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Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
Workplace Safety Manual
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Workplace Safety Manual

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This ebook is intended to provide information to the people, workers and readers that are some way or the other involved with the health and safety at workplaces. This ebook on health and safety is …

This ebook is intended to provide information to the people, workers and readers that are some way or the other involved with the health and safety at workplaces. This ebook on health and safety is designed by Safety-Steps.co.uk for providing practical guidance on a wide range of health and safety issues that may crop up at the workplaces on everyday basis.
Source - http://www.safety-steps.co.uk/workplace-safety-free-ebook

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  • 1. Tables of Content Introduction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Health and Safety Consultation Hazard Management Health and Safety – Job Roles Health and Safety Policies Reporting Injuries and Accidents What Employers and Employees need to do? Investigation of Injuries Occupational Health and Safety Training Workplace Health and Safety Conclusion
  • 2. About This Ebook We intend to help organisations find out how they can make use of their best resources, materials, techniques, strategies, time and effort to resolve health and safety issues within the organisation This ebook is intended to provide information to the people, workers and readers that are some way or the other involved with the health and safety at workplaces. This ebook on health and safety is designed by Safety-Steps.co.uk for providing practical guidance on a wide range of health and safety issues that may crop up at the workplaces on everyday basis. We have tried to cover most of the aspects surrounding workplace health and safety measures and what can be done by the employers and the employees and the other members of the staff to achieve highest levels of health and safety standards. The ebook draws references and information based on workplace health and safety legislation in the UK. We intend to help organisations find out how they can make use of their best resources, materials, techniques, strategies, time and effort to resolve health and safety issues within the organisation. This ebook aims at assisting the employee, employers and others establish, implement and maintain the systems that not only prevent injuries, diseases and death at work but also the ones resulting from work.
  • 3. Health and Safety Consultation Health and safety consultation: an Introduction Consultation on health and safety involves the process of providing valuable information to employees (and representatives) as well as listening to their concerns and feedback before organizations can finally take decisions. All the employers in the UK are required to consult with representatives or employees on the issues relating to health and safety. Depending on the circumstances and regulations, organization may have to consult with one or both (employees and safety representatives). Although, the organizations still enjoy the right to manage and take the final decision, it can’t be denied that consultation will always remain an inseparable part of health and safety management. No law states the duration of the consultation or ‘when’ organizations should consult but it should be a favourable time: as per law, they can be consulted “in good time”. Organisations must ensure that the concerned people have been given enough time for considering the issues that have been raised, keeping the workplace health and safety in mind. Although, the organizations still enjoy the right to manage and take the final decision, it can’t be denied that consultation will always remain an inseparable part of health and safety management. How is consultation on health and safety carried out? Health and safety policies and regulations, as we know, are enforced by the HSE as well as the local authorities. When it comes to workplace health and safety consultation, organizations must not ignore the requirements stated under the law. Employers may need to consult:  Employees directly  Employees through designated representatives  Both of the above Why should employees be consulted? It is important for the employers to consult with their employees about the concerns that may be directly or indirectly related to their health and safety. It can include the following:  Organising and planning the health and safety training sessions  Introducing imperative measures that can have an impact on the health and safety of the workforce and promote a safer work environment  Arrangements of competent professionals who can help the organization comply with the health and safety laws and policies at workplace.
  • 4. What are the benefits of employee consultation? Businesses can get huge benefits by consulting with the employees. We are listing down some of them below –  Enhanced productivity  Dramatic improvement in quality and efficiency  Motivated workforce and promote safer/healthier workplace environment  Encouragement to organisations for taking better decisions in terms of health and safety often based on the experience and extensive knowledge of employees  Better level of commitment for seamless implementation of actions and decisions with regards to health and safety  Better level of trust and co-operation since it involves active participation of employees at each stage As per the law, it is mandatory for the businesses consult with the employees on the matters that relate to health and safety. What should organizations consult about? Organisations must aim at consulting with the representatives or the employees of the following concerns:  Consulting with the employees before arranging competent and qualified professionals who can help them and the organization to comply with the health and safety regulations  Safety measures that can contribute to the reduction of risks and guide on the steps to be taken on exposure to risk (risk management plays a vital role here)  Employees to be made aware of the potential health and safety hazards and related concerns that may arise at the workplace  Arrangements for training and awareness on health and safety  Consequences and impacts of the introduction of new technologies; the expertise and knowledge of the experienced employees can largely help Restrictions on information providing during consultations Businesses may not be required to provide information if:     The information they are willing to provide goes against the interests of the national security The information includes a person who has not given permission to businesses for giving it out to employees or representatives Providing of the information may, in any way pose threat to the organisation’s security The information to be shared has actually been obtained for serving legal proceedings
  • 5. Will employees suffer on participating in health and safety consultation? The answer to this is NO. Health and safety law very well safeguards the employees against any kind of penalisation on participating in consultation sessions. This also applies to their participation in the election of representative/s for health and safety. They shall also not suffer in case they are candidates applying for the election of health and safety representatives. If they are charged or penalised for participating in health and safety consultation sessions, they can very well apply to an employment tribunal and they can further be sure about seeking justice soon.
  • 6. Hazard Management Hazard management is a crucial stage in safety management and involves processes such as identification of hazards, assessment of risks, development of effective control measures, implementation of good health and safety strategies, etc. What is Hazard identification? Hazards are clearly defined as something that can pose potentially dangerous threats to the health, safety as well as the welfare of the employees at work. Hazards are clearly defined as something that can pose potentially dangerous threats to the health, safety as well as the welfare of the employees at work. Working at heights and under stressful work conditions are few typical examples of hazards at work. Here are a few ways in which you can identify those hazards:  Make sure that you go through the records of the accidents and the injuries that have taken place in the past  Conduct inspections of the workstations with the help of a checklist that can assist you in the identification of the hazards.  Talk with the workers to find out their concerns and the issues they are facing while working What is Risk assessment? Once the potential hazards are identified, risks resulting from each hazard must be assessed with equal care. Since most of the hazards at work can lead to injury, disease or accident, it becomes imperative to identify the reach of the risk involved. With risk assessment, we mean a process that helps you identify or evaluate the possibilities and results of an illness, injury, accident that may take place as a result of the impact of hazards. Risk assessment involves:       Nature of hazard The manner in which it may affect health, safety and welfare of the employees How the workers are actually exposed to hazards and whether preventive measures are taken to control them Whether or not any employees are affected How often the hazard can pose threat to the health and safety of employees at work Location in which the hazard has or can take place Risk assessment involves information gathering along with decision taking. Other concerns that are involved with the process of risk assessment are:
  • 7.      The manner in which a particular work (or set of works) was organised The condition in which the work environment exists Layout of the work environment Different kinds of control measures that are currently available Knowledge and training required by the employees in order to carry out the work safely While taking decisions in favour of better risk assessment, there can’t really be one ‘right’ acceptable answer. Assessment may encourage people to work and take decisions depending on their own analysis. Since they may have an idea of their own, risk assessment may vary from one group to the other but the basic motive remains the same i.e. achieving high standards of health and safety at work. Risk assessments should be made positively when an organisation or work environment witnesses some kind of change that may directly or indirectly affect the security systems of the organisation by also impacting the overall health and safety of people at work. Assessments can also be made whenever the organisation seeks new and vital information about workplace hazards. What is Risk control? Risk control is a process that takes place immediately after hazard identification and risk assessment. Risk control involves actions to be taken for the development and implementation of risk control measures. Risk assessment aims at controlling, eliminating or minimising risk. Organisations must aim at controlling the right risks at the source rather than forcing employees to work in an ‘unsafe environment’. Even the protective clothing on employees’ body may not be completely secure hence controlling the risk from the very beginning can contribute to the prevention of the injury. Controlling the issues following the order of priority list can fetch better results and prove to be far more effective. So how can the organisations control the risks? We have the answer. It can be done by:  Having a look at the regulations that can briefly describe the measures required for controlling the risks involved with the particular hazards  Consulting the employees who are prone to the potentially dangerous hazards  Seeking valuable and crucial information from employees, employers and unions that can largely help  Verifying through the information fetched from the suppliers and the manufacturers that provided hazardous substances  Consulting with the OHS consultants  Interacting with the government agencies on the concerns
  • 8.    Incorporating administrative and engineering controls Making use of personal clothing or equipment that is capable of providing protection till a better measure of control is taken Reviewing the work environment changes closely and the entire work system routinely
  • 9. Health and Safety – Job Roles Preventive measures in health and safety can only be taken with the help of dedicated professionals and committed workforce. Here are the common job roles and responsibilities involved in health and safety. Know them to know more about the health and safety concerns, solutions and regulations. Responsible officer They are responsible for providing a safe and secure workplace to workers by employing adequate resources. Implementation of the right kind of strategies and incorporation of the best resources can contribute to meeting health and safety objectives. The job of the responsible officers is to ensure that:  Implementation of the right kind of strategies and incorporation of the best resources can contribute to meeting health and safety objectives.       Suitable measures and policies in health and safety are developed and also implemented so that an effective risk management and health and safety policy can be assured. Adequate mechanisms are provided for enabling the implementation and development of trusted health and safety policies and procedures. Mechanisms are incorporated in order to encourage employees to consult health and safety representatives in case of any change or proposal that may directly or indirectly impact the health, safety and welfare of the workers. Managers concerned with health and safety within the organisation are provided adequate training and knowledge so that they can utilise best of their skills after being assisted for carrying out their roles and responsibilities effectively. Adequate mechanisms are provided for assessing the performance of the supervisors, representatives and managers with respect to health and safety. Finance and business plans are made keeping the health and safety of the workers in mind. Annuals plans on the health and safety are not only developed but also suitably implemented for meeting the objectives. OHS coordinator OHS coordinators play a crucial role in the implementation of health and safety strategies and techniques. Their job is to coordinate various facets of health and safety within an organisation. The job roles of OHS coordinators involve:   Coordinating the functions like identification, development and implementation along with the review of the policies and procedures in health and safety to encourage best outcome. Helping managers and other officials in the processes of assessment, selection and identification of the preventive measures aimed at controlling
  • 10.     potential hazards and risks in health and safety. Helping managers to communicate and consult with both the employees and the representatives on various health and safety issues. Advising and monitoring of the technical and the legislative changes being made in connection with health and safety within an organisation. Supporting employees so that they can follow the health and safety regulations and procedures being carried out within the company. Providing adequate and suitable information to the workers as well as their representatives on concerns and issues relating to health and safety. Managers Managers have vast responsibilities and they are required to ensure that:        They can effectively and dedicatedly carry out their job roles and responsibilities as per the health and safety regulations, policies and procedures. Proper and suitable implementation of the procedures and policies that further ensure health and safety. Health and safety risks and potential hazards have been identified, analysed and successfully controlled. If there is any deviation from a decent health and safety standard, it is rectified as soon as possible. Employees, supervisors and the representatives have sufficient knowledge for carrying out the roles and responsibilities assigned to them for achieving high standards of health and safety. Employees as well as their representatives are consulted before any safety and welfare proposals are to be considered. Changes, work policies and work practices must be reported to them as well. Employees, supervisors and representatives should be advised on each vital stage so that the concerns affecting the health and welfare of the employees take into consideration. Supervisors As the name suggests, supervisors are people within an organisation who are entrusted with supervisory responsibilities. They must specifically ensure that:     They can successfully carry out all their job roles and responsibilities conforming to the health and safety policies and procedures. The areas that fall under their control witness successful and effective implementation of policies and procedures relating to health and safety. The preventive measures taken in favour of risk control in their own areas of responsibilities are successfully implemented, constantly monitored and properly maintained. The employees that work under them are well trained, properly informed and well guided with all the vital instructions required by them for carrying out their roles and responsibilities effectively and safely.
  • 11. Employees Employees too have a well defined set of responsibilities. They are required to take care of their own health and safety along with that of their colleagues. They must ensure that:       Any signs of potential risks and hazards are immediately reported to the concerned authorities. They obey the health and safety instructions and guidelines specifically aimed at their health and safety protection at the workplace. They make use of machines, equipments or systems that have been provided to them for ensuring their health and safety while they are at the workstation. They dedicatedly assist in the implementation of measures taken with respect to risk assessment, risk control and hazards management. They provide valuable feedback on concerns and issues that may directly or indirectly impact their health and safety. They are not affected by drugs or alcohol at work as it may further have an impact on the health and safety of their own and of their colleagues. Health and safety representatives Health and safety representatives are elected and their role is to represent the workers with an organisation on matters concerning with the same. Their roles and responsibilities include:        Representation of the employees on the matters and concerns relating to health and safety. Investigation of the complaints relating to the health and security of the employees within the organization. Reporting back to the workers and working out on aggravating safety issues. Discussing about proposals or issues that may directly or indirectly affect the health and safety of the workers. Assisting the management in the identification, implementation, assessment and review of risks and potential dangerous hazards. Assisting in encouraging the adherence to the regulations, policies and procedures in health and safety. Assisting in the maintenance of safety and monitoring of risk controls; promoting effective risk management.
  • 12. Health and Safety Policies What are health and safety policies and procedures? Health and safety policies and procedures need not be expensive or complicated. They must aim at promoting most efficient and safe working practices that can not only save money but also save lives. Health and safety policies refer to the commitment by organisations in the form of a statement released outlining their legal responsibilities and duties. Health and safety policies and procedures are written statements by organisations that set out how issues concerned with health and safety should be managed at work places. It aims at fostering a safe and secure work environment by prevention of work related accidents, injuries and illness. Health and safety policies and procedures need not be expensive or complicated. They must aim at promoting most efficient and safe working practices that can not only save money but also save lives. They must adhere to the British health and safety laws and must follow Health and Safety at Work Act (1974). In a nutshell, they must adhere to HSE. Why health and safety policies are important? According to a recent survey, over 150,000 accidents and injuries take place in the workstations almost every year across the UK. As a result of these workplaces mishaps, employers or businesses are often forced to face dire consequences. Employers are increasingly realising the need for having correct, appropriate and well-defined health and safety policies and procedures in the first place. Such policies are a statement of the employers on how they are willingly maintaining the desired level of the health and safety at the workplace. Such policies include procedures, rules, tasks and responsibilities they thrive on in order to successfully achieve high standards of health and safety within the organisation. They must promote empowerment of making decisions and encourage one to be proactive. What should a typical health and safety policy include? Health and safety policies and procedures may differ from one organisation to the other in the UK but there are a few things in common. A typical health and safety policy draft must include:      Risk management and the risks that are present in the workplaces Actions that need to be taken for minimising the risks How tasks and incidents are recorded and monitored Steps that are taken in case of emergencies Management of hazardous equipments, machinery and substances Businesses must ensure that they have drawn up a bespoke health and safety
  • 13. policies and procedures keeping the employees and workplace in mind. They need to ensure that all essential concerns have been pondered upon so that nothing imperative is being missed during the preparation of the policy. Organisations must inform and suggest the arrangements that they have made in attaining the health and safety objectives. Such policies should also include the different functions of the departments and the responsibility of the people involved. More and more businesses are now focusing on educating their employees on the health and safety hazards and human resource departments have a crucial role to play in this. Health and safety hazards: Employee awareness & Education More and more businesses are now focusing on educating their employees on the health and safety hazards and human resource departments have a crucial role to play in this. Workplace accidents and injuries can be reduced to a large extent by ensuring that all the employees are educated on the work related health hazards and safety aids. They should be aware of the local and the seasonal threats as well. Businesses can also keep their employees updated on the workplace health and safety concerns with the help of monthly emails. Organisations must target going beyond the stereotype manner of informing their employees. According to law, achieving adequate safety standards often require organisations to train their employees by arranging related documentation alongside. Responsibilities of the organisations training their employees on the health and safety don’t end here. They must also follow up with their employees to find out if the training successfully sank in and whether the trained employees are incorporating the knowledge gained into their everyday responsibilities. This is important to measure the impact of your training and awareness program focusing on health and safety.
  • 14. Reporting Injuries and Accidents Why is it important to report and record workplace accidents/injuries? Most of us know that recording and reporting of the workplace accidents and injuries is a legal requirement that is also mandatory under the law. When a mishap takes place in workstations, it should be reported so that:     Authorities such as the HSE, ORR, etc are aware of the injuries, deaths or any other dangerous occurrences and can take actions accordingly The authorities can start to function around concerns like identification of risks and the reasons behind the occurrences The authorities can decide whether it needs to be investigated; if yes then what will be the course of action Authorities can advice on how these workplace accidents and injuries can be avoided in the long run Accidents and injuries taking place in the workstations must also be recorded so that:      Proper information is collected and can later be put into use by the authorities or the organisations whenever required You can do your bit to prevent potential health and safety hazards It can also be used as an aid in risk management; it is an essential management tool that can help you with related issues You can be assisted in the development of the most convincing solutions to the potential risks in the future You can control the rising costs resulting from the accidental losses, ill health and injuries, the consequences of which are often tough to bear Hence, organisations must aim at keeping a record of:      Injury Accidents Dangerous hazards and occurrences at workplaces Reportable death Occupational diseases Since most (if not all) of these will lead to workers staying away from workplaces for a good number of days, they should be immediately recorded and reported. Records should also be produced when HSE or any local authorities ask for them.
  • 15. What needs to be reported? Here is a list of incidents that must be reported at the earliest – Death and injuries Organisations must keep in mind that they will need to report death incidents if they take place as a result of a workplace mishap. Since both deaths and accidents are something that happens unexpectedly, every little detail may have to be reported to the authorities depending on the severity of the incident. Before reporting them, you must consider the following –   Organisations must keep in mind that they will need to report death incidents if they take place as a result of a workplace mishap. Since both deaths and accidents are something that happens unexpectedly, every little detail may have to be reported to the authorities depending on the severity of the incident.  The manner in which the tasks were being carried out Equipments, machinery or systems that were used for completion of the work Condition of the area, premises or site where the accident, death or injury took place If you feel that any of the factors that have been mentioned above are in any way related to the incident, make sure that you report it to the enforcing authorities. If you don’t do so, it will be treated as an offense under the law which may also be punishable. Deaths In what cases should an unfortunate incident like death be reported? Here we have them, for you –     When they result from injuries or accidents that took place at the workstation When an employee is found sustaining some occupational injuries When it is found to result from a suicide having a connection with the work environment When it is found resulting from an act of physical violence to employees taking place in the workstation So what are the common injuries? Here are the injuries that are commonly included in work related health and safety reporting –       Amputation Fractures Dislocation of knee, spine, shoulder, hip Permanent or temporary loss of sight Injuries leading to unconsciousness, illness, etc; also includes situations like hospital admittance for over 24 hours Any kind of health concern or illness that requires instant medical treatment
  • 16.   or has an adverse effect on health Injuries relating to the eye; also includes injuries resulting from penetration Loss of consciousness resulting from substances impacting the skin or leading to health issues as a result of indigestion, absorption or inhalation Apart from these, if workplace injury stretches to over 7 days, it must be reported. However, in most cases, injuries stretching to over 3 days will only need to be recorded. Occupational diseases Occupational diseases must be reported by employees or employers so that the concerned authorities can take desired action and plan their approach accordingly. Occupational diseases need to be reported when the doctor provides a written diagnosis in which it is stated that the worker has been found suffering from a health issue having connection with the work activities. In a few cases, occupational diseases and other work related accidents or injuries should be anticipated and reported at the earliest so that actions can be taken in advance. It will also ensure that a well thought out and suitable strategy is implemented to prevent similar incidences from taking place in the future. Dangerous hazards/occurrences Dangerous occurrences are obvious and most of the times, unavoidable but one must keep in mind that not all of them can be reported. Only few of the dangerous occurrences can be found having relevancy with workplaces, let us list out some of them below:  Collapse or failure in lift and of lifting equipments  Electrical circuits leading to fire or an explosion causing death, injury and major accidents  Release of some harmful biological agent causing health issues like some severe illness or leading to death  Accidental release of substances that may cause damage to the health of the workers Accidents resulting from Gas Organisations that are involved with filling, supply, export and distribution of flammable gas must have special considerations for this one. If any employee has suffered injury or if death has taken place having a connection with the activities being carried out in the workplace, it should be immediately reported. Organisations must be cautious beforehand and it also requires them to provide a detailed report on potentially dangerous fittings or appliances that can lead to accidents, injuries and even death. The major causes for the concern can be:  Accidental leakage of harmful gas  Inadequate gas combustion  Removal of products in gas combustion Issues can also arise from improper installation, construction, servicing and modification.
  • 17. What Employers & Employees Need To Do? It’s the right of every employee to work with organisations and in work environments that offer a control over the aggravating risk to the health and safety of its workers. Even though, we all know that in most cases the employers are responsible for keeping the health and safety hazards under control, it can’t be denied that as workers, we too have a set of responsibilities to follow. If you’re still unsure about what health and safety precautions should be taken by employers and what the responsibilities of employees should be, have a look at the list of things that the employers must do for their employees and vice versa: What Employers Must Do? Even though, we all know that in most cases the employers are responsible for keeping the health and safety hazards under control, it can’t be denied that as workers, we too have a set of responsibilities to follow. Employers must:        Decide on the list of possible hazards that can affect the health and safety of employees at workplaces. Employers must analyse what can pose threat to the health and safety of their workers and prove to be harmful to them in the long run and how they can be avoided. analyse the most suitable precautions that can help in controlling the risks arising from potential work related hazards and hampering safety of the workers Work with their employees on arranging health and safety aids, get their opinion and try to consider suggestions from experienced and knowledgeable employees Work closely with the health and safety representatives on what measures need to be taken to prevent harms resulting from work related mishaps and injuries. Consider providing quality health and safety training to employees for free as it will involve more active participation and better response. It should be sequenced in structure; best is to keep such awareness programmes open for all Consult employees on equipments and systems to ensure that better health and safety measures are being taken Provide employees essential health and safety aids free of cost and inadequate amount/number; they must further ensure that the safety aids are also properly looked after so that the best results can be fetched from
  • 18.    them Ensure that employees have access to proper toilets, drinking water, washing facilities, etc. See to it that the employees have insurance backing them up in case they face an injury or accident at work. Insurance must also cover them up in case of health issues such as a severe illness. Electronic copies of the insurance certificates must be displayed. ensure that the major injuries or deaths are reported at the earliest so that authorities can investigate as per requirement What Employees Should Do? Employees must:        Be careful while they use a new equipment or system; they should follow the training that they have received from employers and ensure that it is being put to its best use and implemented with confidence Make sure that they are not only taking care of themselves but also cautious about the health and safety of their colleagues Cooperate with their organisation or employers for a better and safer work environment Be cautious and immediately report about any potential health and safety hazard to their employers or the representatives concerned so that they can arrange for preventive measures if anyone’s heath and security is found to be at risk Feel free to talk to the supervisors, employers or the representatives if a potentially dangerous health and safety hazard seems to crop up Keep them updated on the latest in health and safety Consult with the local enforcing authorities if the employers and the health and safety representatives seem to overlook the concern
  • 19. Investigation of Injuries What is meant by investigation in health and safety? Investigations are usually aimed at finding out what actually happened, why and how. They are also carried out in order to prevent the similar occurrences from taking place in near future. When such things result in damage of property or lead to an injury, it must be investigated. Investigation levels and procedures may very well vary depending on the severity of the occurrence. The amount of information that will be gathered will depend on the fact whether the mishap can be termed as a major or a minor one. When it comes to workplace safety, supervisors, managers, HSRs and the committee members may be required to actively and dedicatedly participate in the investigation. The course of action and the future development depends on various other factors. Investigation levels and procedures may very well vary depending on the severity of the occurrence. The amount of information that will be gathered will depend on the fact whether the mishap can be termed as a major or a minor one. Who should do the investigation? In order to carry out the investigation of the occurrences, the organisations must follow a defined set of procedures. This would help them in establishing all the vital contributory factors. Investigation is also the responsibility of supervisors and the managers. It is also possible to involve the HSRs after having a good deal of consultation with them as it would finally work in the favour of the investigation that requires being carried out flawlessly and successfully. When it comes to investigation, it is also possible to fetch advice and assistance from an experienced and dedicated health and safety professional within the organisation. Organisations must aim at developing a system that can effectively carry out the investigation depending on the severity of the injury, accident or the occurrence. It can also go on to becoming an important part of the training sessions arranged for the supervisors, managers, HSRs, etc. Identification of the causes Any investigation must be mandatorily aimed at identification of all the possible causes that lead to the occurrence. Investigators must keep in mind that they are required to explore the causes rather than tracking the work carelessness and the human error all the time. They must also aim at exploring or tracking down the
  • 20. underlying issues in the plant equipment, work environment or the materials that have been brought into use. They must also have a look at the practices in management and the system of work being carried out within the organisation. If a particular work has been covered by the approved codes of work practice or the regulations then it must adhere to the requirements of maintaining the standards. In case of injuries that resulted from manual handling, an ideal investigation must also focus on bringing the risk factors involved, into the picture. Procedure of investigation The procedures required for carrying out the investigation comprises of: Investigators must keep in mind that they should not jump into conclusions even before they have gathered relevant data and information related to the injury or the occurrence.     Gathering of relevant information Analysing the information and the data available Drawing logical conclusions Making important and reliable recommendations Investigators must keep in mind that they should not jump into conclusions even before they have gathered relevant data and information related to the injury or the occurrence. They must also keep their eyes and mind open and willingly explore all the possible causes. Investigators must also refrain from misguiding the entire team with their personal remarks. Investigation should be based on logical aspects like facts, possible causes, etc. Also, the investigation procedures must commence as soon as possible and immediately after the occurrence as a delay can lead to alteration of proofs, sites, etc. Before the investigators can gather relevant information, it is important to examine the site. All the necessary steps must be taken in order to preserve the evidences so that the witnesses can be identified as soon as possible. Written report Preparation of report is an important part of any investigation. Investigators must prepare a written report which would serve two major purposes:   As a record and proof of the investigation For consideration by the management as they can easily locate what they have been trying to know The investigation must also mandatorily include the draft prepared previously stating the sequence of the events and explaining to all those who were unaware of the development of the investigation and hardly knew all that happened. Investigators must also ensure that they have stated or identified the source of evidence in their report along with the reasons that suggested the conclusions investigators reached over.
  • 21. Occupational Health and Safety Training Importance of Health and safety training People carry out varied job roles and responsibilities which would require them to undergo effective training so that they can understand their job roles and contribute to the OHS. Health and safety training is not just a requirement but also a legal obligation under the health and safety act and regulations. Organisations must ensure that their managers, coordinators, HSRs, committee members, employees, supervisors and representatives are well trained. Employees must also ensure that they keep a record of the training sessions undertaken by their employees, should the entities be arranging them. Health and safety training is not just a requirement but also a legal obligation under the health and safety act and regulations. Organisations must ensure that their managers, coordinators, HSRs, committee members, employees, supervisors and representatives are well trained. Training can be provided ‘in-house’ or an ‘approved’ course conducted by some other organisation can be arranged. In-depth courses and training are also provided by universities, industry training boards and a wide range of registered training organisations. While organisations are arranging training for their workers, they must take into account two important things:   Language Literacy levels of the learner Planning and Arranging Health and Safety Training An effective and impactful training session requires a good deal of planning. A few common procedures in the health and safety training planning are:     Assessment of training requirements Setting of aims, goals and objectives Evaluation of the results or outcomes Working on methods for the provision of training OHS training must also form an integral part of your training plan. Strategy-Planning For Health and Safety Training In order to measure the impact and ensure that it serves the aim well, a training strategy will need to be developed. The strategies involved in the process will also help in determining how the knowledge and skills shall be acquired by the trainees. Strategy development before health and safety also helps in taking decisions relating
  • 22. to:    Amount, duration and level of training required Requirement in terms of in-house or off-site training People conducting training and whether the training type will focus on individual or group Organisations must ensure that the trainers are equipped with updated information, qualification, skills and experience. They must be aware of the modern training techniques and a decent access to all the vital resources. The composition and the overall scope of the training must be kept in mind. Organisations must ensure that the trainers are equipped with updated information, qualification, skills and experience. They must be aware of the modern training techniques and a decent access to all the vital resources. Training Evaluation Health and safety training is incomplete without an evaluation. It is important for the organisations to assess how well a particular training session could meet the expectations and move one step towards the common aim. So what should the evaluation in health and safety include? Here they are:    Review of each and every employee’s work progress Level of acquisition of the knowledge and skills Enhancement in competencies and knowledge of workforce in general Organisations must provide some time gap between the training and the evaluation so that they can closely analyse the outcomes and find out whether the objectives have been met. Benefits achieved by the employee after the training may not be enjoyed immediately after the training has been conducted. The impact of training reflects in the tasks, roles and responsibilities that are being carried out by trainees at work. Follow-up training Follow-up training is usually required even after a training session on health and safety has already been conducted. In order to ensure that the employees remain updated on their skills and can best utilise them at work, organisations may want to consider having follow-up training time to time. Follow-up trainings play a pivotal role in allowing trainees to revise their specific knowledge and skills. Continuation of training programmes also allows the supervisors and managers to stay updated and broaden their knowledge and skills relating to health and safety. Follow-up training sessions should not be overlooked as they do impact the manner in which the jobs are being carried out within an organisation.
  • 23. Workplace Health and Safety Welfare Health and safety regulations for the workplace cover a wide array of issues to promote safe working environment. As employers or as employees, our duty is to know all the requirements of the workplace regulations so that the potentially dangerous health and safety hazards can be avoided. These regulations are aimed at protecting the health and safety of all workers within the workplace and ensuring that the best safety welfare facilities are accessed by the employees. According to these regulations, each member of the workforce has the right to basic health and safety requirements and it also includes the people with disabilities. Also, the health and safety measures must be ‘suitable’ for everyone at work. So what are the considerations that can make health and safety welfare programmes within a workplace an ultimate success? Let us discuss. Health Temperature: In order to ensure that they can focus on their tasks well, Health and safety regulations for the workplace cover a wide array of issues to promote safe working environment. As employers or as employees, our duty is to know all the requirements of the workplace regulations so that the potentially dangerous health and safety hazards can be avoided. organisations must ensure that the temperature maintained within the workplace is a decent one and up to the mark. It must also be ensured that the environmental factors such as heat and humidity are not made to combine with the personal issues of employees. Even though the individual preferences can’t always be taken into consideration, having a decent maintenance of temperature in the workplace is mandatory. Ventilation: Organisations must ensure that the workplaces have adequate ventilation facilities. Furthermore, ventilation facilities should be capable of keeping a check on the dilute and humid air and it should be giving workers a great sense of freshness. Ventilation should help in releasing foul air and keep the surrounding hygienic. Even though windows and various other openings can give way to good ventilation, mechanical ventilation systems should be allowed and with proper maintenance. Work Environment – Hot or Cold: When conditions in the workplaces seem to move away from what they call “comfortable”, risk to the health and safety of the workers naturally increases. Issues like stress resulting from heat, uncomfortably low or high temperatures and various other concerns should be checked in time so that the best preventive measures can be taken. Exposure to extremely high thermal radiation and relatively higher levels of humidity should be controlled with the help of proper and suitable health and safety measures. When the organisations are assessing the risks to the health and safety of the employees working in a cold or hot environment, they should consider both the
  • 24. environmental and the personal factors. Personal factors mostly include the kind of clothing that rests on the body, physical activity, exposure and duration. On the other hand, environmental factors include radiant heat, an ambient temperature, rain, velocity of wind, etc. Lighting: Lighting is one aspect that helps a lot in the performance and productivity but it is also an important factor in health and safety at workplaces. Organisations must ensure that the lighting is adequate so that the workers can move around freely and work comfortably. Light fittings should be installed in a way such that they don’t lead to any hazards. Arrangements should be made for a good and suitable solution to sudden loss of light. Automatic emergency lighting would serve the purpose hence organisations must mandatorily get them installed at the earliest. Cleanliness: Workplaces should have a special focus on the cleanliness. It should be kept in mind that the furniture, fittings and furnishings are maintained and kept neat and clean. It is also important to keep the walls, surfaces and ceilings clean so that accidents and injuries resulting from them can be avoided. Removal of waste and cleaning should be carried out on a regular basis depending on the requirements for cleanliness in the work area. Organisations should not hesitate in arranging a casual cleaning system at least twice in a day. Waste should also be stored suitably so that infection and diseases can be kept under control. Room Dimensions: Workrooms should be spacious and decent in size so that the workers can move around safely without them leading to a chaos. Depending on the layout, type and the nature of the work to be carried out by the workers, workplace areas should allow enough mobility keeping away any scope for suffocation. Seating Arrangements: Workstations must be suitable for the employees and the work they are required to do. Employees should be made to sit in such a way that they can leave the workstation instantly in case of any emergency. If the work requires the employees to sit for long hours then they should be provided a comfortable seating. For the employees who are not capable of placing feet straight on the floors, arrangements for foot rest should be made. Seating must allow the workers to have suitable support for their back so that the related and health issues can be avoided in the long run. Safety Maintenance: Equipments and systems in the workplaces should be maintained so that they remain efficient without actually posing a threat to the health and safety of the workers. In case a fault comes into view, it should be immediately attended. Employees should also consider reporting the issue if they happen to take note of it beforehand. It will ensure that the best health and safety welfare measures are taken that are further capable of preventing the hazards.
  • 25. Floor Routes: This includes fixed ladders, doorway, stairs, gateway, etc. Traffic routes must be sufficient so that the vehicles and the people can move around comfortably and safely. One of the best ways to ensure safe mobility is to keep the path of the pedestrians and vehicles apart. This is also mandatory under the regulations covering the security at gates and doors of workplaces. Since it can become extremely tough for the drivers to see what lies behind the vehicle while they are reversing, the best way out is to plan the traffic routes that won’t at all require them to reverse. Driving through the loading areas and utilising the one-way systems can be a good solution. It is also important to ensure that the speed limits of all the vehicles are set in advance and they are being followed along with other traffic rules. In order to let the pedestrians and drivers know where they are required to go, route markings along with signs should be provided for guidance. Make sure that the crossing points are marked and visible clearly. They should also be warned of any potentially dangerous hazards so that they know it very well where they are required to go and what set of rules should apply to the routes they are supposed to undertake. Traffic and floor routes must have the capability to bear the load and heavy traffic. Surfaces in use must not have holes. They should not be slippery and uneven at the same time. Maintenance systems should be flexible and open to providing immediate repair facilities whenever required. Open sides of all the staircases must be fenced decently and handrail can also be provided on both the sides, in case there are possible haunting risks. Make sure that the access from one floor to the other should not be through steep stairs and ladders as they can pose threat to the safety of workers using them. Dangerous Falls: Falling into the potentially dangerous substances can have dire consequences hence one must ensure high level of security and protection. If there are any dangerous substances in the pits or tanks, they should be fenced properly. Companies must also take special measures to prevent falls that can result from height; conforming to the work at height regulations is important. Protection Against Breakage & Poor Quality Materials: Walls, partitions and doors must be made up of quality materials; they should be safeguarded against any form of breakage. If a breakage occurs then it should be marked so that the people who can possibly come in contact with it stay alert well ahead. Window Safety: Windows, ventilators and skylights must be capable of being opened comfortably. On opening, they must not pose any threat to the safety of the workers around. They must be regularly checked for any undue risk and must be designed in such a way that they can be opened and cleaned with ease. Gates & Doors: Gates and doors in the workplaces must be suitably constructed. They should be fitted with quality and safety devices. Make sure that the power
  • 26. operated doors can boast of exclusive safety features so that people can prevent getting trapped or stuck. They should be capable of being stopped instantly in case any emergency occurs. They must boast of a control that is both accessible and identifiable. Escalator Safety: Moving walkways, stairs and escalators must be functioning properly and they should be fully equipped with safety devices necessary for the access. It is mandatory for them to have the safest and secured emergency stop controls which should be maintained from time to time.
  • 27. Conclusion Organisations must abide by the regulations and the approved codes of practice that suggest volumes about the workplace health and safety hazards and the ways to control the evolving risks in the same. Proper maintenance of workplace health and safety calls for dedication, awareness, suitable strategies implementation and observation. Sources to consult shall depend on the type of the information that is required. We hope that our ebook compilation successfully and flawlessly acts as an effective guiding tool for all those who have a crucial role to play in the workplace health, safety and welfare. When we have employers and employees, both working hand in hand to solve issues and successfully implement the hazard management programmes, it can ultimately prove to be an effective process.

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