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http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1460637-naqsh-rustam1/
Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitous cliff at the south side ofthe Husain Kuh, located north of Persepolis, Iran, with rockreli...
Naqsh-i Rustam, probably the ancient Nupistaš, is situated about five kilometers northwest of Persepolis, the capital of t...
Known locally as the Persian Crosses, these are the tombs of Achaemenid monarchs. This                           realm, al...
Tomb IV (Xerxes?)                                                                 Unlike its model, the tomb of           ...
Xerxes, son of Darius, claimed to be the overlord of all civilized peoples that                                           ...
Each tomb could contain three tonine     people.     The    laterAchaemenid kings, Artaxerxes IIMnemon, Artaxerxes III Och...
The upper register is identical to the relief of Darius tomb: Xerxes (if theking is Xerxes, of course) is standing in fron...
This central part is veryinteresting because it shows whatthe columns discovered at, forinstance,    the    Apadana      o...
Colchicum autumnale, commonlyknown as autumn crocus, meadowsaffron or naked lady, is a flowerwhich resembles the true croc...
Achaemenid Empire around the time ofDarius the Great and XerxesIn front of the Achaemenidtombs, there must have been apark...
Text : Internet                                                                                Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu ...
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
Tomb of Xerxes the Great
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Tomb of Xerxes the Great

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YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE (You have a link on the first slide): http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1460637-naqsh-rustam1/

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Naqsh-e Rustam, un fel de Vale a Regilor persani, un loc sacru unde sunt înmormântaţi Darius cel Mare şi succesorii săi. Mormintele sunt tăiate în stâncă şi amplasate la înălţime.
Located in Iranian Fars province, near Persepolis, Naqsh-e Rostam, a tentative candidate for UNESCO World Heritage status, contains four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings which were carved out of the rock. An ensemble of historic, religious and artistic works from the Achaemenian and Sasanian periods located within a small perimeter near the monuments of Persepolis near the Polvar river. Naqsh-e Rustam, at the foot of Mt.Hosain, where Elamite remains are to be found, an important funerary ensemble of Achaemenian kings, particularly the graves of Darius I and Xerxes, exists. Their facades bear Achaemenian bas-reliefs and 6 important bas-reliefs from the first half of the Sasanian period are visible below them.

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  • The Royal Tombs and Other Monuments About 4.8 kilometers northwest of Persepolis lies the imposing site of Naqsh-i-Rustam in the mountain range of Husain Kuh, where Darius the Great and his successors had their monumental tombs carved into the cliff. Here in 1933 Herzfeld conducted a short survey and made soundings, but it was not until 1936 that Schmidt started to clear and document the royal tombs and to excavate the Ka'bah-i-Zardusht.
  • Although Naqsh-i-Rustam had long been a sacred area (as the remains of a Pre-Achaemenid relief show), Darius the Great was the first to choose it as a burial place. His successors not only imitated his idea of a cliff tomb but also copied the layout of the tomb itself. The dramatic facade of the tomb is constructed like a cross. An entrance leads into the tomb chamber, cut deep into the rock. In the panel above this facade is a relief depicting the king standing on a three-stepped pedestal in front of an altar. His hand is raised in a gesture of worship. Above him floats the winged disk of Ahuramazda, god of the Zoroastrian religion. This scene is supported by throne bearers representing the twenty-eight nations of the empire. On the side panels are the king's weapon bearers and the Persian guards. The trilingual cuneiform inscriptions on three panels of the rock wall either enumerate the twenty-eight nations upholding the throne or glorify the king and his rule. Some traces of pigment found on the facade of the royal tombs suggest that all or most of the stone reliefs had been painted.
  • Only the tomb of Darius I can be identified beyond doubt by inscriptions. The three other tombs at Naqsh-i Rustam are attributed to his immediate successors, Xerxes, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II. Other royal tombs of similar form, thought to be those of the later Achaemenids, were built at Persepolis itself, cut into the rock face of the Kuh-i Rahmat, overlooking the Terrace. The two complete tombs are assigned to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III; an incomplete tomb was perhaps meant for the last Achaemenid king, Darius III. About 2 km south of Naqsh-i Rustam, on the south bank of the river Pulvar, are the remains of an unfinished freestanding structure, perhaps the base of a tomb intended for Cambyses II, modeled on the imposing tomb of his father, Cyrus the Great, at Pasargadae, up the Pulvar 43 km northeast of Persepolis.
  • The prosperity of the empire, along with the Great King’s tendency to surround himself with close friends, gave rise to palace intrigues and conspiracies in the royal Harem. Stories about Xerxes’ seduction of his eldest son’s wife present us with the picture of a wealthy and secure empire that was entering the first stages of decline and corruption. In fact, the parallels between this decline in the Persian Empire with what happened in the Roman Empire about 500 years later is striking. Xerxes’ own end is too similar to the end of many Roman Emperors. After 20 years of prosperous reign in which his territories grew from a conglomerate of conquered states to a cohesive empire, Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by the commander of his royal guards, Artabanes (OP. Artawan). The rumors of the involvement of the chief eunuch and even one of Xerxes’ wives survived until the Herodotus’ times. Whatever the case, this event, like many others in Xerxes’ reign, can be marked as the first serious consequence of court power struggles on the politics of the Persian Empire. Artawan, along with his allies, chose Artaxerxes, Xerxes’ second son, to replace his father, although soon they realized their mistake and decided to remove him as well. Artaxerxes’ exceptional abilities pacified Artwan and other court conspirators, but it by no means was successful in putting an end to the similar events in the latter half of the Persian Empire.
  • Transcript of "Tomb of Xerxes the Great "

    1. 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1460637-naqsh-rustam1/
    2. 2. Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitous cliff at the south side ofthe Husain Kuh, located north of Persepolis, Iran, with rockreliefs ranging from Elamite (second millennium BCE) toSasanian times (fifth century CE). Surrounding it are otherrock installations and some Achaemenid and Sasanianarchitecture, most of which lies under several meters ofdebris and has not yet been excavated.Naqsh-i Rostam este o stâncă abruptă situată în partea desud a munţilor Kuh Husain, la nord de Persepolis. Aici segăsesc basoreliefuri Elamite săpate în stâncă (mileniul IIî.Hr.), morminte ahemenide şi reliefuri Sasanide (secolul Vd.Hr). Există şi alte basoreliefuri în împrejurimi precum şiunele construcţii ahemenide şi sasanide la o adâncime decâţiva metri în pământ, care nu au fost încă scoase lalumină.
    3. 3. Naqsh-i Rustam, probably the ancient Nupistaš, is situated about five kilometers northwest of Persepolis, the capital of the ancient Achaemenid empire. As is shown by a pre-Achaemenid relief and several old graves, Naqsh-i Rustam was already a place of some importance when king Darius I the Great (522-486) ordered his monumental tomb to be carved into the cliff, which is known as the Huseyn Kuh. High above the ground there are four crosses carved in to the sheer rock face.Naqsh-i Rustam, probabil vechiul Nupistash, este situat la aproximativ cinci kilometrinord-vest de Persepolis, capitala imperiului antic ahemenid. După cum indică unbasorelief pre-ahemenid, Naqsh-i Rustam era deja un loc de o anumită importanţăatunci când regele Darius I cel Mare (522-486) a ordonat să-i fie sculptat în stâncanumită azi Kuh Husein mormântul monumental.Mult deasupra solului, există patru „cruci” sculptate în faţa stâncii.
    4. 4. Known locally as the Persian Crosses, these are the tombs of Achaemenid monarchs. This realm, also known as the Persian Empire, persisted until the third century BCE and its rulers included names we still recognize today, such as Cyrus, Xerxes and Darius (all referred to as The Great). At the center of each of the crosses the entrance to each of the tombs is still visible. Achaemenid Empire around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes Cunoscute pe plan local drept crucile persane, acestea sunt mormintele regilor ahemenizi. Acest Imperiu, cunoscut sub numele de Imperiul Persan a rezistat până în secolul III î.Hr când a fost cucerit de Alexandru cel Mare, devenind o parte a lumii elenistice. Printre conducătorii săi se numără nume pe care le recunoaştem şi astăzi, cum ar fi Cyrus, Xerxes sau Darius (toate denumite în continuare „cel Mare”). În centrul fiecărei cruci se vede intrarea în fiecare dintre morminte.Tomb IV (Xerxes 486-465)
    5. 5. Tomb IV (Xerxes?) Unlike its model, the tomb of Darius, the fourth tomb at Naqš-i Rustam has no inscriptions that may help us identify its owner. However, most scholars agree that it must have been the final resting place of king Xerxes (486-465). He carefully copied the tomb of his father. Tomb III. Darius I Mormântul IV (Xerxes?) Spre deosebire de mormântul Tomb IV. Xerxes? care i-a servit ca model (mormântul lui Darius), al patrulea mormânt de la Naqsh-i Rustam nu are inscripţii care ar putea ajuta la identificarea sa. Cu toate acestea, majoritatea cercetătorilor sunt de acord că trebuie să fi fost locul de veci alTomb II. Artaxerxes I? regelui Xerxes (486-465). El a copiat cu deosebită grijă mormântul tatălui său.
    6. 6. Xerxes, son of Darius, claimed to be the overlord of all civilized peoples that were known by him. Only Athens, Sparta and their allies disputed this. Xerxes, of course, was determined to punish them. In the spring of 480 he gathered the greatest army the world had seen. Historical legend says it was made up of 5 million men, but it was likely actually around 360,000. Previously, Xerxes had crushed rebellions in Egypt, deprived Babylon of its independence. At times, Xerxes appeared to have been insane, but once, when the Spartans delivered to him two prominent citizens to make up for a previous offense, Xerxes let the men go. Upon arrival in Greece, Xerxes army sacked Athens, and the Persian fleet challenged the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis. Xerxes I, fiul lui Darius cel Mare, se naşte în jurul anului 520 î.Hr. Devine suveran al Imperiului Persan în anul 486, la moartea tatălui său. Reprimă cu brutalitate răscoalele Egiptului (486) şi Babilonului (482). În 480 porneşte într-o expediţie care urmărea cucerirea Greciei. Armata sa, care după unele surse număra peste cinci milioane de oameni, (se pare că doar 360.000) forţează cu pierderi grele trecerea prin defileul Termopile apărat de trei sute de spartani („Cei trei sute”) conduşi de Leonidas, regele Spartei. Transformă Atena, părăsită de locuitori, în ruine. Înfrânt la Salamina, îşi părăseşte armata, care va fi zdrobită la Plataea (479) şi fuge în Asia, unde moare asasinat.Xerxes I of Persia, also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fifth Zoroastrianking of kings of the Achaemenid Empire.
    7. 7. Each tomb could contain three tonine people. The laterAchaemenid kings, Artaxerxes IIMnemon, Artaxerxes III Ochusand Darius III Codomannus wereprobably buried in tombs atPersepolis.Archaeologists are almost certainthat the tombs were closed afterthe burial. After Alexander theGreat had overthrown theAchaemenid empire, the doorswere smashed and the tombswere looted.În fiecare mormânt s-au aflat trei,până la nouă persoane. Regiiahemenizi de mai târziu,Artaxerxes II Mnemon, ArtaxerxeIII Ochus şi Darius al III-leaCodomannus au fost probabilîngropaţi în mormintele de laPersepolis.Arheologii sunt aproape siguri căintrările în morminte au fost ziditedupă înmormântare.După ce Alexandru cel Mare acucerit imperiul ahemenid, uşilezidite au fost sparte, iarmormintele au fost jefuite.
    8. 8. The upper register is identical to the relief of Darius tomb: Xerxes (if theking is Xerxes, of course) is standing in front of an altar, praying to thesupreme Ahuramazda and sacrificing to the holy fire. In his right hand, theking has his bow, the royal attribute par excellence. Again, the plaform iscarried by people that represent the subject nations. The symbol in theupper right corner represents the moon.Registrul superior este identic cu basorelieful de la mormântul lui Darius:Xerxes (dacă este Xerxes, desigur) este în picioare în faţa unui altar,rugându-se zeului suprem Ahuramazda şi aducând jertfe focului sacru. Înmâna dreaptă are arcul, atribut regal prin excelenţă. Plaforma pe care seaflă regele este purtată pe umerii oamenilor care reprezintă popoarelesupuse. Simbolul din colţul din dreapta sus reprezintă luna.
    9. 9. This central part is veryinteresting because it shows whatthe columns discovered at, forinstance, the Apadana ofPersepolis must have looked like.Representations like these havehelped archaeologists toreconstruct the façades ofAchaemenid palaces.Partea centrală este foarteinteresantă pentru că arată cumtrebuie să fi fost coloanele de laApadana din Persepolis.Reprezentări asemănătoareacestora au ajutat arheologii săreconstituie faţadele palatelorahemenide.
    10. 10. Colchicum autumnale, commonlyknown as autumn crocus, meadowsaffron or naked lady, is a flowerwhich resembles the true crocuses(with six stamens instead of three),but flowers in autumn. The name"naked lady" comes from the factthat the flowers emerge from theground long after the leaves havedied back.Brânduşa de toamnă (Colchicumautumnale) este o plantă relativmică, toxică, care creşte pe câmp,păşuni. Ea aparţine de familiaColchicaceae, iar substanţa activă,colchicina, este folosită în medicină.Toate părţile plantei conţin toxina
    11. 11. Achaemenid Empire around the time ofDarius the Great and XerxesIn front of the Achaemenidtombs, there must have been apark (paradeisos). One of thePersepolis fortification tabletsmentions that trees are to beplanted at Nupistaš, whichseems to be Naqš-i Rustam.În faţa mormintelor ahemenidetrebuie să fi existat un parc(paradeisos). Una dintretabletele de la Persepolismenţionează că vor fi plantaţiarbori la Nupistash, care pare afi Naqsh-i Rustam.
    12. 12. Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasandaSound: Shahmirza Moradi & Reza Moradi - The Music Of Lorestan - Shane Shaki
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