1. The Teaching ofCOMMUNICATION ARTS MICHAEL M. MAGBANUA, MA Head, General Education Presenter
2. The Goal:The seminar will focus on how secondlanguage teaching is perceived and taught byteachers of English. There will be sharing ofeffective strategies in order to teach theEnglish language based on theCommunication Arts 1-4 courseware.Moreover, workshop will be incorporatedto equip teachers with necessary rules toteach the four basic skills: reading, writing,speaking and listening.
3. CONTENTSI. Language: The Bedrock of Communication ArtsII. Teaching Communication as Art and SkillIII. The Teaching of ListeningIV. The Teaching of SpeakingV. The Teaching of ReadingVI. The Teaching of Speaking
4. I. Language: The Bedrock of Communication Arts Human beings need to communicate thoughts and feelings to others of their kind. The message s may be expressed, or transmitted, and received through any of the perception channels: visual (sight), auditory (hearing), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), and tactile (touch). It is this need to share ideas which gave rise to language. Thus, language is defined as the expression or communication of thoughts and feelings by means of vocal sounds and written symbols, and communication of vocal sounds and written symbols, and the communication of such sounds to which meanings attributed.
5. I.1. How language is developed? Anthropology History Psychology Sociology Science TechnologyQ: What then are the relevant implications of these tolanguage learning and teaching (communication arts?)
6. I.2. Language Learning Theories Naturalists/Innatists Nativists Behaviorists Structuralists ConstructivistsQ: In what manner these various language theories overtimes transpired into LESL and TESL?
7. II.1. Teaching Communication as Art and SkillThe term communication arts of language artsencompasses a wide range of school activitiesdesigned to help students becomeknowledgeable about language so that theycan use it effectively. Communication artssuggest that language learning involves artisticas well as functional skills.Q: What makes the teaching and learning ofcommunication considered as an art and skill?
8. II.2. Classifications of ComArts Communication arts can be classified according to— 1. The task involved – listening, speaking, reading, and writing 2. The role of the individual – receiving (reception) or expressing (production) a message 3. The manner of communication – oral, non- verbal, or writtenQ: How come the teaching of grammar was not classifiedin ComArts?
9. II.3. Measures of Communication Competence (Beebe and Beebe, 2004)1. The message should be understood by the communicator.2. The message should achieve the intended effect the communicator intended it to be understood.3. The message should be ethical.Q: …Hence, what essentially measures now one‘scommunication competence?
10. II.3. The Importance of Communication(Source: Winsor; Curtis; Stephens, “National Preferences in Business CommunicationEducation: A Survey Update, “Journal of the Association of Communication Administration 3(1997). Rank/Order Factors Most Important in Helping Graduating College Students Obtain Employment (Factors/Skills Evaluated) 1 Oral (Speaking Communication) 2 Written communication skills 3 Listening ability 4 Enthusiasm 5 Technical competenceQ: What does this finding had to tell our classroomteachers and students as well?
11. II.4. Five Basic Characteristics of Communication 1. Inescapable – it is everywhere 2. Irreversible -- never loops back on itself 3. Complicated – there are really at least six ―people‖ involved: 1. Who you think you are; 2. Who you think the other person is; 3. Who you think the other person thinks you are; 4. Who the other person thinks /she is; 5. Who the other person thinks you are; and 6. Who the other person thinks you think he or she is.Q: How these six ―people‖ affect a learner‘scommunication competence?
12. II.4. Five Basic Characteristics of Communication4. Emphasizes content and relationships – for it offerscues about the emotions, attitudes, and amount ofpower and control the speaker directs towards others;how something is said5. Governed by rules – learned as to either obligated,preferred, or prohibited in certain contexts based onexperience, by observing, and interacting with othersQ: Considering these characteristics, what relevantlanguage learning theory a ComArt teacher mustemploy?
13. II.5. 5 Basic Communication PrinciplesPrinciple One: Be aware of yourcommunication with yourself and othersPrinciple Two: Effectively use and interpretverbal messagesPrinciple Three: Effectively use and interpretnonverbal messagesPrinciple Four: Listen and respond thoughtfullyto othersPrinciple Five: Appropriately adapt messagesQ: What do behaviorism and constructivism had tosay with these communication principles?
14. II.6. Barriers to Effective CommunicationPhysical Barriers - environment, background noise, etc.Language - When a person uses inappropriate words whileconversing or writing, it could lead to misunderstanding betweenthe sender and a receiver.Emotions - few of the emotional interferences include hostility,anger, resentfulness and fear.Lack of Subject Knowledge – the receiver could misunderstandyour message.Stress –for at the time of stress, our psychological frame of minddepends on our beliefs, experiences, goals and values.Q: Rank as to which of these largely agitate you, andyour student‘s communication performance?
15. II.7. Essential Characteristics of a Communication Arts Teacher1. Is competent user of the language?2. Has the ability to interact with students?3. Has the healthy interest in literature?4. Has a positive attitude toward the communication arts curriculum?5. Applies various methods approaches and strategies of teaching?Reflective Teaching: Refer to these characteristics asyou honestly rate yourself as to : ―No – Sometimes –Yes‖.
16. II.8. Pedagogical Implications of Language Learning Studies tothe Teaching of Communication Arts4. Other recommendations come from Bassano (1986), who recognizesthat students have different needs, preferences, beliefs, learning styles,and educational backgrounds, but argues that the imposition of changeupon these factors can lead to negative reactions.5. Bernat and Inna Gvozdenko (2010) offers teachers six steps towardsdealing with student beliefs:1. become aware of students past classroom experiences and their assumptions about language learning;2. build students confidence;3. begin where the students are and move slowly;4. show them achievement;5. allow for free choice as much as possible; and6. become aware of the students interests and concerns, their goals and objectives.Q: What best supports Bassano‘s recommendations? How doyou see these six steps being doable (or not doable) in your own class?Why?
17. II.8. Pedagogical Implications of Language Learning Studies tothe Teaching of Communication Arts1. Horwitz (1999) points out that while teachers cannot tailor instruction to each belief of each student, and must out of necessity deal with groups of students, the investigation of beliefs which inform different behaviors in the language classroom is useful in making teachers aware of different learner types that need to be accommodated.2. Wenden (1986) proposes that if we are to discover what characterizes successful language learning, we need to discover what students believe or know about their learning and provide activities that would allow students to examine these beliefs and their possible impact on how they approach learning.3. Discovering students attitudes and beliefs is possible, as it is generally accepted that language learners are capable of bringing this knowledge to consciousness and articulating it (Willing, 1988; Kalaja, 2003; Hosenfeld, 2003)Q: What must be the role of a ComArt teacher in facilitatingthese implications to ELT? In what way he could he perform it?
18. II.9. Approaches and Methods of EnglishLanguage Teaching and LearningApproach – is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of languageteaching and learning. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught. Itis the level at which assumptions and beliefs about something to be learned arespecified. (Ex: Communicative approach; Audio-lingual approach; WholeLanguage Approach; CALP; CALLA)Method – is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material.No part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selectedapproach. It is the level at which theory is built into practice and choices are madeabout the particular skills and content to be taught, and the order by which thecontent will be presented. (Ex: Direct method; Grammar Translation Method;Total Physical Response Method…)Technique – is the level at which classroom procedures are described. It is themedium of implementation. (Ex: song parody; song analysis; round-tablediscussion; buzz session…)Q: How does my understanding of these ELT principles helpme in achieving my goal in Communication Arts?
19. II.10. Common Methods and Approaches in TESL1. Grammar Translation MethodGoals: To read literature in the target language. To memorize grammar rules and vocabulary of the target languageCharacteristics: Grammar is taught deductively. The students‘ native language is used to explain new items in the target language and to enable comparisons between the FL and the student‘s native language. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice.Q: On whose set of students do you think GTM is relevant (orirrelevant)? Why? What specific learning task would you likelygive them?
20. II.10. Common Methods and Approaches in TESL2. Direct MethodGoals: To communicate in the target language.Characteristics: There are extensive drills in listening, imitating, and speaking so that the students‘ use of the different forms of the language becomes second nature to them. The emphasis is on correct pronunciation and grammar. There is no memorization of grammar rules. Grammar is taught inductively by generalizing from examples.(Ex: The teacher corrects grammar errors made by the students and brieflyexplains why such corrections are necessary; or, The teacher asks questions in thetarget language on the passages read, to which the students reply in completesentences.)Q: What do you think is the strenght and weakness of thismethod?
21. II.10. Common Methods and Approaches in TESL3. Oral-Situational ApproachGoals: To utilize the target language in real situation.Characteristics: One of its main characteristics is that new language points are introduced and practiced situationally. Situational language teaching adopts an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. Explanation is therefore discouraged, and the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a particular structure or vocabulary item from the situation in which it is presentedQ: How oral-situational approach can be carried through inbusiness writing and answering job interviews?
22. II.10. Common Methods and Approaches in TESL4. Audio-lingual ApproachGoals: To use the target language communicatively. To master the target language enabling the students to use it automatically as new habits are formed and native language habits are overcome.Characteristics: The native language is not used in the classroom.Grammar is induced from models.The students interact through chain drills of role playing, in dialogs,and at the teacher‘s direction.Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often with minimal pairdrills.Q: How does my understanding of these ELT principles helpme in achieving my goal in Communication Arts?
23. II.10. Common Methods and Approaches in TESL5. Communicative ApproachGoals: To become communicatively competent To use the language appropriate for a given social contextCharacteristics: Activities are highly communicative; speakers have a choice of what to say and howto say it; feedback from listeners will determine if the purpose is achieved.Authentic materials are used as text.Grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, thesituational context, and the roles of the interlocutors.The teacher is the facilitator of the students‘ learning.Errors of form are tolerated and are seen as a natural outcome of the development ofcommunication skills.Activities are often carried out by the students in small groups.The use of the native language is accepted when feasible.Translation may be used when needed.Informal evaluation is done by the teacher in his role as adviser/communicator.Q: Is this approach ‗traditional‘ or ‗improved‘? What languagetheory supports this LT approach? Considering this approach,how would you facilitate extemporaneous speech in your class?
24. III. The Teaching of ListeningA. Why Teach Listening?According to study conducted by Learning Ally (2011), listening is thefoundation of language; it is the brick and mortar of learning. Listening isan interactive, interpretive process that requires us to:Tap into prior knowledgeOrganize the contentRegulate our listening speed and processingInterpret meaningRecognize the whole and the parts of the informationRespond accordingly.Speaking proficiency is dependent to a well-developed listening skill.Writing skill is enhanced through effective listening.Developing listening skill is essential to higher academic andprofessional success. Q: Why do you think listening is the most neglected and underdeveloped skill in teaching communication arts?
25. III. The Teaching of ListeningB. Classifications/Levels of Listening1. Informational Listening – occurs as people understand, remember, and respond to the content of an oral communication.2. Analytical Listening – when listeners methodically examine words, ideas, and nonverbal components. The listen to identify the main idea and subordinate ideas; establish the relationships between ideas; generalize from the ideas; distinguish between fact and fantasy or fact and opinion; identify speaker‘s feelings or points of view; and interpret various speech elements such as varying intonations, pitch, tones, tempo, or volume of the voice.3. Critical Judgmental Listening – this occurs when people make decisions about the rightness or wrongness, harmfulness or harmlessness of facts and ideas, and the way both facts and ideas have been presented.4. Appreciative Listening – occurs when people listen to enjoy, and understand the moods expressed in stories, poems, plays, and music, and conjure mental pictures through picturesque language. Your Task: Plan a classroom activity that develops each level of listening.
26. III. The Teaching of ListeningB. Four Stages of ListeningIdentification – perception of sounds and phrases, identifying thesedirectly and holistically with their meanings.Identification and selection without retention – listening for the pleasureof comprehension, extracting, sequential meanings without beingexpected to demonstrate comprehension through active use of language.Identification and guided selection with short-term retention – studentsare given some prior indication of what they are to listen for; theydemonstrate their comprehension immediately in some active fashion.Identification and selection with long term retention – studentsdemonstrate their comprehension, or use the material they havecomprehended, after the listening experience has been completed. Q: How can the fourth stage be achieved as your class listens to a panel discussion-- ―The most sought-after jobs today‖
27. III. The Teaching of ListeningC. Two Basic Levels of ListeningThe Level of Recognition – which refers to recognizingautomatically the phonological, syntactic, and semantic codes ofthe language. Here, student has to learn phonological codes(phonemes; rhythm; stress; intonation patterns; and emotionalovertones and variations); syntactic code (word classes; wordorder; and interrelationship of words); and semantic code (wordmeaning; connotation; culture; idioms; expletives; clichés;colloquialisms; pauses; and fillers)The Level of Selection – which refers to the listener‘s ability toselect what is important for retention.Your task: Propose a language-learning activity that developsthese two levels of listening.
28. III. The Teaching of ListeningD. Suggested Listening ActivitiesTask 1: Discriminating Critical English Sounds. Listen to these words. On youranswer sheet, write the number of distinct sounds you heard on each word series. (Input: mate—myth—meat--mate) = 3 (Input: lip—leaf—lipped--left—lift—lipped) = 4Task 2: Identifying news details. Listen to the newscaster as he reports the newsfor the day. On your answer sheet, answer the given questions.Task 3. Discriminating Ungrammatically-Constructed Expressions. Listen to eachexpression. On your answer sheet, tell whether each statement is CORRECT orINCORRECT as far as correct grammar is concern.Task 4. Music appreciation. Listen to the music being played. Interpret the moodor message of the song using crayons or water color.Q: What variations can you make out of these suggestedlistening activities considering the need and level of learners?
29. III. The Teaching of ListeningD. Assessing Listening SkillYou can use post-listening activities to check comprehension, evaluatelistening skills and use of listening strategies, and extend the knowledgegained to other contexts. A post-listening activity may relate to a pre-listening activity, such as predicting; may expand on the topic or thelanguage of the listening text; or may transfer what has been learned toreading, speaking, or writing activities.In order to provide authentic assessment of students listeningproficiency, a post-listening activity must reflect the real-life uses to whichstudents might put information they have gained through listening.It must have a purpose other than assessmentIt must require students to demonstrate their level of listeningcomprehension by completing some task.Q: What assessment device and tool would you plan to assessyour student‘s listening skill?
30. IV. The Teaching of Speaking A. Elements in the Teaching of Speaking1. Speecha. Elements of Human Voice –types of voice; pitch; rhythm; tempo; volume; tone; pitch; texture…b. Process of Sounds Production -- accent; pronunciation; articulation; enunciation; phrasing; blending/linking2. Oral/Nonverbal Communicationa. Individual – reporting; monologs; story-telling; impromptu; extemporaneous speeches; orationb. Dyads – dialogs, interviews, etc.c. Grouping – speech choir; chamber theater; role playing; dramatization; short skit; panel and round table discussions; buzz session; brainstorming; charade, etc.
31. B. Proficiency Levels in Speaking1. Native speaker -- (mother tongue) someone who has spoken the language from at least the age of 5; understands essentially everything in the language: all vocabulary, complicated grammatical structures, cultural differences, and dialects.2. Debater -- (fluent) can participate in extended conversations; understand the language when spoken normally, figure out meaning of words within context, debate; has good accent…3. Conversationalist-- (advanced) has the ability to converse about fairly abstract ideas, state opinions, read newspapers; can reorganize sentences in order to communicate and figure out the majority of vocabulary within the context.
32. B. Proficiency Levels in Speaking3. Survivor -- (intermediate) converses using basic vocabulary; uses the present, past, and future tenses more or less correctly; can survive in an immersion situations– ordering foods; giving and receiving directions/instructions, etc.4. Novice -- (beginner) has extremely limited vocabulary and grammar, understands very little of the language when spoken normally; may find difficulty in oral conversations.Think about: What is mine and most of my students proficiency levelin speaking? What factors possibly influence this level type? Whateffort/s do I make to improve/sustain such level?
33. C. Speaking Test Assessment FocusConsidering various entry levels, speaking skills can be assessed as to whether the speaker is able to, but not limited to: describing, giving opinions, giving personal information, stating (dis) likes and preferences, commenting, asking for information or descriptions, (dis) agreeing, exchanging opinions, deciding, suggesting, selecting, comparing, contrasting, planning, persuading, interrupting politely, expressing future uncertainty or possibility, asking or giving advice, speculating and deducing hypothetical processes, etc.Your Task: Plan a particular communicative activity that assessspeaker‘s various speaking abilities. What tool you think is effective?
34. V. The Teaching of Reading A. The Reading Theories A.1. Linguistic theories a. Top-down theory/model b. Bottom-up theory/model A.2. The sociolinguistic theory a. The role of schema A.3. The cognitivist theory a. The interactive modelQ: What could be the pedagogical implications of theseassumptions in the teaching of reading in an ESL class?
35. B. Components of Teaching Reading1. Developing Word Power or Vocabulary2. Developing Reading Comprehension3. Reading-Study Skills ConnectionStrategies in Developing Word Power or VocabularyWord games; charades; structural analysis (processes of word formation; roots; context clues, etc.)
37. Skills in Reading1. Critical reading – a technique for discovering information and ideas within a text2.Critical thinking – a technique for evaluating information and ideas for deciding what to accept and believe3.Appreciative reading – for pleasure reading
38. Strategies for Reading Comprehension1. Identify the purpose in reading2. Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in botom-up decoding (for beginning level learners)• “short” vowel sound in VC patterns (bat, him, leg, wish, etc.)• “long” vowel sound in VCe (final silent e) patterns (late, time, bite, etc.)• “long” vowel sound in VV patterns (seat, coat, etc.)• distinguishing “hard” c and g from “soft” c and g (cat vs. city, game vs. gem, etc.)3. Use efficient silent reading techniques for relatively rapid comprehension (for intermediate to advanced levels)4. Skimming – consists of quickly running one’s eyes across a whole text (an essay, article, or chapter for example) to get the gist5. Scanning – quickly searching for some particular piece of information (looking for names or dates, to find a definition of a key concept)
39. VI. The Teaching of WritingA. Components of Teaching WritingA.1. Linguistic structuresa. Morphological (word forms)b. Syntactics (word order)c. Semantics (word meaning)d. Pragmatics (word function)A.2. Mechanicsa. Orthography (standard spelling)b. PunctuationsA.4. Styles and Formatsa. Indentions, spacing, paragraphs, keyboarding, margins, etc.
40. VI. The Teaching of WritingA. Strategies in Teaching Writing1. The Conceptual Approach2. The Process Approach
41. B. Writing Activities/Tasks1. Diary2. Precis3. Introductions4. Speeches5. Journalism-based writing (news stories, editorial…)6. Journals7. Accomplishing forms/sheets8. Captions9. Essays10. Product labels11. Creative arts-based writing (scripts; dialogs)12. Reviews (book or movie reviews)13. Annotated bibliography14. Term papers/research papers
42. C. Assessing Writing Output1. Portfolio assessment2. Peer critiquing3. Self assessment4. Use of specialized rubric
43. The Teaching ofCOMMUNICATION ARTS MICHAEL M. MAGBANUA, MA Head, General Education Presenter