Moral Implications of Education in a Digital World

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Presentation given at TTIX 2010. This session includes a discussion of moral issues surrounding teaching with technology, especially with social media. Here are some of the issues that we’ll …

Presentation given at TTIX 2010. This session includes a discussion of moral issues surrounding teaching with technology, especially with social media. Here are some of the issues that we’ll discuss:
1. What are the moral goals of education, and are they attainable when using technology?
2. What are the moral challenges of teaching and learning with technology?
3. What are (or should be) the moral obligations of teachers and learners when teaching or learning with technology?

More in: Education , Technology
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  • Cyber-cheating, plagiarism, and so forth…
  • Cyber-bullying (there have been cases of bullied and harassed children and young adults driven to suicide by their peers.
  • The proliferation and availability of pornography and other sexually explicit materials
  • Sexting and other inappropriate uses of mobile and other technologies…
  • Technology as a distraction (I know it happens to me more often than I care to admit)
  • The danger that people will get caught up in living virtual lives and lose out one or neglect real life and real relationships…
  • The loss of real friendship (or so some feel…) due to social media…
  • Technology addition (brieflydiscuss the recent NY Times article, other articles discussing students being addicted to technology)
  • How to deal with Hacking, phishing, viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, etc.“‘We can’t make the awareness of Web issues solely person- and relationship-centered,’ said Joseph Turow, a professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. ‘Children should learn things like what a cookie or a Web virus is, and how corporations profit from tracking consumers online,’ he said” (NY Times).
  • Accessibility issues with the use of certain technologies, failing to use technology in ways that are accessible to those with handicaps, using technologies that help those with handicaps
  • Ownership and intellectual property issues (mash-ups, protecting students’ rights, file sharing a la napster, etc.)
  • Dealing with a deluge of data and technologies as well as needing to address the credibility of sources, etc.
  • With the increase of bombardment of media and advertising, there is a need for Media Literacy…
  • Why using Technology? (do students need to know, are we using the appropriate technologies to help them learn, i.e., forms of educational malpractice)
  • We don’t want to be guilty of educational malpractice. Deciding to use technology, for the right reasons, is like giving proper health care. We would be derelict in our duties if we purposely remained ignorant of advances that could benefit students or fail to offer the help that is needed.
  • Peterson and Seligman (2004) described a model of character that included six virtues, each consisting of a variety of character strengths:Wisdom and knowledge, which the authors described as “cognitive strengths that entail the acquisition and use of knowledge” (p. 29). They included five character strengths of wisdom and knowledge: (a) creativity, (b) curiosity, (c) open-mindedness, (d) love of learning, and (e) perspective.Courage, which they described as “emotional strength that involves the exercise of will to accomplish goals in the face of opposition, external or internal” (p. 29). The authors included four strengths as part of courage: (a) bravery, (b) persistence, (c) integrity, and (d) vitality.Humanity, which they defined as “interpersonal strengths that involve tending and befriending others” (p. 29). The authors included three strengths as part of humanity, (a) love, (b) kindness, and (c) social intelligence.Justice, which they described as “civic strengths that underlie healthy community life” (p. 30). The authors included three strengths as part of justice: (a) citizenship, (b) fairness, and (c) leadership.Temperance, which is comprised of “strengths that protect against excess” (p. 30), such as (a) forgiveness and mercy, (b) humility and modesty, (c) prudence, and (d) self-regulation.Transcendence, or “strengths that forge connections to the larger universe and provide meaning” (p. 30). The authors included four strengths as part of transcendence: (a) appreciation of beauty and excellence, (b) gratitude, (c) hope, (d) humor, and (e) spirituality.
  • Performance Character or “mastery orientation” (p. 373) leading one to realize his or her “potential for excellence in any performance environment, such as academics, extracurricular activities, the workplace, and throughout life” (p. 373). Performance character includes, but is not limited to, attributes such as:
  • Moral Character or “relational orientation” (p. 373) which has a moderating role in that it helps individuals direct their performance goals to “honor the interests of others, to ensure that we do not violate moral values such as fairness, honesty, and caring in the pursuit of high performance” (p. 374). It consists of qualities that assist individuals in their interpersonal relationships and ethical conduct, which include, but are not limited to:
  • Based on Peterson and Seligman (2004) and others, Davidson et al. (2008) recommended helping students achieve eight foundational developmental outcomes of character education. [A student should become a]:
  • Moral Character or “relational orientation” (p. 373) which has a moderating role in that it helps individuals direct their performance goals to “honor the interests of others, to ensure that we do not violate moral values such as fairness, honesty, and caring in the pursuit of high performance” (p. 374). It consists of qualities that assist individuals in their interpersonal relationships and ethical conduct, which include, but are not limited to:
  • Providing students with the right kinds of technology that enhance educationTake appropriate responsibility for technology useDetermining usage policies (is Banning Social Media a moral or ethical choice?)Privacy (protecting student records, cases of schools using technology to spy on students, etc.)Keeping in mind the goals of education (are they purely vocational?)Providing educational opportunities and resources to previously underserved populations (Other issues??
  • Although I think there are a variety of ways to address them that can work…
  • TPACK can help with guiding and integrating technology appropriately, but it may not fully address all moral issues…
  • Can these elements apply to technology

Transcript

  • 1. Moral Implications of Education in a Digital World
    TTIX 2010
    Salt Lake City, UT
    June 10, 2010
    Michael C. Johnson
  • 2. Back channel on Twitter
    #moraledtech
    & use conference hashtag
    #ttix10
  • 3. Are there moral implications/considerations when teaching and learning with technology??
  • 4. What makes teaching a moral endeavor is that it is, quite centrally, human action undertaken in regard to other human beings. Thus, matters of what is fair, right, just, and virtuous are always present.
    (Fenstermacher, 1990, p. 133 as cited in Osguthorpe, R. T. et al., 2003)
  • 5. Using technology in education actually increases or enhances those “human actions taken in regard to other humans”
    Wonderlane. “Student and Teacher.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/wonderlane/37531816/.
    Edenpictures. “Eden Through the Looking Glass.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/edenpictures/3460562429/.
    Frerieke. “Day 58_a reveiling day.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/frerieke/3313869283/.
    Vancouver Film School. “Foundation Visual Art & Design – Life Drawing class.” Flckr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/vancouverfilmschool/4423008460/.
    USACE Europe District. “Yes we can: USACE employees help students manage can construction project.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/europedistrict/4419592724/.
    Frerieke. “funny things on my laptop?” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/frerieke/3354048198/.
  • 6. Technology Changes Roles
    Student becomes a teacher
    Teachers become students
    Mott & Wiley, 2009
    As our roles changes, our responsibilities towards each other change… Doesn’t this imply some moral issues?
  • 7. Some are tempted to think of life in cyberspace as insignificant, as escape or meaningless diversion. It is not. Our experiences there are serious play. We belittle them at our risk. We must understand the dynamics of virtual experience both to foresee who might be in danger and to put these experiences to best use. Without a deep understanding of the many selves that we express in the virtual we cannot use our experiences to enrich the real. If we cultivate our awareness of what stands behind our screen personae, we are more likely to succeed in using virtual experience for personal transformation.
    Turkle, 1995, p. 268 as cited in James, et al., 2008
  • 8. What are some of the moral challenges or concerns for students?
  • 9. Jarvey, Dean (dmjarvey). “I Swear, He Is Texting Everywhere He Goes (2).” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/28009451@N03/4512714161/.
  • 10. J_O_I_D. “cyb-bullying-hd.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/winning-information/2314384136/.
  • 11. Shainsky, Jack (ifyr). “Working at home.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ifyr/70594643/.
  • 12. X
    X
    X
  • 13. De Los Reyes, Paul (Noize Photography). “Texting! =O.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/noizephotography/3223125310/.
  • 14. English 106. “facebook.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/english106/4357227835/.
  • 15. Hicks, Michael (Mulad). “img_1256.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mulad/4419275082/.
  • 16. Kontokanis, Andreas (karpidis). “Facebook GAP.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/karpidis/2454706500/.
  • 17. Gonzalo BaezaHernández. No title. http://www.flickr.com/photos/gonzalobaeza/4096838046/in/photostream/
    Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS. “A close up of a young woman snorting cocaine during the 1920s.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/foxtongue/3128716789/.
  • 18. Farrant, Tiffany (GDS Digital). “Riskiest US online cities.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/gdsdigital/4514262654/.
  • 19. “‘We can’t make the awareness of Web issues solely person- and relationship-centered,’ said Joseph Turow, a professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. ‘Children should learn things like what a cookie or a Web virus is, and how corporations profit from tracking consumers online,’ he said” (NY Times).
  • 20. Ozvold, Jeff (ozvoldjj). “University of Oregon.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeffozvold/2253108077/.
  • 21. Seyfang, Mike (MikeBlogs). “Copyright Symbols.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikeblogs/3020966268/.
  • 22. Zanarini, Pietro (zipckr). “Web 2.0 icons.” Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/zipckr/3925513417/.
    Michael C. Johnson. “Teaching with Technology Google Search Results”
  • 23. PascalePirateChickan. “89/365 aaAAAaaaaAhhHhHhHh!!” flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/piratechickan/2965571299/.
  • 24. What are other moral considerations and implications should we be concerned about ?
  • 25. Learning in a Networked World
    Will there be appropriate amounts of help/feedback available to students? For us learners (in professional development)?
    Will we and our students be willing to reciprocate and offer appropriate levels of help/feedback to others
    Are we sensitive to other’s needs and feeling, or simply seeing our own self interest?
  • 26. Professional Preparation
    • Preparing students adequately for the world of work (to be able to use technology that they will need to)
    Promoting creativity?
    Promoting problem solving (for moral ends or do we foster self-serving individuals)?
  • 27. Learning to Learn
    • Do we help students not only learn how to locate information and resources (including human resources)?
    • 28. How to evaluate resources that will be most helpful?
    • 29. Do we help them learn strategies to learn new knowledge?
    • 30. Do we help them learn how to apply knowledge?
    • 31. Etc.?
  • We teach them in order that they may soon not need our teaching…We must aim at making ourselves superfluous. The hour when we can say ‘They need me no longer’ should be our reward.
    Lewis (1991, p. 50)
  • 32. Moral Reasons to Use Technology
    Failure to use technology that would benefit the student
    Technology that would help them learn
    Technology that is part of their field/content area
    Use of technology that is not in the best interest of our students
  • 33. YuyaTamai. “injection”. Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/tamaiyuya/180619143/
    Educational Malpractice?
  • 34. Moral and Character Outcomes
    • Has using technology made us lose our moral compass?
    Consideration of other’s feelings
    Promoting character outcomes and moral development?
  • 35. We need educated men and women who not only pursue their own personal interests but are also prepared to fulfill their social and civic obligations.
    (Boyer, 1998 p. 7)
  • 36. Peterson and Seligman’s (2004) Character Strengths and Virtues
    Wisdom and knowledge
    Courage
    Humanity
    Justice
    Temperance
    Transcendence
  • 37. Davidson, Lickona, and Khmelkov’s (2008) Moral Character and Performance Character
    Performance Character:
  • Davidson, Lickona, and Khmelkov’s (2008) Moral Character and Performance Character
    Moral Character:
  • Davidson, Lickona, and Khmelkov’s (2008) Moral Character and Performance Character
    A student should become a:
    lifelong learner and critical thinker;
    diligent and capable performer;
    socially and emotionally skilled person;
    ethical thinker;
    respectful and responsible moral agent;
    self-disciplined person who pursues a healthy life-style;
    contributing community member and democratic citizen; and
    spiritual person engaged in crafting a life of noble purpose. (p. 379)
  • 47. R. T. Osguthorpe (2009)
  • Institutional Issues
    Providing students with the right kinds of technology that enhance education
    Responsibility
    Usage Policies
    Privacy
    Keeping in mind the goals of education (are they purely vocational?)
    • Providing educational opportunities and resources to previously underserved populations
    • 49. Other issues??
  • How do we address these perils and other considerations ?
  • 50. I am not sure… but here are a few ideas that might be applicable!
  • 51. TPACK
    Source: http://tpack.org
  • 52. Howard Gardner’s Ethical Fault Lines
    identity (how do you present yourself online?);
    privacy (the world can see everything you write);
    ownership (plagiarism, reproducing creative work);
    credibility (legitimate sources of information); and
    community (interacting with others).
    James, et al., 2008
  • 53. Courtesy Policy
    “Generally, courtesy means we interact with one another in positive, respectful ways”
    (Frey & Fisher, 2008)
  • 54. Berkowitz & Fekula (1999)Five Elements of Postsecondary Character Education
    1. Teaching about character (morality, ethics, and so forth)
    Ethics across the curriculum, Espoused values, Guest speakers, symposia, and so forth, Publications
    2. Displaying character
    Role-modeling, Institutional policies and behavior
    3. Demanding character
    Academic standards, Behavior standards, Enforcement policies and behavior
    4. Apprenticeship, or practicing character
    Democratic governance, Community service, Experiential learning
    5. Reflecting on character
    Service learning, Mentors, Journals
  • 55. Additional Perspectives
    Teaching in Moral Ways: Pure intent, sincere effort, willingness to change on part of teacher and learner (Osguthorpe, R.T. & Osguthorpe, R. D.,2000)
    Consciousness of Craft, of Membership, of Sacrifice, of Memory, of Imagination (Green, 1999)
  • 56. Additional Perspectives
    Moral Reasoning – Kohlberg
    Level 1. Preconventional Morality (Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation, Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange),  Level II. Conventional Morality (Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships, Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order) Level III. Postconventional Morality (Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights, Stage 6: Universal Principles)
    Post-Kohlbergian Moral Development (Bebeau, Rest, and Narvaez, 1999)
    moral sensitivity, moral judgment, and moral motivation, and moral character
  • 57. Additional Perspectives
    Golden Rule/Silver Rule
    Levinas Hypostasis: “putting the other first” and “being-for-the-other,” (Inouye, Merrill, & Swan, 2005)
  • 58. Additional Perspectives
    Possible Applications of (Johnson, et al., 2010)
    Don’t ignore moral/character issues in content (or related to the tools you use)
    Engage students in meaningful conversation
    Establish a positive relationship with students
    Invite students to apply what they are learning and to use their agency to make good choices.
  • 59. “We must become the change we wish to see”
    Gandhi
  • 60. Questions?Comments?SuggestionsConcerns?Complaints?
    Twitter: @michaelcjohnson
    email:michaelcjohnson@yahoo.com
    diigo:http://www.diigo.com/user/michaelcjohnson/%22moral+considerations%22
  • 61. References
    Balmert, M.E., & Ezzell, M.H. (2002). Leading learning by assuring distance instructional technology is an ethical enterprise. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Adult Higher Education Alliance, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Berkowitz, M.W. (2002). The science of character education. In W. Damon (Ed.), Bringing in a new era in character education (pp. 43–63). Stanford, CA: Hoover Press.
    Berkowitz, M.W., & Fekula, M.J. (1999). Educating for character. About Campus, 4(5), 17–22.
    Bebeau, M. J., Rest, J. R., & Narvaez, D. (1999). Beyond the promise: A perspective on research in moral education. Educational Researcher, 28(4), 18-26.
    Boyer, E. L. (1987). College: The undergraduate experience in America. New York: HarperCollins (Harper & Row).
    Bugeja, Michael J. (2009). Reduce the Technology, Rescue Your Job. Chronicle of Higher Education, 56(12), A36-A38
  • 62. References
    Clifford, . (April 8, 2010). Teaching about web includes troublesome parts. New York Times. Retrieved April, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/09/education/09cyberkids.html?partner=rss&emc=rss
    Davidson, M., Lickona, T., & Khmelkov, V. (2008). Smart & good schools: A new paradigm for high school character education. In L.P. Nucci (Ed.), Handbook of moral and character education. New York: Routledge.
    Frey, N. & Fisher D. (2008). Doing the right thing with technology. English Journal, 97(6), 38-42.
    Gismondi, A. (2006). The downside of the Internet: Cheating and technology in higher education. Journal of College and Character 7(5). Retrieved March 10, 2010 from http://journals.naspa.org/jcc/vol7/iss5/5/
    Green, T. F. (1999). Voices: The educational formation of conscience. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame Press.
    Inouye, D. K., Merrill, P. F., & Swan, R. H. (2005). Help: Toward a new ethics-centered paradigm for instructional design and technology. IDT Record. Retrieved September 25, 2006 from http://www.indiana.edu/~idt/articles/documents/Inouye_print_version.pdf
  • 63. References
    James, C., Davis, K., Flores, A., Francis, J. M. , Pettingill, L., Rundle, M., & Gardner, H. (February, 2008). Young People, Ethics, and the New Digital Media: A Synthesis from the Good Play Project . GoodWork® Project Report Series, Number 54, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved June 8, 2010 from http://pzweb.harvard.edu/ebookstore/pdfs/goodwork54.pdf
    Johnson, M. J., Osguthorpe, R. D., & Williams, D. D. (2010). Pedagogical considerations that may encourage character development in a distance education course. Journal of College and Character 11(2). Retrieved April 30, 2010 from http://journals.naspa.org/jcc/vol11/iss2/11/
    Lewis, C.S. (1965). The abolition of man or reflections on education with special reference to the teaching of English in the upper forms of schools. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
    Lewis, C.S. (1996). The screwtape letters (Revised ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Lickona, T., & Davidson, M. (2005). Smart & good high schools: Integrating excellence and ethics for success in school, work, and beyond. Cortland, NY: Center for the 4th and 5th Rs (Respect & Responsibility), Washington, D.C.: Character Education Partnership.
  • 64. References
    Osguthorpe, R.D. (2009). On the possible forms a relationship might take between the moral character of a teacher and the moral development of a student. Teachers College Record, 111(1). Retrieved April 4, 2008, from http://www.tcrecord.org.
    Osguthorpe, R. T., (2009). Power of Teaching Seminar, October 15, 2009. Video available at http://education.byu.edu/media/watch/345
    Osguthorpe, R. T., Osguthorpe, R. D. Jacob, W. J., Davies, R. (2003). Moral dimensions of instructional design. Educational Technology, 43(2), 19-23.
    Osguthorpe, R. T., Osguthorpe, R. D. (2000). Learning to be Good while Becoming Good at Learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April, 2000.
    Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the internet. New York: Simon And Schuster.
  • 65. Image Works Cited
    Image Bibliography (in order of appearance)
    Most Images used under Creative Commons Attribute License, attribution is on each image, except:
    Society Super CalaFragalistic. “Digital World.” Students of the World. http://www.studentsoftheworld.info/sites/society/img/27319_ist2_1804351_digital_world_globe.jpg.
    Slide 14: Distracted Driving cartoon by Jeff Parker, Florida Today at http://CagleCartoons.com