Hff hedge funds101_01-2013


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Hff hedge funds101_01-2013

  2. 2. What is a hedge fund?It’s a tool that delivers reliable returns for pensions,university endowments, and others
  3. 3. What is a hedge fund?It’s a tool that creates value to help fund pensions,universities and non-profits
  4. 4. What is a hedge fund?It’s a tool that institutions and investorsuse to manage risk
  5. 5. 5What is a hedge fund?It’s a tool that helpsdiversify investments
  6. 6. Simply put:It’s a tool that helps millions meettheir financial goals and obligations
  7. 7. The term “hedge fund” has been usedto describe private, professionallymanaged investment funds since 1949.Sociologist Alfred Winslow Jones, writing onassignment for Fortune, bought undervaluedsecurities and shorted other stocks as a“market neutral” approach to investing.By combining short selling, leverage, andincentive fees in combination, Jones wasable to deliver solid returns while minimizingrisk. His innovative approach created the firsthedge fund.7
  8. 8. 6102,3833,8738,6619,46210,0969,284 9,045 9,237 9,495Total Number of Funds1While hedge funds have grown in popularity,their size is relatively small compared to themarkets where they invest.HedgeFundsU.S.BankingIndustryU.S.MutualFundIndustry2.2513.811.6Assets UnderManagement(in trillions)Sources: (1) Hedge Fund Research, Inc., Q3 2011, (2) Hedge Fund Research,Inc., 1/13, (3) FDIC, 9/11, (4) ICI, 12/112384
  9. 9. Most hedge funds are established aslimited partnerships.Investors share in the partnership’s income, expenses, gainsand losses; each partner is taxed on its respective shareKey Players:Determines strategy and is invested in the fund(compensated based on fund’s annual performance)Funds must secure their loans with collateral togain margin and secure trades. In turn, each broker(usually a large securities firm) uses its own riskmatrix to determine how much to lend to each ofits clients, acting as a stand-in regulator.Ensure fund compliance; verify financial statementsas required by federal lawPortfolioManager(s)PrimeBrokerAuditors9
  10. 10. Typical U.S. Hedge Fund StructureHedge FundInvestorsInvestorsInvestorsAuditors andAdministratorsLegal Advisors,Registrar andTransfer AgentPrime BrokerPortfolio ManagerExecuting BrokerInvestorsSource: “Hedge Funds and Other Private Funds: Regulation and Compliance” Thomson West, 2010 10
  11. 11. U.S. regulations limit hedge fundparticipants to “accredited investors”or “qualified purchasers.”Who can invest in hedge funds?Individuals with investments in excess of $5million; or net worth of at least $1 million; orincome of at least $200,000 in last two yearsInstitutions with total assets over $5 million;or no less than $25 million in investments orinvestable assets11
  12. 12. Who invests in hedge funds?About 65 percent of global hedge fund assets come frominstitutional investors such as pension funds, and universityand nonprofit endowments.The rest comes from individual investors.Source: Prequin 12
  13. 13. Who invests in hedge funds?University and college endowments were some of the firstinstitutional investors to partner with hedge funds to help meettheir financial needs and expand educational opportunitiesnationwide.According to a recent NACUBO-Commonfund study,endowments allocate - on average - 38% of their alternativeasset portfolio to marketable alternative strategies, includinghedge funds.Hedge funds are of particular importance to smaller institutions.Endowments with less than $25 million in assets allocate anaverage of 60% of alternative investments with various hedgefund managers and strategies.13Source: 2011 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments
  14. 14. Who invests in hedge funds?Pension plans across the U.S. and around the world invest inhedge funds to help diversify their portfolio, manage risk anddeliver reliable returns over time. These investments help buildretirement security for hundreds of millions of workers andretirees.According to a study by Citi Prime Finance, pension plansaccounted for 53% of institutional investor assets held byhedge funds – a total of $594 billion – as of March 30, 2011.14Source: Citi Prime Finance
  15. 15. Who invests in hedge funds?Public Pension Plans Union Pension PlansCorporate Pension Plans Universities15
  16. 16. Source: Pensions and Investments, February 2010Today, 38 of the top 100 pension plansponsors utilize hedge funds.Their investments total $58.1 billion.16
  17. 17. Why invest in hedge funds?Hedge funds are important tools for diversification.They provide investors with the latitude to take investmentstrategies based on current market conditions in order tomanage risk and maximize return.The hedge fund industry is diverse, too. Over the past10 years, managers have employed an increasingnumber of new investment strategies in a broadernumber of markets worldwide.17
  18. 18. Why invest in hedge funds?56%18%15%7%4%Primary Reason forInvesting in Hedge FundsFor diversificationpurposes/todecrease volatilityTo improverisk/return ofportfolioTo increaseoverallreturnsAs opportunisticinvestmentsTo decrease other areasof portfolioHedge funds offer shelterfrom more volatile markets.It’s likely this is thereason that 75 percentof institutional investorssignaled they are stayingthe course on their assetallocation throughout therecent economic turmoil.Source: Morgan Stanley Hedge Fund Webinar Presentation, 12/10 18
  19. 19. Institutional Trends19“Our increased allocation toward hedge funds in recent years haslowered the risk exposure of our pension plans while delivering solidreturns. That approach is consistent with our goals to lower GM’s riskprofile, strengthen our balance sheet and fully fund our pension plans.”Walter Borst, General Motors Asset Management’s CEO, President andChief Investment Officer, 2/7/11Source: Preqin Institutional Investor Outlook for Hedge Funds in 2012, RobertWood Johnson Foundation; Pensions & Investments, 2/7/11In a 2011 Preqin study, 38% of investors said they expect to increasetheir allocation to hedge funds in 2012.The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation held nearly $1.2 billion in hedgefund investments at the end of Fiscal Year 2010, approximately 13% ofits total assets.General Motor’s pension fund increased its hedge fund investmentsin 2010 to $11.9 billion of its $87.8 billion portfolio.
  20. 20. How do hedge funds invest?Global MacroInvestment managers use economic variables and the impact these haveon markets to develop investment strategies.Managers employ a variety of techniques including discretionary andsystematic analysis, quantitative and fundamental approaches, and longand short-term holding periods.Strategies are based on future movements in underlying instruments ratherthan the realized valuation discrepancies between securities.20
  21. 21. How do hedge funds invest?Event DrivenInvestment managers maintain positions in companies currently orprospectively involved in corporate transactions including mergers,restructurings, financial distress, tender offers, shareholder buybacks, debtexchanges, security issuance or other capital structure adjustments.Managers pursue strategies based on fundamental characteristics (asopposed to quantitative) and specific future developments.Position exposure includes a combination of sensitivities to equity markets,credit markets and company-specific developments.21
  22. 22. How do hedge funds invest?Relative ValueInvestment managers maintain positions based on valuation discrepancy inthe relationship between multiple securities.Managers employ a variety of fundamental and quantitative techniques;investments range broadly across equity, fixed income, derivative or othersecurity types.Positions may involve future corporate transactions, but these positions arepredicated on realization of a pricing discrepancy between related securitiesrather than the outcome of the corporate transaction.22
  23. 23. How do hedge funds invest?Equity FundsInvestment managers maintain long and short positions in equity and equityderivative securities.Managers employ a wide variety of techniques to arrive at an investmentdecision, including both quantitative and fundamental techniques.Strategies can be broadly diversified or narrowly focused on specific sectorsand can range broadly in terms of levels of net exposure, leverage employed,holding period, concentrations of market capitalizations and valuation rangesof typical portfolios.23
  24. 24. How do hedge funds invest?Quantitative FundsAn investment fund that trades positions based on computer models built toidentify investment opportunities.These models can utilize an unlimited number of variables, which areprogrammed into complex, frequently-updated algorithms.Quantitative funds models are used as a means of executing a number ofother hedge fund strategies.24
  25. 25. How do hedge funds invest?Multi-Strategy FundsInvestment managers maintain a variety of processes to arrive at aninvestment decision, including both quantitative and fundamental techniques.Strategies can be broadly diversified or narrowly focused on specific sectorsand can range broadly in terms of levels of net exposure, leverage, holdingperiod, concentrations of market capitalizations and valuation ranges.25
  26. 26. How do hedge funds invest?Managed Futures Trading (CTAs)Managed futures traders–also known as commodity trading advisors(CTAs)–are able to invest in up to 150 global futures markets.They trade in these markets using futures, forwards, and options contracts ineverything from grains and gold, to currencies, stock indexes, andgovernment bond futures.Because they can go both long and short they have the ability to makemoney in both rising and falling markets.CTAs have been regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission(CFTC) since 1974 and are overseen by the National Futures Association(NFA), a self-regulatory organization.26
  27. 27. Hedge funds produce consistently higherreturns with substantially less volatility.27Hennessee HedgeFund IndexDow JonesIndustrial AverageS&P 500NASDAQBarclays AggregateBond IndexRussell 20000%4%8%12%16%0% 10% 20% 30% 40%AnnualizedCompoundReturnAnnualized Standard DeviationRisk vs. ReturnHennessee Hedge Fund Index vs. Benchmarks(1987-2011)Source: Hennessee Group LLC HedgeFund Indices
  28. 28. Hedge funds protect on the downside.28-18%-16%-14%-12%-10%-8%-6%-4%-2%0%2%S&P 500 Hennessee Hedge Fund IndexSource: Hennessee Group LLCMonthly Return IndexHennessee Index in the Worst 15Months of S&P Decline (1993-2011)
  29. 29. Hedge fund managers are partners withfund investors; their financial interest isdirectly linked to fund performance.Since every hedge fund manager is invested in his or her own fund(sometimes as much as 80% of the fund’s value), he or she has a significantamount of money at stake with every investment decision.Managers aren’t rewarded for poor performance. Unlike corporate executivesand mutual funds, managers are only rewarded when investors arerewarded.Fee structures vary, though “2 and 20” fees are typical: 2% management feefor administrative expenses; 20% performance allocation over a specific highwater mark.29
  30. 30. Hedge funds do not pose a systemic risk:30• Their size is small compared to the broaderfinancial services industry• Hedge funds aren’t highly leveraged• They aren’t susceptible to runsThe “current crisis in financial markets is not a hedge fund driven event. Hedgefunds contribute to market liquidity, price efficiency, risk distribution, and globalmarket integration.”Kathleen Casey, SEC CommissionerHedge Fund Oversight: Final Report, June 2009“I would not think that any hedge fund or private equity fund would becomea systemically critical firm individually.”Ben Bernanke, Federal Reserve Board ChairmanTestimony to U.S. House Financial Services Committee, October 1, 2009
  31. 31. Compared to other U.S. markets, there is farless concentration among hedge funds.Assets Under Management(in trillions)$8.5 trillionU.S. Hedge Funds: Top 5 Hold < 9% of AssetsU.S. Mutual Funds: Top 3 Mutual Fund Families Hold >35% of AssetsU.S. Bank Holding Companies: Top 5 Hold >60% of Assets$4.5 trillion$2.25 trillion$198.85 billionSource: Hedge Fund Research, Inc., 1/13; Absolute Return Billion Dollar Club, (09/2012) 31$11.6 trillion$13.8 trillion
  32. 32. Hedge funds’ leverage risk is low.Hedge fund leverage is governed largely by private relationshipswith its prime brokers. A fund posts collateral with this primebroker to secure its trades and the broker uses its own riskmatrix to determine how much to lend.32InvestmentBanksHedge Funds Hedge FundsAt Height of Financial Crisis1 : 2.34(1) 1 : 13.7(2) 1 : 69.51 : 1.41Investment Banks(1) “Hedge Fund Market Update,” Bank of America Merrill Lynch Global Markets Financing & Futures,December 2011.(1) Forbes.com
  33. 33. Since hedge funds have long lead timesto return capital to investors and to adjustcredit agreements with creditors, theyaren’t susceptible to “runs” on capital.Mutual funds must beable to return capital toinvestors immediatelyBanks rely on dailyliquidity from depositsand commercial paper tomeet depositor demandsBy contract, most hedgefunds return capital overmonths or yearsHedge funds’ creditagreements with primebrokers are set for 30 daysbut can extend to two yearsOtherInstitutionsHedgeFundsEquityDebt33
  34. 34. Resources:To download this presentation as a PDF, please click herehttp://www.hedgefundfundamentals.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Hedge-Funds-101.pdfFor more information, please visitwww.hedgefundfundamentals.com34