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On the southern outskirts of                                                    Yazd, there are two hilltop               ...
Zoroastrians have always been populous inYazd. Even now roughly ten percent of thetowns population adhere to this ancientr...
The guardian of the sitePaznicul turnurilor tăcerii
Constructions for ritual death and mourning customsConstrucţii destinate ceremoniilor şi ritualurilor de pregătire şi jeli...
In the Iranian Zoroastrian tradition, the towers were built atop hills orlow mountains in desert locations distant from po...
A Tower of Silence or Dakhma is a circular, raised structure used by Zoroastrians for exposure of the dead.Turnurile tăcer...
In the early twentieth century, the IranianZoroastrians gradually discontinued their useand began to favor burial or crema...
The term "Tower of Silence" is a neologism attributed to Robert Murphy, who, in 1832, was a translator of the British colo...
Yazd with the area of 131,551 km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, ...
Until this custom was forbidden in 1970, the Zoroastrians exposed their dead to the birds in "towers of silence“ (dakhmeh)...
There are two towers near Yazd, built in the nineteenth century according to a design from India, where many Zoroastrians ...
Although the towers date back to the nineteenth century, the custom to expose the dead on towers is mentioned in the lateS...
The towers, which are fairly uniform in their construction, have an almostflat roof, with the perimeter being slightly hig...
The custom to expose the dead on mountain summits still exists in modern Tibet, where it is called an "air burial”Obiceiul...
Inside the round walls at the top of the male Tower we found a circular hollow where thebodies were laid out for the birds...
At the base of the towers were a covered well and few buildings for the family of the dead to prepareand wash the body and...
concrete lined graves in the small graveyard near the Towers
The towers have not been used since the 1970s when the citys Muslim rulers decreed that havingbodies left around to be eat...
Houses of priests and nasasalarsAt the funeral ceremony, two priests in paiwand, that is, connected to each other by a whi...
Houses of priests and nasasalars
The after-life ceremonies reflect the doctrinal principals of the faith and the laws of purity are strictly adhered to, as...
Houses of priests and nasasalarsCasele preoţilor şi a cioclilor (singurii care mai aveauvoie să atingă mortul după ce aces...
Houses of priests and nasasalars
The semi-circular brick lined dome, visually much alike a Buddhist stupa, isa Water reservoirs, or ab anbar, as it is loca...
Zoroastrians believe that the sun, with its life-giving quality, has the powerful effect of destroying pollutants and disi...
DEATH, in Zoroastrianism, is seen as the temporary triumph of the Evil Spirit Ahriman whoseinherent nature, according to t...
Iran                                         Text: Internet                                         Pictures: Sanda Foişor...
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
Yazd, towers of silence2
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On the southern outskirts of Yazd, there are two hilltop circular building, known as Dakhmeh-ye-Zartushtioon or Towers of Silence. To preclude the pollution of earth or fire, the bodies of the dead are placed atop a tower—a tower of silence—and so exposed to the sun and to birds of prey. Thus, "putrefaction with all its concomitant evils... is most effectually prevented.“

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  • Înafară de caravanseraiele de tip DrumulMătăsii Yazd-ulesteşicentrulreligieizoroastriene, probabil, prima religiemonoteistă a lumii, religiavechilorperşi. Dupăcucerireaarabăşiimpunereaislamismului, în Iran au supravieţuitcredincioşi de-ailuiAhura Mazda pânăînziua de astăzi. E drept, au existatşiperioade de restrişteînurmacăroramulţi au emigrat, mai ales în India, la Mumbai sau Gujarat undesuntcunoscuţi sub numele de "parşi", mulţiajungândbogaţişicelebri. Printreceimaifaimoşiparşisuntfamilia Tata, Feroze Gandhi, soţulIndirei Gandhi, Rattanbai Petit, soţiafondatoruluiPakistanului Muhammad Ali Jinnah, darşi Freddie Mercury. În Iran, maiexistăcomunităţizoroastriene care îşipăstreazăcredinţelereligioase, darceimaimulţidintreeisuntconcentraţiîn Yazd unde se aflădoua din ultimele (dacă nu ultimele) Turnuri ale Tăcerii, undezoroastrieniierauaşezaţidupămoarte. Zoroastrianismuleste o religiefoarteecologistă, una din principalelelorpreocupăriestesă nu polueze. De aceea nu suntîngropaţipentru a nu poluapământulşiniciarşi, pentru a nu poluafocul, aşa ca dupămoarte, corpurilelorsuntlăsatevulturilorpentru a-idevora.Iran, pe drumul mătăsii - Ep. 12: Yazd, ca pe vremea caravanelor...travel.descopera.ro/8221763-Iran-pe-drumul-matasii-Ep-12-Yazd-ca...
  • The funeral ceremony (geh sarnu) is performed within the main hall of the bungli. After the funeral ceremony, the body is carried on an iron bier on foot to the tower, by an even number of corpse bearers (nasasalars). The two officiating priests lead the procession of family and friends, all walking, in pairs to maintain ritual contact (paiwand), towards the tower, to pay their last respects to the deceased. Only Zoroastrians are permitted to participate in this ritual processionthe house set aside for ceremonies related to the afterlife. For the poor, a house in each residential area was exclusively set aside for the same purpose. This was known as a nasa-khana, the house for receiving dead bodies.
  • With the expansion of cities, it became increasingly difficult to carry the body for long distances on foot to the site of a tower, while still maintaining laws of ritual purity. With the onset of high-rise structures, the requirement of having to perform all ceremonies on the ground floor, was difficult to conform to, * * *Since it is essential to sustain birds of prey in the functioning of the Towers of Silence, it becomes important in urban areas to maintain densely forested land. The mandatory stay of four days at the complex permits one to come to terms with the loss of a loved one, without having to concern oneself with daily affairs. The precise design and structure of a Zoroastrian dakhma amply prevents pollution or any dead matter from afflicting the Good Creations of Ahura Mazda and is also symbolic of the triumph of Good over Evil.
  • CONCEPŢIA DESPRE MOARTE LA ZOROASTRIENI- Potrivit acestei religii, sufletul mortului rămâne lângă trup timp de 3 zile, crezând că trupul îşi va reveni şi va putea fi reanimat la viaţă. Demonul Vizarş stă de faţă, dar nu poate să privească lumina, de aceea se ţine permanent o lumină aprinsă. Trupurile nu se înmormântează, ci se depun în “turnurile tăcerii”, dakhmas, unde va fi devorat de către vulturi. Aceste turnuri sunt nişte construcţii circulare cu trei nivele, pavate cu piatră, în mijlocul cărora se află o groapă. La nivelul superior sunt depuse trupurile bărbaţilor, la cel de mijloc, trupurile femeilor iar la cel de jos, cele ale copiilor. Preotul taie cu o foarfecă hainele celui decedat iar vulturii le consumă foarte repede. De ce aceste trupuri sunt lăsate astfel? Pentru faptul că se crede că trupul celui mort devine sălaşul demonilor lui Angra Mainyu, şi deci este necesar ca aceste trupuri să nu mai poată face rău celor vii prin demonizarea lor. Cu toate acestea se întâlneşte şi practica înhumării, ca urmare a influenţelor din partea popoarelor vecine.
  • The after-life ceremonies reflect the doctrinal principals of the faith and the laws of purity are strictly adhered to, as any form of impurity is allied to the Evil Spirit. Hence, after the ritual bath is administered to the corpse, no person, except the nasalars (corpse-bearers) are allowed to touch the corpse for reasons of ritual contamination. All the prayers and rituals are geared and directed to keep at bay the corpse demon, which attacks the body. The body is placed upon three flat stone slabs, for the funeral ceremony, and a rectangular shallow line of sand is laid around it to cordon it off, ritually from the living attending the funeral ceremony.
  • Apoi sufletul ia drumul spre împărăţia de dincolo, ajungând la un pod imens peste o prăpastie mare. Înainte de a trece peste Podul Cinvat sufletul este cântărit într-o balanţă, unde faptele omului sunt cele care înclină talerele balanţei. Dacă faptele bune sunt mai multe sufletul va trece spre “Împărăţia cântecelor – Garonman (sau Garo-Demana). Pentru cel rău, iadul (Drujo-Demana) este plata lui. Podul Cinvat se lărgeşte pentru ca cel bun să poată trece pe el iar pentru cel rău el se face ca o lamă de cuţit pentru ca păcătosul să cadă în prăpastia infernului. După cele 3 zile sufletul este întâmpinat de conştiinţa sa, care dacă omul a fost virtuos, îi apare ca o fecioară (daena) foarte frumoasă iar dacă el a fost păcătos ea i se arată ca o bătrână foarte urâtă. Dacă faptele sunt egale sufletul trece în hamestagan (“locuinţa greutăţilor egale”), care este un fel de purgatoriu. Judecata se face în prezenţa zeului Mithra, a lui Sraosha şi Rashnu.
  • Ritul de înmormântare este foarte interesant: doi preoţi îi recită muribundului la ureche rugăciuni. Dacă muribundul poate să recite şi el aceste rugăciuni, era sigur că acesta nu va merge în iad. Apoi i se dădeau câteva picături de haoma (element euharistic). Cadavrul era spălat cu şi îmbrăcat cu o haină albă. Se făcea apoi sărutarea mortului de către rude, după care apoi nimeni nu mai avea voie să se atingă de mort, decât cioclii. Trupul era pus jos pe o năsălie şi era adus un câine ca să miroase mortul, pentru a-l alunga pe Nasu, demonul morţilor. Ritul “privirii câinelui” se repeta de mai multe ori. După depunerea mortului în dakhmas, membrii familiei trebuiau să facă o baie şi timp de 3 zile să nu mănânce carne. În ziua a patra se aduceau ofrande şi se făceau rugăciuni, deoarece se credea că sufletul se află în faţa lui Mithra pentru a-i fi puse în balanţă faptele sale. Nu era îngăduit să se plângă la morţi. Se făceau apoi slujbe de pomenire a sufletului la 10 zile, la 30 şi anual.
  • ESHATONULEshatonul este legat de mesianismul lui Saoshiant, care este fiul postum al lui Zarathustra sau o reîncarnare a acestuia. După prima variantă el s-ar naşte dintr-o fecioară, care se scaldă într-un lac pur, în care se află rămasă sămânţa lui Zoroastru şi aşa se auto-fecundează cu ea.Saoshiant este mesia al lumii, care va veni în lume la lupta finală dintre Ahura Mazda şi Angra Mainyu. Atunci va începe şi judecata de apoi şi marea bătălie dintre cele două puteri finale. Saoshyant va veni din Orient, ca un salvator încoronat cu 12 stele şi înconjurat de armata eroilor antici înviaţi (tema sfinţilor înviaţi). Opera lui de restaurare va dura 57 de zile. Atunci când va apărea Saoshyant din cer va cădea pe pământ steaua Gurz-sehr, care va incendia lumea şi pământul va deveni un râu de lavă. Toţi vor învia şi va trebui să treacă prin acest râu. Pentru cei drepţi râul se va transforma într-un râu de lapte răcoritor în vreme ce pentru cei răi el va fi un râu de lavă metalică încinsă. Abia după ce va pieri în acest râu şi şarpele Dahaka (tema şarpelui), va avea loc lupta finală în care Angra Mainyu va fi definitiv distrus.Restabilirea finală, Frashkart, este starea de fericire şi de armonie perfectă în împărăţia lui Ahura Mazda.
  • The Universal Ethician Church in association with the Parsi (Zoroastrian) Community is in the process of planning for the construction of a TOWER OF SILENCE on the shores of Lake Livingston in E. Texas.The Ethician Church has long supported the sacred custom of "Sky Burial" in which the dead are consumed by Vultures and other birds of prey.The practice is totally sanitary and prevents the spread of disease.The only problem at this point is the possibility that because pharmaceutical companies are producing more and more biochemical concoctions, man-made toxins in human bodies might harm the Vultures as has occurred in the Indian sub-continent.Before the Vultures that inhabit The Holy Trinity Wilderness Cathedral are allowed to consume the dead, toxicology studies will be performed to determine which humans will be safe to consume.
  • Iranian royalty, however, followed a system of embalming the body and laying it in a tomb chamber constructed on a free-standing stone plinth like that of Cyrus' tomb, at Pasargadae, or cut into a rock face as seen at Takht-i Jamshed and Naqsh-i Rustam. These were massive rock escarpments, which were cut into, to form the final resting place of the kings of Iran ...
  • Every year, the souls and spirits of the departed Zoroastrians are invited back for a 10-day festival. (Av. Hamaspathmaedaya, Guj. Muktad) which immediately precedes the Zoroastrian New Year . A room in the fire temple or at home is set aside for the muktad ceremony, in which tables with vases of flowers are placed. A fire is kept burning for all 10 days of the festival and special food is cooked for ritual use. For the first five days, the yasna ceremony in honour of the Yazatas Srosh and Ardafravash is performed together with the baj of Srosh and Ardafravash. During the last five days of the year, known as the Gatha days, the Gathas are recited. During muktads, the stum, baj, darun, myazd, farokshi and afrinagan ceremonies associated with the soul of the dead are performed with regularity .
  • It is believed that the fravashis of the dead rejoice in this celebration and for 10 days are said to come down to earth to participate in the ceremonies performed in their honour: "We worship the good, strong, beneficent fravashis of the righteous who come flying along from their home at the time of Hamaspathmaedaya (Muktads); ... for 10 nights desiring to know this: "Who will praise us, ... who will acknowledge us with hands outstretched holding meat the clothing with asha-attaining worship'?" On the tenth day the fravashis are ritually sent back into the spiritual world and the vases are emptied and inverted to signify the end of the festival. The tenth day is also known as Pateti. It is the last day of the Zoroastrian year and is a day set aside for the repentance of sins. The next day is celebrated as the Parsi New Year. The muktads are performed in honour of the dead for at least one generation.
  • As Zoroastrianism lays great emphasis on the laws of purity and the sacredness of the seven creations, the preferred disposal mode, as per the sacred texts is that of exposure. The corpse is placed in a tall circular tower called a dakhma (Tower of Silence), and exposed to the sky. Vultures and other birds of prey devour the body quickly and efficiently. This method of disposal is seen as an egalitarian gesture. Whether one is rich or poor, the disposal method is exactly the same. In the absence of birds of prey the body continues to be exposed to the cleansing rays of the sun (Per. Khurshed nigerishn) which are powerful enough to swiftly dry and decompose the corpse and the bones are swept into the central well of the dakhma...
  • HOWEVER, the soul of every Zoroastrian goes through the process of judgement at the "Bridge of the Separator" (Av. Chinvato Peretav). By the measure of its good thoughts, words and deeds outweighing its bad thoughts, words and deeds, the soul is drawn to the "House of Song" (Av. Garo-demana). If the soul is responsible for greater evil than good, it relegates itself to the "House of Deceit" (Av. Drujo-demana). "Heavenliness shall be the future possession of him who shall come to a truthful person (now). (But) a long lifetime of darkness, foul food, the word woe... lead you, ye deceitful ones.“
  • The after-life ceremonies reflect the doctrinal principals of the faith and the laws of purity are strictly adhered to, as any form of impurity is allied to the Evil Spirit. Hence, after the ritual bath (Guj. sachkar) is administered to the corpse, no person, except the nasalars (corpse-bearers) are allowed to touch the corpse for reasons of ritual contamination. All the prayers and rituals are geared and directed to keep at bay the corpse demon, which attacks the body. The body is placed upon three flat stone slabs, for the funeral ceremony, and a rectangular shallow line of sand is laid around it to cordon it off, ritually from the living attending the funeral ceremony.
  • At the funeral ceremony, two priests in paiwand, that is, connected to each other by a white strip of cloth, stand three paces away from the corpse. The two nasasalars, who sit near the body, are also in paiwand, connected to each other, by an old kustiheld in their hands. This connection is important as the ritual strength of two human beings is deemed to be greater than the pollution and contamination of the demons who are said to surround the body and cause it to putrefy. The soul of a Zoroastrian, is judged at the Bridge of the Separator, at the dawn of the fourth morning after death. The fate of the soul is decided depending upon the life it has led in this world weighed by all the good and bad, thoughts words, and deeds. The conscience (Av. Daena) comes in the form of a beautiful maiden to greet the soul, if it is potentially good, or the conscience comes in the form of an old and ugly hag if the soul is judged to be potentially wicked. The dualistic paradigm is amply reflected in the spiritual world, for the righteous soul glides into the "House of Song," while the wicked soul falls into the abyss of hell, "House of Deceit."
  • The soul is said to remain in either heaven or hell ... . AFTER this, the saoshyant (messiah) will appear and the Last Judgment followed by the Resurrection will take place, when the physical world will be restored to a perfect state. As Zoroastrian eschatology promotes the belief in a universal resurrection, there is no place for the theory of reincarnation, which is incompatible with the beliefs and practices of the Zoroastrian tradition. ALL NOTES PAGE FROM INTERNET
  • Transcript of "Yazd, towers of silence2"

    1. 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1376673-yazd7/
    2. 2. On the southern outskirts of Yazd, there are two hilltop circular building, known as Dakhmeh-ye-Zartushtioon or Towers of Silence. La periferia sudică a oraşului Yazd există două enorme turnuri circulare construite pe vârful celor două coline, cunoscute sub numele de Dakhmeh-ye-Zartushtioon sau turnurile tăcerii.Recognized by UNESCO as holding one of the oldestarchitecture all over the world Internet images
    3. 3. Zoroastrians have always been populous inYazd. Even now roughly ten percent of thetowns population adhere to this ancientreligion. To preclude the pollution of earth orfire the bodies of the dead are placed atop atower—a tower of silence—and so exposedto the sun and to birds of prey. Thus,"putrefaction with all its concomitant evils... ismosteffectually prevented.“Adepţii Zoroastrismului au fost totdeaunanumeroşi în Yazd, chiar şi acum depăşind10% din populaţie. Pentru a excludepoluarea pământului sau a focului (sacru)cadavrele sunt aşezate în aşa numiteleturnuri ale tăcerii, expuse la soare şi oferitevulturilor ca hrană. În acest fel „putrefacţia,cu toate relele sale” este prevenită cel maieficient
    4. 4. The guardian of the sitePaznicul turnurilor tăcerii
    5. 5. Constructions for ritual death and mourning customsConstrucţii destinate ceremoniilor şi ritualurilor de pregătire şi jelire a morţilor
    6. 6. In the Iranian Zoroastrian tradition, the towers were built atop hills orlow mountains in desert locations distant from population centers.În tradiţia iraniană, turnurile tăcerii au fost construite pe culmi, înlocuri pustii, la distanţă de centrele populate.
    7. 7. A Tower of Silence or Dakhma is a circular, raised structure used by Zoroastrians for exposure of the dead.Turnurile tăcerii (Dakhma) sunt structuri circulare ridicate pe culmi, folosite de zoroastrieni pentru cei morţi
    8. 8. In the early twentieth century, the IranianZoroastrians gradually discontinued their useand began to favor burial or cremation. InYazd and Kerman, in addition to cemeteries,orthodox Zoroastrians continued to maintain adakhma until the 1970s when the dakhmaswere shut down by law.În secolul al XX-lea, zoroastrienii iranieni auîntrerupt treptat utilizarea turnurilor tăcerii şiau început să accepte înmormântarea sauincinerarea. În Yazd şi Kerman zoroastrieniiortodocşi au continuat să le folosească pânăîn 1970 când au fost interzise prin lege,devenind o atracţie turistică
    9. 9. The term "Tower of Silence" is a neologism attributed to Robert Murphy, who, in 1832, was a translator of the British colonialgovernment in India. It is not the literal meaning of "Avestan (sic) dakhma" as suggested by the Encyclopædia Britannica.Denumirea de „Turnul tăcerii” este un neologism atribuit lui Robert Murphy, care, in 1832, era translator la guvernul colonialbritanic din India.
    10. 10. Yazd with the area of 131,551 km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, thecity is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuh, the tallest mountain in theregion at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq.Yazd, cu suprafata de 131,551 km ², este situat în oaza în care se întâlnesc deşerturile Dasht-e Kavir şi Dasht-e Lut. Oraşuleste uneori numit „mireasa din Kavir", din cauza aşezării sale, în valea dintre Shir Kuh, cel mai înalt munte din regiune (4075metri altitudine) şi Kharaneq.
    11. 11. Until this custom was forbidden in 1970, the Zoroastrians exposed their dead to the birds in "towers of silence“ (dakhmeh).Până când această practică a fost interzisă prin lege în 1970, zoroastrienii expuneau trupurile celor decedaţi în Turnurile Tăcerii(dakhmeh), lăsându-le pradă vulturilor şi soarelui.
    12. 12. There are two towers near Yazd, built in the nineteenth century according to a design from India, where many Zoroastrians live. Atthe terrace at the top, the dead were exposed, and devoured by birds. In this way, neither the earth nor the sacred fire were soiled.Lângă Yazd există încă două turnuri, construite în secolul XIX după planuri din India, unde trăiesc mulţi zoroastrieni. Pe terasasuperioară erau expuse trupurile pentru a fi devorate de păsări iar oasele albite de soare. În acest fel nu erau poluate saupângărite nici pământul nici focul.
    13. 13. Although the towers date back to the nineteenth century, the custom to expose the dead on towers is mentioned in the lateSasanian age. Exposure (without towers) is mentioned even earlier. The Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus wrotein the fifth century BCE that the bodies of the Magians (who were not necessarily Zoroastrians) were exposed.Deşi aceste turnuri datează din secolul al XIX-lea, obiceiul de a expune morţii în turnurile tăcerii este menţionat încă dinperioada sassanidă târzie. Expunerea (fără turnuri) este certificată chiar mai devreme. Istoricul Herodot din Halicarnas scriela sfârşitul secolului V î.Hr. despre cutuma expunerii cadavrelor
    14. 14. The towers, which are fairly uniform in their construction, have an almostflat roof, with the perimeter being slightly higher than the center.Turnurile, destul de uniforme în construcţia lor, au o platformă aproapeplată, puţin înclinată spre centru, unde este o groapă
    15. 15. The custom to expose the dead on mountain summits still exists in modern Tibet, where it is called an "air burial”Obiceiul de a expune morţii pe culmile munţilor există încă în Tibet unde este numită „înmormântare în aer”
    16. 16. Inside the round walls at the top of the male Tower we found a circular hollow where thebodies were laid out for the birds and the priest would have performed the rituals for thedead. The bodies would always have been laid out on stones so that they didnt directlytouch the earth and contaminate it. They would be placed in a sitting position and the priestwho oversaw the process would watch to see which of the bodies two eyes were pluckedout first - apparently its good luck if the right eye goes before the left. După depunerea mortului în dakhmas, membrii familiei trebuiau să facă o baie şi timp de 3 zile să nu mănânce carne. În ziua a patra se aduceau ofrande şi se făceau rugăciuni, deoarece se credea că sufletul se află în faţa lui Mithra pentru a-i fi puse în balanţă faptele. Nu era îngăduit să se plângă la morţi. Se făceau apoi slujbe de pomenire a sufletului la 10 zile, la 30 şi anual.
    17. 17. At the base of the towers were a covered well and few buildings for the family of the dead to prepareand wash the body and to stay during the mourning periodLa poalele dealului există o fântână acoperită cu dom şi câteva clădiri pentru familia celui decedatpentru pregătirea şi spălarea trupului şi pentru perioada de îndeplinire a ceremonialului
    18. 18. concrete lined graves in the small graveyard near the Towers
    19. 19. The towers have not been used since the 1970s when the citys Muslim rulers decreed that havingbodies left around to be eaten isnt exactly hygienic so today the dead of the Zoroastrian communityin Yazd are buried in concrete lined graves in the small graveyard near the Towers.Turnurile nu au mai fost folosite din anul 1970 când conducerea musulmană a oraşului a decretat cănu este igienic să laşi corpurile să fie devorate aşa că azi morţii comunităţii zoroastrienilor suntîngropaţi în micul cimitir de la poalele colinei în morminte de beton căptuşite
    20. 20. Houses of priests and nasasalarsAt the funeral ceremony, two priests in paiwand, that is, connected to each other by a white strip of cloth, stand three pacesaway from the corpse. The two nasasalars, (corpse-bearers) who sit near the body, are also in paiwand, connected to eachother, by an old kusti held in their hands. This connection is important as the ritual strength of two human beings is deemedto be greater than the pollution and contamination of the demons who are said to surround the body and cause it to putrefy.
    21. 21. Houses of priests and nasasalars
    22. 22. The after-life ceremonies reflect the doctrinal principals of the faith and the laws of purity are strictly adhered to, as any formof impurity is allied to the Evil Spirit. Hence, after the ritual bath is administered to the corpse, no person, except the nasalars(corpse-bearers) are allowed to touch the corpse for reasons of ritual contamination. All the prayers and rituals are gearedand directed to keep at bay the corpse demon, which attacks the body. The body is placed upon three flat stone slabs, for thefuneral ceremony, and a rectangular shallow line of sand is laid around it to cordon it off, ritually from the living attending thefuneral ceremony.
    23. 23. Houses of priests and nasasalarsCasele preoţilor şi a cioclilor (singurii care mai aveauvoie să atingă mortul după ce acesta era spălat şiîmbrăcat în alb)
    24. 24. Houses of priests and nasasalars
    25. 25. The semi-circular brick lined dome, visually much alike a Buddhist stupa, isa Water reservoirs, or ab anbar, as it is locally knownDomul semicircular căptuşit cu cărămidă care pare mai degrabă o stupăbudistă este un rezervoarele de apă (numit ab anbar de localnici)
    26. 26. Zoroastrians believe that the sun, with its life-giving quality, has the powerful effect of destroying pollutants and disintegratingthe flesh. After exposure to the sun and once the vultures have stripped the body of its flesh, the skeletal remains werecollected and placed in stone ossuaries by the early Iranians and later laid within specially erected structuresZoroastrienili au credinţa că soarele, cu puterea lui dătătoare de viaţă, are un puternic efect de distrugere a poluanţilor şi dedezintegrare a cărnii. După expunerea la soare şi după ce vulturii au curăţit trupul de carne, scheletul rămas şi albit de soareera colectat şi introdus în osuare de piatră
    27. 27. DEATH, in Zoroastrianism, is seen as the temporary triumph of the Evil Spirit Ahriman whoseinherent nature, according to the Good Religion, is to cause destruction in the physical world.MOARTEA, în zoroastrism, este văzută ca un triumf temporar a lui Ahriman, duhul cel rău, a căruinatură inerentă, conform Religiei Adevărate, este de a provoca distrugerea în lumea fizică.
    28. 28. Iran Text: Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Arangement: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasandaSound: Zoroastrian music - Sina Vodja
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