed that one should teach the things that they believe are everlasting (importance—important) to all people everywhere. 16.Perennialists view that since people are important, one should teach first about (humans—humanity), not machines or techniques. 17.The best exam items are those that test how well people (understanding—understand) the course material. Accordingly, your items should go beyond rote learning, definitions, and terminology. 18.Dont submit items that you yourself would regard as picky. Instead, get test takers to apply the material to new situations. Test them on the social and (social—societal) implications of the material. 19.Education thus is a means to fostering the individuals, societys, and even humanitys future development and (prosperous— prosperity). Emphasis is often put on (economy—economic) success in this regard. 20.Items should be (difficulty—difficult) for people who dont know the material, but they should be (straightforward—straightforwardly) for those who do. If an item is difficult because of (complication— complicated) wording (e.g., double negatives) or vocabulary, you will be testing verbal ability rather than a command of social psychology.*See more exercises on next page!B. Directions: On your answer sheet, copy the most appropriateword in series found inside the parenthesis. 1. Philosophy for Children is a (move—movers—movement) that aims to teach young children reasoning and (argumentative—argument —argued) skills. The hope is that this will be a key influence in the (event—eventual—events) move towards a more democratic democracy. 2. There is (empiricism—empirical—empirically) evidence that teaching children reasoning skills early in life greatly improves other (cognition—cognitively--cognitive) and academic skills and greatly assists learning in general. 120
  47. 47. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES 3. The Philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, nature and (ideal—ideal—ideally) content of education. Other questions include the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of (authoritative—authoritatitvely—authority), the relationship between education and society, etc. 4. The enterprise of civil society depends on educating young people to become (responsively—responsible—responsibly), thoughtful and enterprising citizens. 5. Jazzing up items to make them (interestingly—interesting— interest) is fine, but dont get so carried away that the (contextual —context—contextually) becomes distracting or the item turns into a mini-essay. 6. Ones individual (develop—development—developmentally) and the capacity to fulfill ones own purposes can (dependable— dependently—depend) upon an adequate preparation in childhood. Education can thus attempt to give a firm foundation for the achievement of personal fulfillment. 7. Plato is the (early—earlier—earliest) important educational (think —thinker—thinkfully). Education is, of course, a relatively minor part of his overall (philosophy—phisophically—philosophical) vision, but it is an important one. He saw education as the key to (create—creating—creator) and sustaining his Republic. 8. He advocated extreme methods: (removing—removal—remove) children from their mothers care and raising them as wards of the state, with great care being taken to differentiate children suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving the most education, so that they could act as (guards—guard—guardians) of the city and care for the less able.*See more exercises on next page! 9. For Plato the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society. Platos (believe—belief—believer) that talent was (disctirbutor—distributive--distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born to all classes moves us away from (aristocracy—aristocrats—aristocratic).. 10.Plato builds on this by insisting that those (suitable—suitably— suitabler) gifted are to be trained by the state so that they may be qualified to assume the role of a (rule—ruler—ruling) class. 11.What this establishes is essentially a system of (select—selection— selective) public education premised on the assumption that (educator—educative—educated) minorities of the population are, 121
  48. 48. THE GRAMMAR EXERCISES by virtue of their education (and inborn educability), sufficient for (healthful—healthy—healthfully) governance. 12.Plato should be considered (foundational—foundation— foundationalize) for democratic philosophies of education both because later key (thinkers—thnkfully—thinkful) treat him as such. 13.Aristotle considered nature, habit and (reasoning—reason— reasonable) to be three equally important forces to be cultivated in education. 14.For example, he considered (repetitve—repeat—repetition) to be a key tool to develop good habits. The teacher was to lead the student (systematically—system—systematic); this differs, for example, from Socrates emphasis on questioning his listeners to bring out their own ideas (though the (compare—comparison— comparably) is perhaps unfair since Socrates was dealing with adults). 15.Aristotle placed great (emaphasize—emphasis—emphasizingly) on balancing the theoretical and practical aspects of subjects taught. Subjects he explicitly mentions as being important included reading, writing and mathematics; music; physical education; literature and history; and a wide range of sciences. He also mentioned the (importance—important—importantly) of play. 16.One of educations primary missions for Aristotle, perhaps its most (importance—importantly—important), was to produce good and (virutiously—virtuous—virtuosness) citizens for the polis. All who have meditated on the art of (government—governing— governance) mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth.*See more exercises on next page! 17.Rousseau held that there was one (developmental— developmentally—develop) process common to all humans. This was an intrinsic, natural process, of which the primary (behavioral —behavior—behaviorism) manifestation was curiosity. 18.Rosseau’s view differed from Lockes tabula rasa in that it was an active process deriving from the childs nature, which drove the child to learn and (adaptive—adapted—adapt) to its surroundings. 19.As Rousseau wrote in his book Emile, all children are (perfectly— perfect—perfectfully) designed organisms, ready to learn from their 122

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