PATTERNS02 - Creational Design Patterns
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PATTERNS02 - Creational Design Patterns

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An introduction to creational design patterns in object orientation. Suitable for intermediate to advanced computing students and those studying software engineering.

An introduction to creational design patterns in object orientation. Suitable for intermediate to advanced computing students and those studying software engineering.

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PATTERNS02 - Creational Design Patterns PATTERNS02 - Creational Design Patterns Presentation Transcript

  • Creational Patterns Michael Heron
  • Introduction  Today we introduce a small suite of design patterns that fall under the family known as creational.  They are used to create objects, or manage the object creation process in some way.  For some applications and contexts, it’s not appropriate or useful to simply instantiate objects with new whenever you want to.  Creational patterns provide a cohesive interface when these circumstances arise.
  • Creational Patterns  There are three creational patterns we will discuss during this lecture.  The Factory  The Abstract Factory  The Singleton  We will also discuss specific examples of use for each. View slide
  • Why Use A Creational Pattern?  Some situations are more complex than simple instantiation can handle.  Imagine for example you want to create an entirely ‘skinnable’ look and feel for an application.  Some situations have complex consequences if objects aren’t instantiated in the right way or the right order.  Some situations require that only one object is ever created. View slide
  • The Factory Pattern  The Factory is used to provide a consistent interface to setup properly configured objects.  You pass in some configuration details  Out comes a properly configured object.  At its simplest, it can be represented by a single class containing a single static method.  More complex factories exist, dealing with more complex situations.
  • The Factory Design Pattern  Imagine a class:
  • The Factory Design Pattern  Then imagine a simple class hierarchy:
  • The Factory Design Pattern  Now imagine you are creating a simple drawing package.  User selects a shape  User clicks on the screen  Application draws the shape.  This can all be hard-coded directly into an application.  This suffers from scale and readability issues.
  • The Factory Design Pattern  Instead, we use a factory to generate specific objects, through the power of polymorphism.  Polymorphism is key to the way a Factory works.  The system that drives a factory is that all these shapes have a common parent class.  Thus, all we need is the Shape object that is represented by specific objects.  The objects themselves manage the complexity of the drawing process.
  • The Factory Design Pattern public class ShapeFactory { public Shape getShape (String shape, int x, int y, int len, int ht, Color col) { Shape temp = null; if (shape.equals ("Circle")) { temp = new Circle (x, y, len, ht); } else if (shape.equals ("Rectangle")) { temp = new Rectangle (x, y, len, ht); } else if (shape.equals ("Face")) { temp = new Face (x, y, len, ht); } temp.setDrawingColor (col); return temp; } }
  • Another Example  Let’s say we have a file that we have created in our application.  We now want to export it to a different file format.  Each file format has its own peculiarities.  We could hard-code this into our application…  … or we could use a factory to get the object that can handle the export.
  • The Factory Design Pattern public String doConversion (string format, string file) { ConversionObject c; c = ConversionFactory.getConversionObject (format); file = c.covert (file); return file; } myFile = doConversion (“unicode”, myFile); myFile = doConversion (“ascii”, myFile);
  • The Factory Design Pattern  The Factory Pattern reduces hard-coded complexity.  We don’t need to worry about combinatorial explosion.  The Factory Pattern properly devolves responsibility to individual objects.  We don’t have a draw method in our application, we have a draw method in each specific shape.  However, the Factory pattern by itself is limited to certain simple contexts.  For more complicated situations, we need more.
  • The Abstract Factory  The next level of abstraction is the Abstract Factory.  This is a Factory for factories.  Imagine here we have slightly more complicated situations.  Designing an interface that allows for different themes.  A file conversion application that must allow for different versions of different formats.
  • The Abstract Factory  We could handle these with a factory by itself.  This introduces the same combinatorial problems that the factory is designed to resolve.  A simple rule to remember is – coding combinations is usually bad design.  Bad design causes trouble later on.  When doing anything more substantial than simple ‘proof of concept’ applications.
  • Bad Design public Component getComponent (String type, String theme) { Component guiComponent; if (theme.equals ("swing")) { if (type.equals ("button")) { guiComponent = new JButton (); } else if (type.equals ("label")) { guiComponent = new JLabel(); } } else if (theme.equals ("awt")) { if (type.equals ("button")) { guiComponent = new Button (); } else if (type.equals ("label")) { guiComponent = new Label(); } } return guiComponent; }
  • Good Design  Good Design in this case involves creating one factory that creates the right kind of factory for the components.  We have a SwingFactory and an AwtFactory.  That factory generates the appropriate components.  This requires a somewhat more complicated class structure.  Each Factory must inherit from a common base
  • Good Design
  • Abstract Factory Implementation public class AbstractFactory { public static Factory getFactory (string look) { Factory temp; if (look.equals ("windows")) { temp = new WindowsFactory(); } else if (look.equals ("swing")) { temp = new SwingFactory(); } else if (look.equals ("macintosh")) { temp = new MacintoshFactory(); } return temp; } }
  • Factory Implementation public class SwingFactory extends Factory { public GuiWidget getWidget (string type) { SwingWidget temp = null; if (type.equals ("button")) { temp = new JButton(); } else if (type.equals ("scrollbar")) { temp = new JScrollbar(); } return temp; } abstract class Factory { abstract GuiWidget getWidget (String type); }
  • The Consequence  Entirely new suites of themes can be added to this system without risking combinatorial explosion.  The ‘operational’ code is also much tighter and more focused. Factory myFactory = AbstractFactory.getFactory ("swing"); GUIWidget myWidget = myFactory.getWidget ("button");
  • The Singleton  The Factory and Abstract Factory handle structural creation issues.  They fix several aspects of bad design with regards to creating objects.  The Singleton is designed to increase data consistency.  One of the problems that must be managed with object orientation is inter-object communication.  The way this is often done is by giving each object its own instantiations of other objects.
  • The Singleton  This is fine in most situations.  However, when dealing with objects that contain ‘live data’, it becomes problematic.  Each object has its own copy of the data.  That’s bad voodoo, man.  It would be much better if all objects had access to the same copy of the data.  That is hard to manage effectively.
  • The Singleton  The Singleton pattern resolves this by ensuring a single interface to the creation of an object.  Objects cannot be created with new, they must be created through a method.  This method is responsible for ensuring only one live version of an object.  If one exists, it sends that out.  If it doesn’t, it creates it and then sends it out.  The pattern is very simple.  But offers great improvements in data consistency.
  • The Singleton public class Singleton { private Singleton keepItSafe; private Singleton() { // Private constructor prevents external instantiation. } public static Singleton getInstance() { if (keepItSafe == null) { keepItSafe = new Singleton(); } return keepItSafe; } }
  • The Singleton  There are various other ways of implementing the singleton.  As there are other ways of implementing any design pattern.  One way is to keep a static counter of how many instances have been created.  For singleton, if the counter is 1 you don’t allow new objects.  The Multiton pattern keeps an internal hash map of instances.  Allowing only newly keyed instantiations.
  • Summary  Creational Patterns manage the complexity of object instantiations.  They make it easier to manage the combinatorial explosion that comes along with certain kinds of object creation schemes.  The Factory allows for the creation of properly configured objects.  The Abstract Factory is a factory for factories.  The Singleton ensures data consistency by restricting instantiation of objects.