TABLE OF GRAMMATICAL DESCRIPTIONS (Larsen-Freeman & Celce-Murcia 1999) STRUCTURE FORM MEANING1. Subject-and-Verb FORM The General RuleAgreement Third Person In the most straightforward cases, the subject and verb number choice will agree: In the present tense we use the third Standard grammatical treatments state that for person singular inflection (-s or the be form) if the subject refers to verbs other than be, number agreement between the subject one entity, whether it is a singular proper name, a singular common and verb (sometimes referred to as subject-verb concord) noun, a non-count noun, or a third person singular pronoun. poses a problem only in the present tense, where third Elsewhere—for nouns or pronouns referring to more than one entity, person singular forms are explicitly inflected while other or for first or second person pronouns referring to one entity—no forms are not. inflection is used in the present tense: NUMBER Third person singular No inflection on verb inflection on verb Person Singular Plural Ist I speak Filipino. We speak Alain walks to school The Reyeses walk to church Filipino. The bus stops here. These books contain nd 2 You speak You speak Filipino. Filipino. good information. 3rd He/she/it (the They speak This mango tastes sweet. I/You want guava. parrot) speaks Filipino. Filipino. She wants guava. We/You/They want guava. Some Typical Errors To this formulation, we should add that if the predicate of the Given the complexity of the choice, the beginning sentence begins with an inflectable tense-bearing auxiliary verbs such as be or have, it is the auxiliary verb that indicates the third ESL/EFL learner tends to simplify and leave off altogether the third person singular inflection. person singular inflection. (nont the main verb): *Warren live in Vigan. *Vince say he
will come. Glenn is walking to school. Occasionally, however, some learners will This water has boiled for ten minutes.overgeneralize the inflection and apply it to uninflectedforms, such as modal auxiliaries, or to verbs followingmodals. *Lance cans dance disco. or *Lance can dances disco. They also may overuse it as an agreement markerwith subjects of inappropriate person and/or number: *I/They/You goes to Baguio. Yet another reason why some learners overuse thisform is that they interpret the –s ending as a plural marker onthe verb to be used in agreement with plural subjects: *They/The boys goes to malls often. Agreement errors may be due to phonological orperceptual factors rather than syntactic or morphologicaldifferences. ESL teachers should be aware of the fact thatsome learners of English fully understand the third personsingular present ending and can even produce itsystematically when they write in English; however, they omitit frequently when they are speaking. One reason for thisaccording to Larsen-Freeman & Celce-Murcia (1999) isbecause the sound system of their native language tends notto permit final /s/ sounds in particular or final consonants ingeneral. This supports the fact of similar error committed bymost Filipino ESL learners.
2. The Tense-Aspect The Formal Characteristics of the Tense-Aspect System Meaning in the English Tense-Aspect SystemSystem The Grammar Book clearly discussed tense-aspect Simple Aspect refers to events that are conceptualized as complete system should not be mistakenly understood to tense- wholes. The events are not presented as allowing for further aspect combinations. The book explains that tense simply development. This aspect stands in contrast to progressive aspect, relates to time, while aspect concerns with the internal which is incomplete or imperfective—where the event or state is structure of the action occurring at any time. Hence, the viewed as some portion of a whole and where there is room for authors argued that the ―long-considered future tense‖ is not further development or change. (Hirtle, 1967) in Murcia (1999). entirely a tense, but an aspect as explained above. In addition, future does not carry inflection for future time unlike Examples: Jeffrey and Erwin live in Bulacan. (simple present tense) others—the simple past, and simple present for either regular Jeffrey and Erwin are living in Bulacan. (present or irregular verb. In this sense, what have long known, as 12 progressive) ―tenses‖ was trim down only into two, thus, past tense and Simple Present Tenses conveys immediate factuality. (Lewis, 1986 present tense. For the future aspect, modals will and shall in Murcia, 1999) are used. They further explained that one of the reasons for Examples: I skim the The Philippine Daily Inquirer at breakfast. displaying the tense-aspect combinations (see the chart The earth rotates around the sun. below) is to demonstrate that the 12 ―tenses‖ are simply My mother loves orchids. combinations of tense and aspect aspect. Since the perfect It is a beautiful day. and progressive aspect markers contribute consistent Simple Past Tense also states facts. What the core meaning of the meaning regardless of tense, in effect, ESL students have to past tense adds is a sense of remoteness (Knowles 1979 in Murcia 1 learn only the form and meaning of the three tenses (in their 1999). The event can be remote in time , and even if the event is a 2 simple form) and the two aspects (perfect and progressive) to recent one . develop an understanding of the tense-aspect system of Examples: 1. Princess Lara Quigaman won the Miss International English. crown in 2006. 2. I finished my term paper! Simple Future with will (or Contracted ‘ll) is used when the event is conceptualized a s a whole. One difference in its core meaning is that events in the future time cannot be factually knowable in the same way as those in the past or present can. Therefore, because, strictly speaking, the future can’t be reported on factually, will is said to be used for strong predictions, not factual reports.
Examples: We will cover the first half of the book this term. We will never know what cures tropical plants possess if we don’t become serious about preserving the forests in which they grow.Perfect Aspect. The core meaning of aspect is ―prior‖, and it is usedin relation to some other points in time. For instance, present perfectis used retrospectively to refer to a time prior to now.Examples: Have you done your homework? (present perfect) He had left before I arrived. (past perfect) Mark will have finished all his chores by the time we get there. (future perfect)Progressive Aspect is considered to be as being imperfective,meaning that it portrays an event in a way that allows it to beincomplete, somehow limited, and always specific. a. Present Progressive (sometimes called Present Continuous) Activity in progress: He is attending a meeting now. Extended present. I’m studying education at the Philippine Normal University. A temporary situation: Andrea is living with her parents. Repetition or iteration: Marvin is kicking the soccer ball around the backyard. Express future: Maricel is coming tomorrow. Emotional comment on present habit: He’s always approving delivering in a clutch situation. disapproving He’s forever acting up at these affairs. A change in progress: Des is becoming more and more like her mother.
b. Past Progressive An action in progress: He was walking to school at 7:30 in the morning. Past action simultaneous with some other event that is usually started in the simple past.: Katie was washing her hair when the phone rang. Repetition or iteration of some ongoing past action: Jober was coughing all night long. Social distancing: I was hoping you could lend me P1,000. c. Future Progressive An action that will be in progress at a specific time in the future: Rocky will be taking a test at 8:00 A.M. tomorrow. Duration of some specific future action : Lovely will be working on her thesis for the next three years.Perfect Progressive Aspect combines the sense of ―prior‖ of theperfect with the meaning of ―incompleteness‖ inherent in theprogressive aspect.Example: Elaine has been working hard on a special project. a. Present Perfect Progressive A situation or habit that began in the past (recent or distant) and that continues up to the present (and possibly into the future: Ramiro has been going out with Arlene. An action in programs that is not yet completed: Lorna has been reading that book. A state that changes over time: The students have been getting better and better.
An evaluative comment on something observed over time triggered by current evidence: You’ve been drinking again! b. Past Perfect Progressive An action or habit taking place over a period of time in the past prior to some other past event or time: Vester had been working hard, so his doctor told him to take a vacation. A past action in progress that was interrupted by a more recent past action: Onin and Rowel had been planning to vacation in El Nido, but changed their minds after receiving the brochure on Boracay. An ongoing past action or state that becomes satisfied by some other event: Rellie had been wanting to see that play, so he was pleased when he won the tickets. c. Future Perfect Progressive Durative or habitual action that is taking place in the present and that will continue into the future up until or through a specific future time: On Christmas Eve we will have been living in same house for 20 years. He will have been keeping a journal for 10 years next month. A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a3. Prepositions sentence. Prepositions.Types
Prepositions of Time: at, on, and inWe use at to designate specific times.The train is due at 12:15 p.m.We use on to designate days and dates.My brother is coming on Monday.Were having a party on the Fourth of July.We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, aseason, or a year.She likes to jog in the morning.Its too cold in winter to run outside.He started the job in 1971.Hes going to quit in August.Prepositions of Place: at, on, and inWe use at for specific addresses.Daril lives at 350 Bgy. Sapang Bata in Malolos.We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.Her house is on Quezon Road.And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties,states, countries, and continents).She lives in Durham.Durham is in Windham County.Windham County is in Connecticut.
Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on IN AT ON (the) bed* class* the bed* the bedroom home the ceiling the car the library* the floor (the) class* the office the horse the library* school* the plane school* work the train * You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.Prepositions of Movement: to and No PrepositionWe use to in order to express movement toward a place.They were driving to work together.Shes going to the dentists office this morning.Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to expressmovement. These are simply variant spellings of the sameword; use whichever sounds better to you.Were moving toward the light.This is a big step towards the projects completion.With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside,downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition.Grandma went upstairs
Grandpa went home. They both went outside. To (Go to) 1. Under (Create Subfolder under this Folder) 2. In (The file is in the folder) 3. As (Save as) 4. From (Receive message from….) Common Prepositions: about by outside according to above down over because of across during since by way of after except through in addition to against for throughout in front of around from till in place of at in to in regard to before inside toward in spite of behind into under instead of below like until on account of beneath near up out of beside of upon besides off with between on without beyond out Concrete and Abstract Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.4. Nouns The categories of person or place are self-evident.
Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns PERSON: Bob, girl, swimmer, Ms. Yang, Uncle Bryan. mother hope PLACE: kitchen, St. James Street, school, Hiroshima fabric improvement chocolate evil The category thing, on the other hand, contains several sub- music desperation ategories: visible things, ideas, actions, conditions, and qualities. perfume cooperation VISIBLE THINGS: paper, chair, CD A noun can also indicate number. Singular nouns IDEAS: harmony, freedom, recession name one person, place, or thing. Plural nouns name more ACTIONS: competition, exercise, labor than one person, place or thing. Most plural nouns are CONDITIONS: joy, health, happiness formed by adding either –s or –es to their singular forms. QUALITIES: compassion, intelligence, drive The plurals of some nouns, however, are formed in other ways and must be memorized. Collective Nouns Collective nouns name groups of persons or things. They can be either singular or plural depending on the meaning.5. Articles andDeterminers The is used with specific nouns. The is required when the The Articles noun it accompanies refers to something that is one of a kind: Articles: The three articles — a, an, the — are adjectives. The is called the definite article because it names, specifically, a noun; a
The moon circles the earth. and an are called indefinite articles because they dont. These words are also called noun markers or determiners because they are The is required when the noun it accompanies refers to followed by a noun. something in the abstract: The United States has encouraged the use of the private automobile as opposed to the use of public transit. The is required when the noun it accompanies refers to something named earlier in the text. (See below..) We use a before singular count-nouns that begin with consonants (a cow, a barn, a sheep); we use an before singular count-nouns that begin with vowels or vowel-like sounds (an apple, an urban blight, an open door). If you would like help with the distinction between count and non- count nouns, please refer to Count and Non-Count Nouns. Words that begin with an h sound often require an a (as in a horse, a history book, a hotel), but if an h-word begins with an actual vowel sound, use an an (as in an hour, an honor). We would say a useful device and a union matter because the u of those words actually sounds like yoo (as opposed, say, to the u of an ugly incident). We would say a once-in-a- lifetime experience or a one-time hero because the words once and one begin with a w sound (as if they were spelled wuntz and won).6. Conjunctions andLogical Connectors Their relatives, correlative conjunctions, not only denote As their name implies, conjunctions join together elements of thought: equality, but they also make the joining tighter and more words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs.
emphatic. Coordinating conjunctions are the simplest kind, and they denote equality of relationship between the ideas they join. Subordinating conjunctions allow a writer to show which idea is Coordinating Correlative more and which is less important. The idea in the main clause is the Conjunctions Conjunctions more important, while the idea in the subordinate clause (made subordinate by the subordinating conjunction) is less important. and both . . . and but not only . . . but also or either . . . or nor neither . . . nor for whether . . . or so just as . . . so too yetExamples: John and Sally built a fish pond. The train was late, and Tom was tired. Just as the smell of baking brought back memories, so too did the taste of the cider. Coordinating and correlative conjunctions are great whentwo ideas are of the same importance, but many times oneidea is more important than another. The subordinate clause supplies a time, reason, andcondition, and so on for the main clause.TIME : after, before, since, when, whenever, while, until, asREASON: although, though, even though, while
CONCESSION: although, though, even though, while PLACE: where, wherever CONDITION: if , unless, until, in case, provided that, assuming that, even if MANNER: as if , as though, how7. Word Form and ---still on progress--- ---still on progress---Function8. Phrases and Clauses There are several types of dependant clauses: A phrase is a group of related words that lack a subject or a verb, or both. A phrase cannot stand alone as a sentence, but is used in sentences as single parts of speech.? There are several types of phrases: See table of phrase types. TABLE OF PHRASE AND CLAUSE TYPES PHRASES A clause is a group of related words that contain both a subject and function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs a verb/predicate, thus it may be able to stand alone as a sentence: Type Definition Example Prepositional Acts mostly as I walked to the White dogs are pretty (independent clause); or it may not: Although phrases adverbs, store. (adverb) white dogs are pretty (dependant clause).?As shown in the (most common sometimes as With a smile I type of phrase) adjectives or told the joke. preceding example, a subordinating word is used in dependent nouns ?begins (adjective) clauses. This word relates the dependent clause to an independent with a preposition After sunset is and ends with a a good time to clause, thus giving purpose to the dependent clause: Although white noun or pronoun. go fishing. dogs are pretty, they are not popular. Such words are either (noun) Absolute phrases Has no An uncertain subordinating conjunctions (such as: as, if, while, since) or relative (noun or pronoun grammatical future looming, pronouns (such as: which, that, who). Not all dependent clauses can and a participle connection to any I forged ahead. with modifiers) part of speech, stand alone simply by removing the subordinating word. Dependent instead modifies clauses are used as single parts of speech being either: a noun, an the entire rest of the sentence adjective, or an adverb. Appositive An appositive is a My English phrases re-naming or teacher, an amplification of a excellent word that author, just immediately published his precedes it. second book. Verbal phrases: Infinitive phrases Acts as nouns I wanted to leave.
Participle phrases Acts as Flying high in adjectives the air, the rocket exploded. Gerund phrases Acts as nouns Getting the promotion is my only hope. CLAUSES (dependant) function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs Type Definition Example Relative or Acts as an Bob didnt get the Adjective adjective and job in clauses begins with a administration, relative pronoun: which really what, which, who, surprised his that, whatever, friends. whoever. The dress that she bought on Tuesday was torn. Noun clauses Acts as a noun Whoever stole my pen must give it back. Adverb Acts as an adverb Mary felt happy clauses by telling when she found something about her dog. the verb Elliptical Grammatically I recommend clauses incomplete, but (that) you go to clear in meaning the doctor.?May omit ―that.?lt;o:p> I knew he could fix the car better than I (could fix the car). May omit ―could fix the car.?lt;/i>9. WH-Questions FORM MEANING Variety of Constituents The following is an inventory of common whh-words and their
Statement: Aries wrote an angry memo to his boss before he syntactic/semantic correspondences.quit. Subject NP (+human) who Who did it?A variety of constituents can be questioned in a wh-question, Subject NP (-human) what What went wrong?as follows: Subject Noun Predicate (+human) who Who is that? Subject Noun Predicate (-human) what What is that? 1Subject NP: Who wrote an angry memo to his boss before Object NP (+human) who(m) Who(m) did youhe quit? (Lee) tell? To whom did you tell the story?Object NP : What did Lee write to his boss before he quit? Object NP (-human) what What did she say?(an angry memo) det (possessive) whose+NP Whose idea was it?Object of the Prep.: To whom did Lee write an angry memo det (demonstrtive) which+NP Which excuse did they give?before he quit? (his boss) or— What+NP What alibi did they use? det (quantifier; count) how much+(NP) How much (money)Who(m) did Lee write an angry memo to before he quit? (his did they get?boss) det quantifier; +count) how many+(NP) How many thieves were there? 2Verb Phrase: What did Lee do before he quit? (He wrote an det quantifier+measure word how long How long did it takeangry memo to his boss) them?Determiner: Whose boss did Lee write an angry memo to ADJ (quality) how How did they look?before he quit? (his boss) what…like What did they look like?Adjective: What kind of memo did Lee write? (an angry ADJ (color, size, nationality) What color was it?memo) Intensifier how+ ADJ How calm did they seem?Adverbial: When did Lee write the angry memo to his boss? How+ADV How fast did they get away?(before he quit) VP what..do What did they do next? Advl (means) how How did they get away? Advl (direction) where Where did they go? Advl (position) where Where did they hide? Advl (time) when When were they discovered? Advl (manner) how How did she take the news? Advl (reason) why Why did they confess? Advl (purpose) what..for What didi they do that for? Advl (frequency) how often How often does it end this
way?10. Yes-No Questions L2 learners need to know that in a yes/no question the Yes/No questions are often defined as questions for which first auxiliary verb in the sentence should appear before the either “yes” or “no” is the expected answer. subject and carry the tense of the question (if there is a tense). If there is no auxiliary verb, the be copula should be Form: SUBJECT-OPERATOR INVERSION moved before the subject. If there is no auxiliary verb or be A syntactic rule inverting the subject and operator gives rise to copula, then do must be introduced in the auxiliary to make the characteristics form of yes/no questions in English. subject-operator inversion possible. Example: Consider the following examples: Vester is studying in Baguio this summer. With a modal Can she go? +Yes,she can. (+inversion + rising intonation): Is Vester studying in -No, she can’t. Baguio this summer? With a phrasal modal Is she able to go? +Yes, she is. -No, she isn’t. With perfect aspect Has she gone? +Yes, she has. -No, she hasn’t. With progressive aspect Is she going? +Yes, she is. -No, she isn’t. If do is the operator in the question, it is also used in the short answer with the same tense used in the question. Does she go there often? +Yes, she does. –No, she doesn’t.