The green parrot
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The green parrot

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YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE (You have a link on the first slide): ...

YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE (You have a link on the first slide):
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Colors are defined as “the attempt of light to become visible.” They act as a kind of veil through which the colorless light can be perceived. Hence colors have always played a symbolic role in religion, poetry, and daily life. That is true for Islam and Persian culture, as for other areas of human understanding.

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  • Muchas muchas gracias Juão por tu lindo comentario y por agregar a sus favorites mi presentación.Me alegro ( !!!!!) de que te gustara. GRACIAS
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  • Very interesting artistic and psychological study about colours in Persian literature. Some Information like these always make all the difference in your presentations, Michaela! Thank you very much for that, too! Extremely poetic the definition of colours as ’the attempt of light to become visible’. Love it!
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  • Thank you Carina and Johndemi for adding to your favorites the 'Colors in Iranian literature'. Thanks
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  • Thanks Judy for your visit and TIME! Thanks, I'm sooo glad you are back!
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  • What an interesting way to define colors by using these beautiful birds.We have lots of these birds in Australia ,the only way we define them is beautiful and colorful...........
    Thank you Michaela,,,,,,an interesting presentation.
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  • All the parrots living in Iran are considered introduced as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions. What is nice is that one parrot from Iran (there are 335 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Iran) have the name Alexandrine (Alexandrian Parrot) named after Alexander the Great, who is credited with the exporting of numerous specimens of this bird from Punjab into various European and Mediterranean countries and regions, where they were considered prized possessions for the nobles and royalty. The birds of the hotel in Yazd are Two macaws of the Ara genus - a Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), and a Blue-and-gold Macaw (Ara ararauna). The Scarlet Macaw is native to humid evergreen forests in the American tropics, eastern Mexico, Amazonian Peru and Brazil. The Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), also known as the Blue-and-Gold Macaw, breeds in forest (especially varzea, but also in open sections of Terra Firme) and woodland of tropical South America from Trinidad and Venezuela south to Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. It extends slightly into Central America, where it is restricted to Panama. Sure they are introduced in Iran as a consequence of human actions. The pictures of colored birds in my presentation was only a pretext for the story about colors in Persian literature.
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  • As a meeting of living masters, this collaboration between legendary vocalist Mohammed Reza Shajarian, his multi-instrumentalist/apprentice singer son, Homayoun, kamancheh (spike fiddle) virtuoso Kayhan Kalhor plus Hossein Alizadeh, a noted exponent of the tar (lute) would be hard to top. Thus, it is not surprising that their recent USA tours were routinely sold out or that their debut album, Without You, was nominated for a 2003 Grammy. The tradition these artists so peerlessly exemplify is drawn from medieval Persian court music and Sufi devotional poetry. Intricate melodies flow outward from ancient modal tunings as the scratchy violin, rumbling tombak (a goblet-shaped frame drum) and plangent plucked strings alternatively mirror, augment and embark from Shajarian Senior¹s plaintive, soaring, preternaturally fluid flights of improvisation. That the performances were captured live under ideal sonic circumstances transmits all the immediacy of witnessing epochal interpretations as they flower from seed to deliriously fragrant full bloom


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  • 2. Yazd was visited by Marco Polo in 1272, who described it as a good and noble city and remarked its silk production. Isolated from any approach by a huge tract of monotonous desert, the vibrancy of Yard is invariably a surprise. După ce a vizitat oraşul în 1272 Marco Polo l-a descris ca „bun şi nobil”, remarcând în special producţia sa de mătase. Strălucirea oraşului nu poate să nu te surprindă pentru că drumul monotonRecognized by UNESCO as holding one of the prin deşert până aici esteoldest architecture all over the world dezolant Internet images
  • 3. Created within the garden andpavilions of a Qajar nobleman, theMoshir Al-Mamalek Garden Hotel is afine example of the traditionalarchitectural style of Yazd.
  • 4. Colors are defined as “the attempt of light tobecome visible.” They act as a kind of veilthrough which the colorless light can beperceived.Hence colors have always played a symbolicrole in religion, poetry, and daily life.
  • 5. Neẓāmī’s Haft peykar is doubtlessly the most fascinating expression of the “spirit”of colors in Persian literature, and other poets, in particular Ḵāqānī, have skillfullycombined allusions to and description of various colors.
  • 6. The three basic colors are white, black, andred, although black and white are not hues inthe technical sense. Yet they perfectly serveto express the contrasts between good,pure, radiant, on one hand, and evil, dark,and dangerous, on the other.
  • 7. The importance of white is clear from theKoran where it is related, as it was in ancientArabia, to goodness and nobility. Theequation of white with noble was known inPersia and in Turkish areas as well.
  • 8. The miracle of Moses’ “white hand” becamein Persian and related traditions the symbol ofprophetic power, the power of love, andtransformation through love
  • 9. On the other hand, black is connected with theblack looks and black faces of the sinners onDoomsday.
  • 10. To blacken a culprit’s face was a common punishment,for sīāh-rū “black-faced” meant “dishonored.”
  • 11. The saying that poverty, faqr,means to be “blackfaced inboth worlds” was sometimesinterpreted as pointing to thebeauty spot that averts theevil eye from the lover’s face
  • 12. Black, being the color of misfortune, acommon Persian expression is “thereis no color beyond black.”
  • 13. Black color is often connected withnonconformism and rebellion. Nāṣer-e Ḵosrowcompared the black crow to the Abbasids whousurped Fāṭema’s inheritance.
  • 14. Black can be softened to dark blue or violet(the reason why hyacinths usually representthe black curls of the beloved). More frequentis the change to dark blue, the color ofmourning and asceticism; hence the tendencyamong Sufis to wear dark-blue garments.
  • 15. The violet is connected with a pious asceticon the green prayer rug of the lawn, while thedark-blue sky is frequently characterized as ablue-clad ascetic who acts treacherously.
  • 16. Blue is a negative color,connected with blue eyes; theirevil has to be repelled by wearingblue beads.
  • 17. On the other hand, red carries all the power ofblood and energy. It is the color of the redā al-kebrīā, the divine cloak of glory, under which someSufis, for example, Rūzbehān Baqlī Šīrāzī,experienced the divine presence.
  • 18. Red is connected with activity and strengthbut also with wrath, and a Sufi who radiatespower is called sorḵpūš (red-mantled).
  • 19. Bridal dresses are often red, signifying lifeand fertility; therefore the rose may appearas a bride dressed in red. But red may alsobe the color of martyrs, and the tulip canwear the martyrs’ bloodstained cloak.
  • 20. Sorḵ-rū, “red faced,” is another term for “honorable”in Aṭṭār’s moving story of Ḥallāj’s rubbing thebleeding stumps of his arms over his face in orderto color his pale cheeks and become truly sorḵ-rū.
  • 21. Precious objects were often called lal “ruby,” and inthe verse of such poets as Mīrzā Ḡāleb (d.1286/1869) the colors of wine, roses, flames, andblood are developed into one large fabric of redhues.
  • 22. Whereas energetic red is the color of thebeloved, the lover is pale and yellow likestraw, experiencing the attraction of thekahrobā (amber, lit. “straw robber”). Yellowbile is visible in all kinds of ailments fromwhich the longing lover suffers until hebecomes “golden,” like metal, in the crucibleof love. A different shade of yellow, visible inautumnal leaves, reminded poets likeFarroḵī, Nāṣer-e Ḵosrow, and Ḵāqānī of theyellow robes or patches worn by Jews.
  • 23. In contrast to red and yellow, greenis the color of life-giving water and ofthe plants that appear as signs oflife. It can therefore be legitimatelyconnected with resurrection orparadise, where the blessed rest ongreen pillows and wear green silk.“The ones who wear the green”(sabzpūš) are either the inhabitantsof paradise and the spiritual world orthe angels who convey good tidingsto human beings.The green parrot, too, is in a certainway connected with heavenlyintelligence, contrary to the blackcrow.
  • 24. Green has been connected with the ProphetMoḥammad and Islam, and in Sufi lore it isthe color that appears on higher stages ofthe mystical path. In Semnānī’s Sufism,however, it is the color that is reached oncethe Sufi has passed through the “black light”and emerges at the emerald mountain, thesymbol of divine proximity and eternalduration, baqā. This association is all themore fitting as the green emerald wasconsidered to have healing powers and toblind the eyes of serpents and dragons: Themystical guide was thus sometimescompared to such a wondrous emerald.
  • 25. As central as colors were in life and poetry, still theobservers knew that they were veils, or vessels(which color the water according to their own hue),and that to change color meant also to changeone’s character: Rūmī’s story of the jackal whojumped into a dyeing vat in order to reach a higherrank is a good example of this view. The final goalis “the vat of unicoloricity,” usually referred to bythe Koranic term ṣebḡat Allāh (Sura 2:138) “thecoloring of God.”
  • 26. God is compared to a dyerwho finally dyes everything inhis own color, that is, theinvisible, radiant light, and,once this state has beenreached, color distinctions arebound to disappear.
  • 27. Iran Text: COLOR symbolism in Persian literature - Encyclopædia Iranica Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Arangement: Sanda Foişoreanu Masters of Persian Music - Avaz va Saz