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# 2CPP06 - Arrays and Pointers

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This is an intermediate conversion course for C++, suitable for second year computing students who may have learned Java or another language in first year.

This is an intermediate conversion course for C++, suitable for second year computing students who may have learned Java or another language in first year.

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• 1. ARRAYS AND POINTERS Michael Heron
• 2. Introduction • We talked about pointers a few lectures ago. • In this lecture we are going to talk about pointers and arrays. • This is a little bit more complicated than working with simple arrays in Java. • It is expected you are comfortable with the mechanics of pointers at this point. • & is the ‘address of’ • * is the ‘value of’
• 3. Arrays in C++ • Arrays in Java have a two-step setup process. • Declare the array object • int[] myInts • Create the array • myInts = new int[100]; • In C++, we can use pointers to do the same two stage process. • Declare the array object • int *myInts • Create the Array • myInts = new Int[100];
• 4. Arrays in C++ • You can also declare an array in C++ in a single step: • int myInts[100]; • This doesn’t work in Java. • Arrays in Java are fully fledged objects. • They have methods and attributes. • C++ does not provide these for you. • You have to manually manage their state, size and such.
• 5. Arrays and Pointers • When an array is created as a pointer, the pointer reference is to the memory location of the first element in the array. • When using index accessing, the numeric index acts as an offset. • myInts[3] means ‘get the element three spaces on from the first’ • Exciting Language Feature! • C++ doesn’t do any compile time bounds checking on arrays. • If you set an element that is greater than the size of the array, it will write to that memory location anyway. • Easy way for things to go weird.
• 6. Arrays of Objects • Three step process in Java. • Declare the array • Create the array of object references • Initialize each object reference. • C++ permits this as a one stage or two stage process. • Same as creating an array of any other data type. • The compiler will create an array of objects created using the zero parameter constructor. • Hence the importance of a zero parameter constructor!
• 7. Arrays of Objects • You can simulate the Java creation process through the use of an array of pointers. • Here’s where it gets tricky. • First we create an array of pointers to objects. • We then initialise each pointer in that array by creating an object for it to point. • The syntax for creating an array of pointers is double asterisks on the declaration: • Car **myCars;
• 8. Arrays of Pointers Car **myCars; myCars = new Car*[100]; for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) { myCars[i] = new Car(100.0, "Blue"); }
• 9. Worked Example • Let’s look at this concept by working through an example. • We’re going to add a list of all previous owners to our car objects. • First of all, we need to add an array of strings to our car declaration. • We also need to store the size of the array. • C++ doesn’t do that for us. • Egads!
• 10. Worked Example class Car { private: float price; string colour; string *owners; int max_size; int current_size; public: Car(); Car (float, string = "bright green"); void set_price (float p); float query_price(); void set_colour (string c); string query_colour(); string to_string(); int query_size(); int query_current_size(); void add_owner (string str); string query_owner (int ind); };
• 11. Constructors • Our zero parameter constructor should handle the default case. • Set the owners array to NULL • Set the max_size to 0 • Set the current_size to 0. • Also add in constructor that allow us to set a maximum size of the array. • Three parameter constructor.
• 12. Constructor Code // Zero parameter Car::Car() : price (200.0), colour ("black"), owners (NULL), max_size (0), current_size (0) { } // Two parameter Car::Car(float p, string c) : price (p), colour (c), owners (NULL), max_size (0), current_size (0) { } // Three parameter Car::Car (float p, string c, int max) : price (p), colour (c), owners (new string[max]), max_size (max), current_size (0) { }
• 13. Adding an Owner • We next need to implement the add_owner method. • Check to see if our array is full. • If it isn’t, add the element at the right location. • Increment the counter by one. • We need to do our own array bounds validation here.
• 14. Adding and Querying void Car::add_owner (string str) { if (current_size == max_size) { return; } owners[current_size] = str; current_size += 1; } string Car::query_owner (int location) { if (location >= max_size) { return "Invalid"; } if (location < 0 ) { return "Invalid"; } return owners[location]; }
• 15. Destroying The Object • As discussed in an earlier lecture, Java offers garbage collection to deal with memory leaks. • C++ doesn’t. • Whenever we destroy an object, we must also destroy any dynamically allocated memory. • Our owners array. • We do this in the class’s destructor method. • Same name as a constructor, prefix of a ~.
• 16. Destroying The Object • When using delete on an array, we include an empty pair of square brackets: • delete [] owners; • When deleting a pointer to a single data field, we can omit the brackets: • delete owners; • In this case, we need the square brackets in our destructor.
• 17. Destroying The Object Declaration: class Car { private: // Stuff public: Car(); Car (float, string = "bright green"); Car (float, string = "bright green", int = 20); ~Car(); // Stuff }; Body: Car::~Car() { delete [] owners; }
• 18. Tomorrow’s Tutorial • The tutorial tomorrow is a group exercise to write, on paper, the code needed for a simple CD database. • Directly applicable to your assessment. • Understanding the nature of pointers and the lifecycle of an object are important concepts for this. • The exercise focuses on understanding. • You don’t need to be syntax perfect.
• 19. Summary • Arrays in C++ differ somewhat from those provided in Java. • They can be manipulated through pointers in the same way that simple variable types can. • Syntax very similar to Java. • Implications of certain actions are different. • Additional complexity and power afforded by pointer manipulation.