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Designing expressive & enjoyable user         interfaces that make & keep users happyImages: Cohn-Kanade facial expression...
Why do people get sofrustrated with computers?
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?              Error messages
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?              Error messages                 (Wikipedia 2007)
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?              Error messages           (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?              Error messages           (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?        Overburdening the user
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?                  “Featuritis”           (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision                (Thi...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision                (Thi...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision                (Thi...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision                ( Sc...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision                ( Sc...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?  Messages make the user feel patronized (i.e. as if their intelligence is ...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?  Messages make the user feel patronized (i.e. as if their intelligence is ...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?  Messages make the user feel patronized (i.e. as if their intelligence is ...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?   Unnecessary use of real-world   metaphors           (User Interface Hall...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?   Unnecessary use of real-world   metaphors              (Duignan et al 20...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?  Bright, clashing colors and  flashing images/text                     (Ow...
Why do people get so frustrated with computers?           Confusing layout            !                (Preece et al 2002,...
How can user frustration be       dealt with?
How can user frustration be dealt with?                                     But don’t                                     ...
How can user interfaces helpmake users feel comfortable      and motivated?
How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable                     and motivated?      “Use expressive icons and...
How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable                     and motivated?     Use animations, “dynamic i...
How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable                     and motivated?     Use animations, “dynamic i...
How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable                     and motivated?      Use clear, easily navigab...
How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable                     and motivated?     Aesthetics are important. ...
“Virtual characters: agents”1                                 (Image: André et al 2000, p. 159)1(Preece   et al 2002, p. 1...
Virtual characters: agentsPersonification of the computerfollows a long tradition of objectpersonification—for example ina...
Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona.        ...
Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona.        ...
Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona.        ...
Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona.        ...
Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona.        ...
Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona.        ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters                               ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters               (Flickr.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  1) Synthetic characters              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  2) Animated agents             (Lester et al 1997, p. ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  2) Animated agents             (André, et al 2000, p. ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  2) Animated agents           (Prendinger et al 2005, p...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  2) Animated agents              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  2) Animated agents              (Gamespot.com 2006)
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  3) Emotional agents              (Hall et al 2005, p. ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  4) Embodied conversational     interface agents       ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  4) Embodied conversational     interface agents       ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  4) Embodied conversational     interface agents       ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  4) Embodied conversational     interface agents       ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  4) Embodied conversational     interface agents       ...
Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist:  4) Embodied conversational     interface agents       ...
Virtual characters: agents Debate: Anthropomorphism   (i.e. personification) in      interaction designPros:•More enjoyabl...
Virtual characters: agents Debate: Anthropomorphism   (i.e. personification) in      interaction designCons:• People may b...
Virtual characters: agentsDebate: Anthropomorphism  (i.e. personification) in     interaction design          (Preece et a...
Virtual characters: agents  Debate: Anthropomorphism    (i.e. personification) in       interaction design  Agents have al...
The End
BibliographyAmazon.com, Inc, Amazon.de. Retrieved January 6, 2007 fromhttp://www.amazon.deAndré, E et al 2000, ‘Integratin...
Bibliography (2)CNet Networks 2006, ‘Black & White 2 Screens’, Gamespot.com.Retrieved January 6, 2007 from http://www.game...
Bibliography (3)Hall, L et al 2005, ‘Achieving Empathic Engagement ThroughAffective Interaction with Synthetic Characters’...
Bibliography (4)Poggi, Isabella and Catherine Pelachaud 2000, ‘Emotional Meaning andExpression in Animated Faces’, in JG C...
Bibliography (5)Thimbleby, H & I H Witten 1993, ‘User Modelling as Machine Identification:New Design Methods for HCI’, in ...
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Affective Interaction Design

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A presentation about affective (meaning emotional, *not* effective) interaction design, from a UI design seminar course I took part in at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) in 2007.

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Transcript of "Affective Interaction Design"

  1. 1. Designing expressive & enjoyable user interfaces that make & keep users happyImages: Cohn-Kanade facial expression database. (Choi and Kim 2005, p. 909)
  2. 2. Why do people get sofrustrated with computers?
  3. 3. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Error messages
  4. 4. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Error messages (Wikipedia 2007)
  5. 5. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Error messages (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  6. 6. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Error messages (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  7. 7. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Overburdening the user
  8. 8. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? “Featuritis” (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  9. 9. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision (Thimbleby 1993, p. 2)
  10. 10. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision (Thimbleby 1993, p. 3)
  11. 11. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision (Thimbleby 1993, p. 3)
  12. 12. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision ( Scariati, J et al 2006)
  13. 13. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? The user has too little information to make a decision ( Scariati, J et al 2006)
  14. 14. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Messages make the user feel patronized (i.e. as if their intelligence is being questioned). (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  15. 15. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Messages make the user feel patronized (i.e. as if their intelligence is being questioned). (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  16. 16. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Messages make the user feel patronized (i.e. as if their intelligence is being questioned). (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  17. 17. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Unnecessary use of real-world metaphors (User Interface Hall of Shame 1999)
  18. 18. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Unnecessary use of real-world metaphors (Duignan et al 2004, p. 113)
  19. 19. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Bright, clashing colors and flashing images/text (Owen)
  20. 20. Why do people get so frustrated with computers? Confusing layout ! (Preece et al 2002, p. 145)
  21. 21. How can user frustration be dealt with?
  22. 22. How can user frustration be dealt with? But don’t give help they didn’t ask for.
  23. 23. How can user interfaces helpmake users feel comfortable and motivated?
  24. 24. How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable and motivated? “Use expressive icons and other graphical elements to convey emotional states.” (Preece et al 2002, p. 143) (Preece et al 2002, p. 143)
  25. 25. How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable and motivated? Use animations, “dynamic icons” and helpful notification sounds. (Preece et al 143)
  26. 26. How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable and motivated? Use animations, “dynamic icons” and helpful notification sounds. (Preece et al 143) (YouTube 2006)
  27. 27. How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable and motivated? Use clear, easily navigable interfaces. Use metaphors only when they make things easier. (Amazon.de 2007)
  28. 28. How can user interfaces help make users feel comfortable and motivated? Aesthetics are important. Although “plain usability” can be very helpful, studies have shown that “when the look and feel” of an interface is pleasing (e.g., beautiful graphics, nice feel to the way the elements have been put together, well-designed fonts, elegant use of images and color) users are likely to be more tolerant of its usability (e.g., they may be prepared to wait a few more seconds for a website to download).” (Preece et al 2002, p. 144)
  29. 29. “Virtual characters: agents”1 (Image: André et al 2000, p. 159)1(Preece et al 2002, p. 157)
  30. 30. Virtual characters: agentsPersonification of the computerfollows a long tradition of objectpersonification—for example inadvertising.
  31. 31. Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona. (Lineback)
  32. 32. Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona. (Lineback)
  33. 33. Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona. (Lineback)
  34. 34. Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona. (Lineback)
  35. 35. Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona. (Wikipedia 2007)
  36. 36. Virtual characters: agentsAgents try to make the computer “friendlier”to novices by giving the computer a persona. (Wikipedia 2007)
  37. 37. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Preece et al 2002, p. 157-160) (Preece et al 2002, p. 158)
  38. 38. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Gamespot.com 2006)
  39. 39. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Gamespot.com 2006)
  40. 40. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Gamespot.com 2006)
  41. 41. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Flickr.com 2006)
  42. 42. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Gamespot.com 2006)
  43. 43. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Gamespot.com 2006)
  44. 44. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 1) Synthetic characters (Gamespot.com 2006)
  45. 45. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 2) Animated agents (Lester et al 1997, p. 361)
  46. 46. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 2) Animated agents (André, et al 2000, p. 157)
  47. 47. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 2) Animated agents (Prendinger et al 2005, p. 110)
  48. 48. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 2) Animated agents (Gamespot.com 2006)
  49. 49. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 2) Animated agents (Gamespot.com 2006)
  50. 50. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 3) Emotional agents (Hall et al 2005, p. 733)
  51. 51. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 4) Embodied conversational interface agents (Cassell et al 1999, p. 524)
  52. 52. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 4) Embodied conversational interface agents (Gockley et al 2006, pp. 186-187)
  53. 53. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 4) Embodied conversational interface agents (Poggi and Pelachaud 2000, p. 186-187)
  54. 54. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 4) Embodied conversational interface agents (Walker et al 1994, p. 87)
  55. 55. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 4) Embodied conversational interface agents (Takacs 2005, p. 766)
  56. 56. Virtual characters: agentsFour general categories of agents exist: 4) Embodied conversational interface agents (Choi and Kim 2005, p. 909)
  57. 57. Virtual characters: agents Debate: Anthropomorphism (i.e. personification) in interaction designPros:•More enjoyable, fun, & natural•Ability to motivate/encouragepeople, especially children.•Ongoing research means thatbelievability continues to increase.
  58. 58. Virtual characters: agents Debate: Anthropomorphism (i.e. personification) in interaction designCons:• People may be misled intobelieving the agents are morecapable than they really are,resulting in annoyance, frustration,and/or distrust.
  59. 59. Virtual characters: agentsDebate: Anthropomorphism (i.e. personification) in interaction design (Preece et al 2002, p. 161)
  60. 60. Virtual characters: agents Debate: Anthropomorphism (i.e. personification) in interaction design Agents have already been usedsuccessfully in educational software andvideo games to encourage, motivate andentertain people. However, their usefulness in otherareas such as search and sales isquestionable, since direct interfaces areoften more efficient and less annoying.
  61. 61. The End
  62. 62. BibliographyAmazon.com, Inc, Amazon.de. Retrieved January 6, 2007 fromhttp://www.amazon.deAndré, E et al 2000, ‘Integrating Models of Personality andEmotions into Lifelike Characters’, in JG Carbonell and J Siekmann(eds), Affective Interactions, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp.150-165. Retrieved January 4, 2007 from SpringerLink database.Cassell, J, et al 1999, ‘Embodiment in conversational interfaces:Rea’, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors inComputing Systems: the CHI Is the Limit (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,United States, May 15 - 20, 1999), ACM Press, New York, NY, 520-527. Retrieved January 4, 2007 from ACM Digital Library database.Choi, Soo-Mi and Yong-Guk Kim 2005, ‘An Affective User InterfaceBased on Facial Expression Recognition and Eye-Gaze Tracking’, inJ Tao et al (eds), Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction,Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 907-914.
  63. 63. Bibliography (2)CNet Networks 2006, ‘Black & White 2 Screens’, Gamespot.com.Retrieved January 6, 2007 from http://www.gamespot.comCNet Networks 2006, ‘Super Mario 64 Screens’, Gamespot.com.Retrieved January 6, 2007 from http://www.gamespot.comCNet Networks 2006, ‘Petz: Dogz 5/Catz 5 Compilation Screens’,Gamespot.com. Retrieved January 6, 2007 fromhttp://www.gamespot.comDuignan, M et al 2004, ‘Metaphors for Electronic Music Productionin Reason and Live’, in M Masoodian et al (eds), Computer HumanInteraction, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 111-120.Retrieved January 4, 2007 from SpringerLink database.Gockley, R et al 2006, ‘Interactions with a moody robot’, inProceeding of the 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot interaction (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, March 02 - 03, 2006).ACM Press, New York, NY, 186-193. Retrieved January 4, 2007 fromACM Digital Library database.
  64. 64. Bibliography (3)Hall, L et al 2005, ‘Achieving Empathic Engagement ThroughAffective Interaction with Synthetic Characters’, in J Tao et al (eds),Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Springer-Verlag,Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 731-738.Isys Information Architects Inc 1999, Interface Hall of Shame.Retrieved January 5, 2007 fromhttp://homepage.mac.com/bradster/iarchitect/shame.htmLester, J C et al 1997, ‘The persona effect: affective impact ofanimated pedagogical agents’, in S Pemberton (ed), Proceedings ofthe SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems(Atlanta, Georgia, United States, March 22 - 27, 1997), ACM Press,New York, NY, 359-366. Retrieved January 4, 2007 from ACMDigital Library database.Owens, M, Wheres Our Scottish Family & Other Scottish Facts &Scotsman Song. Retrieved January 6, 2007 fromhttp://www.geocities.com/mike035/
  65. 65. Bibliography (4)Poggi, Isabella and Catherine Pelachaud 2000, ‘Emotional Meaning andExpression in Animated Faces’, in JG Carbonell and J Siekmann (eds),Affective Interactions, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 182-195.Retrieved January 4, 2007 from SpringerLink database.Preece, J et al 2002, Interaction Design, John Wiley, New York, pp. 141-163.Prendinger, H et al 2005, ‘Understanding the effect of life-like interfaceagents through users’ eye movements’, in Proceedings of the 7thinternational Conference on Multimodal interfaces (Torento, Italy,October 04 - 06, 2005), ACM Press, New York, NY, 108-115. RetrievedJanuary 4, 2007 from ACM Digital Library database.Scariati, J et al 2006, ‘Copying, Replacing, & Moving Files/Folders’,XvsXP. Retrieved January 5, 2007 fromhttp://www.xvsxp.com/files/copying.phpTakacs B 2005, ‘Affective Intelligence: A Novel User InterfaceParadigm’, in J Tao et al (eds), Affective Computing and IntelligentInteraction, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 764-771.
  66. 66. Bibliography (5)Thimbleby, H & I H Witten 1993, ‘User Modelling as Machine Identification:New Design Methods for HCI’, in Hix & H. R. Hartson (eds), Advances inHuman Computer Interaction, IV, Ablex, pp58-86, D. Retrieved January 4,2007 from http://www.uclic.ucl.ac.uk/harold/srf/Flickr User: RelentlesslyOptimistic 2006 (CC), Aibo [Image]. RetrievedJanuary 5, 2007 from http://www.flickr.comWalker, J H et al 1994, ‘Using a human face in an interface’, in B Adelson etal (eds) Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors inComputing Systems: Celebrating interdependence (Boston, Massachusetts,United States, April 24 - 28, 1994), ACM Press, New York, NY, 85-91.Retrieved January 4, 2007 from ACM Digital Library database.Wikipedia contributors 2007, ‘Blue Screen of Death’, Wikipedia, The FreeEncyclopedia. Retrieved January 5, 2007 from http://www.wikipedia.comWikipedia contributors 2007, ‘Creative Writer’, Wikipedia, The FreeEncyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2007 from http://www.wikipedia.comYouTube user: Nittorn 2006, ‘Live Preview in Mac OS Dock’, YouTube.com.Retrieved on January 5, 2007 from http://www.youtube.com

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