The Cathedral of Monreale 5/5

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PLEASE SEE ALSO:
http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/duomo-di-monreale;
http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/building-a-dreammosaici-del-duomo-di-monreale-onreale2;
http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/duomo-di-monreale-cappella-del-crocifisso;
http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/monreale-the-closter-of-the-cathedral;

The Cathedral of Monreale was the last and most beautiful of the Norman churches built in Sicily, and one of the architectural wonders of the medieval world.
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  • Monreale's cathedral and abbey are good reminders that the beauty of a particularly splendid church transcends that of any single work of art, however noble. Overlooking Palermo, the town of Monreale, from the Latin "Mons Regalis" (literally 'Royal Mountain'), straddles a slope of Mount Caputo about eight kilometers south of Palermo's cathedral. Set at about three hundred metres above sea level, the town overlooks the "Conca d'Oro," as the valley beyond Palermo is known. No extended visit of Palermo is truly complete without a visit to Monreale. The cathedral and its cloister represent the largest concentration of Norman, Arab and Byzantine art in one place. True, Palermo's cathedral is larger, but Monreale's exists in something far closer to its original twelfth-century state. This wondrous place is much more than "just another church." If your impression of the overused word multicultural is at all negative, the effect of Monreale Abbey will convert you to another way of thinking.
  • East meets West The focal point of the town is its cathedral, an amalgamation of Arab, Byzantine and Norman artistic styles framed by traditional Romanesque architecture, representing the best of twelfth-century culture. The mosaics covering the cathedral walls are one of the world's largest displays of this art, surpassed only by Istanbul's Basilica of Saint Sofia, once an Orthodox church. (Unfortunately, many of those beautiful mosaics were destroyed or whitewashed when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.) Monreale's mosaics cover over six thousand square metres of the church's's interior, an area larger than those of the splendid church of Saint Mark in Venice. The mosaics of "Santa Maria la Nuova" (Saint Mary the New), the official name of Monreale Cathedral, are far more extensive than those of the cathedral of Cefalù , and while the mosaics of the Palatine Chapel in Palermo's Norman Palace are of equally exquisite craftsmanship, the latter leave many with the impression of a complex work of art in a restrictive space.
  • The mosaics of "Santa Maria la Nuova" (Saint Mary the New), the official name of Monreale Cathedral, are far more extensive than those of the cathedral of Cefalù , and while the mosaics of the Palatine Chapel in Palermo's Norman Palace are of equally exquisite craftsmanship, the latter leave many with the impression of a complex work of art in a restrictive space. It is tempting to identify each element of the abbey complex with a specific culture and tradition, though in truth these overlap considerably. The mosaics are a strongly Byzantine element, while certain structural details, such as the geometric inlay of the apse exteriors, are Arab and actually Islamic. The cloister, on the other hand, reflects a mixture of influences. Attached to the cathedral, the Benedictine cloister courtyard consists of 228 columns (paired, with four on each corner), some inlayed with Byzantine-style mosaic work, each supporting an ornately carved capital. The capitals themselves depict scenes in Sicily's Norman history, complete with knights and kings. The style of the Norman knight figures evokes that of the knights depicted in the Bayeaux Tapestry, a chronicle of the Battle of Hastings. Historians have determined the date of the introduction of heraldry (coats of arms) in Sicily by the shields of the Monreale knight figures, which lack any heraldic decoration. The capitals strongly reflect the Provencal styles of the twelfth century, and at least three of what are thought to have been five master sculptors were probably from that region.
  • Walter "of the Mill" (actually "Offamilias" indicating his familial connection to Sicily's Hauteville kings), the English bishop of Palermo, was the head of a faction of nobles that sought to influence and persuade the young king into granting them more power. This faction also hoped to attenuate the power of Muslim ministers and functionaries in William's court. Walter had been William's tutor when the king was a child and during his mother's regency. William was just 13 years old when his father, William I, died in 1166, and until he reached his majority in 1171 he was subject to the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre. However, the kingdom was actually controlled by Matthew d'Aiello, the royal chancellor, and Walter, the bishop of Palermo --the latter having attempted to exert undue influence on William as his tutor. The young sovereign wished to demonstrate his independence through the construction of a grand cathedral. The Benedictines, already present in Sicily, readily obliged.
  • King William's first objective was to establish himself firmly as sovereign. William had only been crowned in 1171 when he turned eighteen. Construction began in 1172. The superstructure took four years to build, reaching completion in 1176. Work on the mosaics and cloister was completed by the time of the young king's death in 1189. Apart from demonstrating his true power to the Sicilian nobility, is possible that William wanted the cathedral to impress his subjects in an equal measure. Many Muslims from Palermo had fled to the hill country surrounding the capital after a rebellion against William's father in 1161, and others already lived in towns in the region. Led by Matthew Bonellus, a vocal element of the Siculo-Norman nobility had begun to support an anti-Muslim policy, leaving the 'Saracens' to establish themselves in easily-fortified towns of the interior, though they were nominally loyal to William. Though Bonellus himself was eventually eliminated, the cathedral, actually fortified with embattled towers and slit-windows as if it were a fortress, was strategically important for guarding the passes that served as the gateway to these communities. The nearby hilltop castle of Castellaccio bolstered this military strategy.
  • Though little of the monastery except the cloister survives, the monastery of Monreale originally boasted twelve embattled towers and thick walls. A few of the towers are still visible. The Arabs did eventually rebel, after King William's death, in reaction to the mistreatment and excessive taxation imposed upon them by the Abbot of Monreale, under whose feudal authority they had been placed by William II and the Pope. The cathedral itself was attacked by the Muslims on several occasions, the worst incident occurring in 1216 during the reign of Frederick II (Hohenstaufen). However, the "rebellions" were never a serious threat to the Norman, Swabian (and at all events Christian) rule of Sicily. In 1246, Frederick II dispatched a large army from Palermo to rein in what resistance remained, taking control of Corleone and San Giuseppe Jato. Another reason for William's construction of the cathedral was his desire to establish the Roman Catholic church, known as the "Latin" church in those days, as the official church of Sicily. There were still many Orthodox Christians and Muslims in twelfth-century century Sicily, and a number of Jews. Although Orthodoxy was permitted and Islam tolerated, William embraced Papal authority. Thus, despite the mosaic icons which give it the appearance of an Orthodox basilica, Monreale was actually part of the 'Latinizing' of Sicily. Pope Alexander III granted the abbot of the Benedictine monastery episcopal privileges in 1174, and elevated Teobald to the rank of archbishop in 1183. The installment of a bishop in Monreale who owed his position to pontiff and sovereign and who, as an outsider, had no stake in local politics, neatly accomplished the political purposes of both powers.
  • Building a dream As we've mentioned, work on the cathedral was begun in 1174. In 1177, at twenty-four, William married Joan, daughter of King Henry II of England. The marriage made William brother-in-law to Richard I "Lionheart" and John "Lackland," Henry's sons. In 1170, William's father-in-law had instigated the murder of Thomas Becket, then Archbishop of Canterbury. Canonized in 1173, Saint Thomas is depicted in a mosaic icon of the cathedral's main apse near the altar (as one faces the apse it is the second icon to the right of the apse niche). This is believed to be the first public work of art honoring the English saint. Though William sought to make his realm to be a European one, he engaged in certain practices somewhat unusual for a Christian monarch of the Middle Ages. Not only did he have many Muslim ministers, astrologers and doctors in his court, William is said to have kept a harem in his palace, and to have spoken, read and written Arabic. That work on the cathedral was completed before William's death (aged just 36) in 1189 was indeed a fortunate thing, for the period of quasi-anarchy which ensued as rival claimants sought the crown did not bode well for costly construction projects.
  • Externally, most of Monreale Cathedral is not particularly striking. Its front facade faces west, looking onto Piazza Guglielmo. Two massive square bell towers flank the main church entrance. The porticos are not original components of the structure. The sides of the cathedral are over a hundred metres long. From Via Arcivescovado, the street behind the cathedral, can be seen the complex geometric inlay of the apse --a kind of symmetry which reflects Muslim spirituality. Framed by a typical medieval arch, the Romanesque bronze doors under the main (front) portico were manufactured in the workshops of Bonanno of Pisa in 1186. Constructed in the same year, the side doors were designed by Barisano of Trani set within a squared frame decorated in Arab mosaic. Each door features panels on which are carved various religious figures amidst floral and other symbolic motifs. The floor plan of the cathedral combines elements of both a traditional Western (Latin) basilica and an Eastern (Orthodox) one. The combination of Greek and Latin elements is a distinct feature of Norman architecture in Italy.
  • The cathedral has a wide central nave between two smaller aisles. Nine monolithic columns of gray granite support the eight pointed arches on each side of the central aisle, for a total of eighteen columns, each bearing a Corinthian style capital. Each individual capital is sculpted with a different motif featuring religious figures and symbols. Only one of the eighteen columns is not made of gray granite, the first column on the right of the front entrance, which is made of "cipollina" marble. The roof of the cathedral is made of wood, carved and painted in great detail, and while its style shows a strong Saracen influence the present roof is, in fact, a restored reproduction dating from 1811 when the original roof was severely damaged by fire. The present roof is a faithful reproduction, very similar to the original. The sixteenth-century floor of the church is composed of white marble with multi-colored granite and porphyry patterns and borders.
  • Mosaic art and icons The splendid mosaics in the interior of Monreale cathedral are its principal artistic attraction. Their subtle beauty creates an atmosphere of solemn tranquility and perhaps even awe. The mosaics cover practically all the surfaces of the cathedral's walls, except for the ground level, up to a height of two meters, where the walls are finished in white marble bordered with polychrome inlay decoration. All of the cathedral's mosaic figures (many are icons) are placed upon a background of gold mosaic "tesserae" (tiles). The interior of the church is about a hundred metres long by forty meters wide. There are a total of 130 individual mosaic scenes depicting biblical and other religious events. The Old Testament is depicted on the walls of the central nave, starting from the Creation and ending with Jacob's Fight with the Angel. The mosaics on the side aisles illustrate the major events of the life of Jesus, from birth to crucifixion, and include a cycle illustrating the miracles worked. Many of the mosaics are accompanied by inscriptions in Latin or Greek.
  • A little background legend... From 1166 King William II reigned in Sicily - because of his excellent qualities of mind he gained the nickname of 'Good' to distinguish him from the father, on contrary nicknamed William "the Bad"(1131-1166). According to the legend about the foundation of the Cathedral of Monreale, after eight years of his reign, one day the young prince, according to his custom, went hunting from his palace in Palermo in his reserve of Monreale, and then, tired from the long and exhausting hunt, he rested in the shade of a carob tree. Here he fell asleep and the Virgin appeared to him in a dream, revealing that at that place was a hidden treasure, urging him to use the money to build a church. Waking up, William found the treasure and he vowed to make in that place a temple to the Virgin, with the name of "Santa Maria la Nuova, "assigning to the task many monks of St. Benedict brought in from the “Trinità della Cava”. As reward for the monks he had a monastery built adjoining the Church, enriching them with pensions and privileges.
  • Dominating everything is the imposing mosaic of Christ Pantocrator ("Ruler of All") located on the central apse over the main altar. The entire image is thirteen meters across and seven meters high. Beneath the stupendous portrait of Jesus is a mosaic of the Theotokos (Mother of God) enthroned with the Christ child on her lap. This depiction is flanked by mosaics of the angels and various saints and apostles. There are mosaics of numerous other saints and scenes from the Gospels all about the transept area, including the previously-mentioned icon of Saint Thomas Becket. Two noteworthy mosaics are located on the sides of the presbytery, over the royal and episcopal thrones. The one above the royal throne shows Christ crowning William II. It is patterned on the icon in the Martorana (in Palermo) showing Roger II crowned by Christ. The mosaic over the episcopal throne shows William II offering Monreale cathedral to the Virgin. In the West it was rare for living monarchs to be represented in a Heavenly setting in this manner. Our printable Key to Monreale's Mosaics explains most of the principal mosaics of the nave, with notes on those of the apse and transepts.
  • Monreale Cathedral also houses several royal tombs. That of William II is a white marble work dating from the sixteenth century. William's father, King William I "the Bad" lies in the deep-red porphyry tomb which dates from the twelfth century and is, presumably, his original. William II's mother, Margaret of Navarre, is also interred at Monreale. Curiously, so is the heart of King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis). The royal cortege stopped here for a funeral en route to France following Louis' death during the Tunisian Crusade (in 1270) when his less-saintly younger brother, Charles of Anjou, was king of Naples and Sicily.
  • For Visitors: Monreale's cloister is usually open from 9:00 AM to 6 PM Monday through Saturday, and from 9:00 to 12:30 on Sundays year-round, though afternoon schedules may vary. Monreale is also known for its craft and artisan shops, specializing in ceramic art and mosaics ranging in style from the Byzantine to the Baroque to folk and abstract. Monreale boasts some of the island's best mosaic galleries. Two of these are found on Via Arcivescovado in back of the cathedral. Other noteworthy artisan shops will be found on Via Ritiro and the nearby streets.
  • Monreale's history is closely tied up with the combination of forces which enabled the Norman king William II to come to power. William, born in 1154, became king after the death of his father William I in 1166 and after the declaration of his majority ruled on his own from 1172 until his early death in 1189, a period of 17 years. There were tensions between the crown and the papacy, similar to those which occurred throughout medieval history. The papal position was championed uncompromisingly by the English archbishop of the royal seat of Palermo, Walter of the Mill/Gualterius Offamilius: on his orders King Roger II was not buried in the cathedral at Cefalù, as he had instructed, but in the cathedral in Palermo which was under the archbishop's control. By so doing he emphasized the point that the office of king derived from the Pope and that it was he, Walter, who had the power to confirm this office. Thus it became necessary to assert the authority of the king, as William's grandfather Roger II had done - following the example of the Emperors of Byzantium, who dominated their patriarchs and clergy unchallenged.
  • William II reacted unambiguously and with the means available to him at that time. He emphasized the theocratic character of his government by initiating a vast complex of buildings, including a Benedictine monastery and a royal residence, on an eminence overlooking Palermo, surrounded by a large royal park - hence the name Monreale, originally Mons Regalis = royal mountain. The abbot became bishop and as early as 1183 was raised to archbishop. The King invested his foundation with privileges and an extensive landholding, so that Monreale was richer than the archbishopric of Palermo. In addition he stipulated that Monreale should become the burial place for his dynasty. William II's pretensions became absolutely clear when in 1172, two years after Archbishop Walter had begun rebuilding the cathedral in Palermo, he ordered the Basilica of Monreale to be constructed, as a challenge to the archbishop. Furthermore he had the satisfaction of seeing his brainchild to a large extent completed by 1185.
  • Bronze is an alloy of tin & copper (sometimes also containing a little lead).  Bronze expands and then contracts when solidifying, making it ideal for casting.   Cast bronze can be decorated by such techniques as engraving, inlaying, enamelling, demascening, niello work and gilding.  When used for doors, individual bronze panels or groups of panels can be secured to a wooden frame, or doors can be cast as a single unit.   Bronze is not the same as Brass, which is an alloy of zinc and copper.   Medieval metal furnishings and artworks were particularly vulnerable because of the temptation to melt them down to make other furnishings or, better still, guns.
  • A little background legend... From 1166 King William II reigned in Sicily - because of his excellent qualities of mind he gained the nickname of 'Good' to distinguish him from the father, on contrary nicknamed William "the Bad"(1131-1166). According to the legend about the foundation of the Cathedral of Monreale, after eight years of his reign, one day the young prince, according to his custom, went hunting from his palace in Palermo in his reserve of Monreale, and then, tired from the long and exhausting hunt, he rested in the shade of a carob tree. Here he fell asleep and the Virgin appeared to him in a dream, revealing that at that place was a hidden treasure, urging him to use the money to build a church. Waking up, William found the treasure and he vowed to make in that place a temple to the Virgin, with the name of "Santa Maria la Nuova, "assigning to the task many monks of St. Benedict brought in from the “Trinità della Cava”. As reward for the monks he had a monastery built adjoining the Church, enriching them with pensions and privileges.
  • Royal Origins The idea of building Monreale Abbey was the idea of King William II "the Good," grandson of the Roger II. On the site of Monreale had stood a small Arab hamlet named "Ba'lat," where local farmers would gather each morning to cart their produce to the souks of Bal'harm (Palermo). In the Norman era the area around Ba'lat, eventually renamed Monreale, became a favorite hunting ground of the Hauteville monarchs. In those days deer, boar and wild cats still roamed Sicily, where there were far more forests than today, and falconry was popular among the baronage. William's extensive royal hunting reserve extended across the valley to what is now Altofonte, and down the slopes of Mount Caputo toward Palermo (probably as far as the Royal Park or Genoard), perhaps encompassing some areas south of Monreale as well.
  • The monastery, according to a bull of Pope Alexander III (1105-1181) on 30 December 1174, should not be subject to any ecclesiastical power but only to the Holy See, and the abbot of the monastery was honored with the title and jurisdiction of the Bishop. With this the Monastery of Monreale was endowed with many servants, who with their families began to multiply, and in a short time the small village became a town. Many came from surrounding countries, especially from Bulchar, a village of the Saracens. Beyond the legend about the foundation, the fact is that William II "The Good" built a cathedral in Monreale that still amazes for its magnificence and for the building of which he lavished huge amounts of money, so that the cathedral of Monreale is still an attraction for tourists from all over the world. As for the real reasons that led the young king (crowned king at 12 and died at 37 years) to take on the task, the assumptions have been many, but perhaps the most likely is simply that William II had a very strong desire to emulate his ancestors in magnificence, and especially Roger II (1095-1154), for whom he had a great admiration: "The devotion felt by William to the August figure of his grandfather (whose he could not keep any personal memory as at the time of the death of Roger II, he was about 2 years) is a historical fact "(see E. Kitzinger,"The Mosaics of Monreale”, Flaccovio, 1960: 117).
  • MONREALE'S BRONZE DOORS   The West Door of Monreale - another Door of Paradise and another masterpiece - was made in 1189 by a Tuscan - Bonanno da Pisa.  Bonanno had earlier done doors for the Pisa duomo , but sadly only one pair survived a major fire in the fading years of the 1500s.  The Monreale panels follow the narrative of the Christian story from Adam and Eve (bottom right of door), through Cain and Abel (left) to the Ascension.   The less elaborate North Door was made by the Trani master, Barisano da Trani, who was also responsible for the bronze door of Trani Cattedrale itself (now displayed inside, it includes a rare artist self portrait), Ravello, and Astrano (?) all of which which he made in Italy in the 1180s.  Barisano used a technique of low relief casting finished by chiselling.  The Monreale door has 28 panels, most of which portray Christian motifs.
  • Roberto Alagna – Nino Rota - The Godfather;Lu me sciccareddu di Giuseppe Infantino The portico also has two bronze statues from the 1970s; on the left is the Virgin Mary, while on the right is William II offering a model of his cathedral to her. sotto il portico la statua della madonna dell'accolienza dello scultore corleonese contemporaneo Biagio Governali La statua dell'Immacolata (1726) domina la Piazza del Duomo http://palermodintorni.blogspot.com/2011/02/duomo-di-monreale-lesterno.html
  • The portico also has two bronze statues from the 1970s; on the left is the Virgin Mary, while on the right is William II offering a model of his cathedral to her. sotto il portico la statua della madonna dell'accolienza dello scultore corleonese contemporaneo Biagio Governali La statua dell'Immacolata (1726) domina la Piazza del Duomo http://palermodintorni.blogspot.com/2011/02/duomo-di-monreale-lesterno.html
  • The Cathedral of Monreale 5/5

    1. 1. Monreale 5 http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/sandamichaela-1243412-monreale5/
    2. 2. Monreale
    3. 3. The Normands (1060 – 1194)  came in Sicily as mercenary knights in help of Byzantines who were trying to conquer again Sicily from Arabs whose internal power was in crisis. But….by 1091 the conquest was completed The Norman rule was tolerant of the different cultures, and introduced the feudal system, while at the same time expanding throughout Southern Italy. The Cathedral of Monreale, on a hill on the lower slopes of the mountain overlooking Palermo, was the last and most beautiful of the Norman churches built in Sicily, and one of the architectural wonders of the medieval world.  A project of the Norman King William II (1153 - 1166 - 1189 (36)), the huge Cathedral took only 8 years to build (between 1174 and 1182).  Some idea of the richness of the interior mosaics, which cover the entire Cathedral, can be gleaned from the fact that they contain around 2,200 kilos of pure gold! Normanzii (1060 – 1194) ven iţi în Sicilia, condotieri, cavaleri mercenari , pentru a - i ajuta pe bi z antini s ă recucerească Sicilia de la arabi au ocupat întreaga insulă în anul 1091. Domnia normandă a fost tolerantă faţă de toate culturile, a introdus sistemul feudal şi a încercat să cucerească şi alte teritorii din Italia de Sud. Catedrala din Monreale, construită pe o culme în partea de jos a muntelui cu vedere spre Palermo, a fost ultima şi cea mai frumoasă dintre ctitoriile normande din Sicilia, una dintre minunăţiile arhitectonice ale Evului Mediu. Construită de Wilhelm al II-lea (1153-1166-1189), urcat pe tron la 12 ani şi mort la 36!!! imensa catedrală a avut nevoie de doar 8 ani pentru a fi ridicată! (între 1174 şi 1182) Pentru a ne da seama de bogăţia mozaicului din interior e de ajuns să afli că s-au folosit circa 2200 de kilograme de aur curat!
    4. 4. The north portico has two bronze statues from the 1970s; on the left is the Virgin Mary ( Madonna dell‘ Accolienza) , while on the right is William II offering a model of his cathedral to her by contemporary sculptor Biagio Governali (Corleone) Sub arcadele por t icului din partea de nord sunt dou ă statui ale sculptorului din Corleone Biagio Governali , din anii 1970, Fecioara Maria în partea stângă şi Wilhelm al II-lea în partea dreaptă, oferindu-i o machetă a bisericii.
    5. 7. Only one of the eighteen columns is not made of gray granite, the first column on the right of the front entrance, which is made of "cipollina" marble
    6. 9. The roof of the cathedral is made of wood, carved and painted in great detail, and while its style shows a strong Saracen influence the present roof is, in fact, a restored reproduction dating from 1811 when the original roof was severely damaged by fire.
    7. 10. Monreale Cathedral was commissioned by William II (1154-89), the Norman ruler of Sicily, who wished to demonstrate the magnificence of his kingdom and outdo the splendid Palatine Chapel built by his grandfather, Roger II. Catedrala a fost construită de Wilhelm al II-lea (1154-1189), ultimul domnitor normand al Siciliei, care a dorit să demonstreze măreţia regatului său şi să depăşească splendoarea Capelei Palatine din Palermo construită de bunicul său, Roger II, pe care îl admira.
    8. 11. Famed for its glorious golden mosaics, Monreale Cathedral is perhaps the finest Norman building in Sicily. It was built in the 12th century as part of a grand royal complex a few miles outside of Palermo.
    9. 12. Catedrala din Monreale este una dintre cele mai mari ş i frumoase catedrale ale lumii. Biserica a fost î ntemeiat ă de c ă tre î mp ă ratul norman d Wil helm al II-lea, cunoscut drept Wilhelm cel Bun, nepotul lui Roger al II-lea.
    10. 15. Another reason for William's construction of the cathedral was his desire to establish the Roman Catholic church, known as the "Latin" church in those days, as the official church of Sicily. There were still many Orthodox Christians and Muslims in twelfth-century century Sicily, and a number of Jews.
    11. 17. The interior of the church is about a hundred metres long by forty meters wide. There are a total of 130 individual mosaic scenes depicting biblical and other religious events
    12. 21. Monreale Cathedral also houses several royal tombs. That of William II is a white marble work dating from the sixteenth century.
    13. 23. În Catedral ă se află şi câteva morminte regale. Cel din marmură albă al regelui Wilhelm II datează din secolul XVI
    14. 24. William's father, King William I "the Bad" lies in the deep-red porphyry tomb which dates from the twelfth century and is, presumably, his original. William II's mother, Margaret of Navarre, is also interred at Monreale. Curiously, so is the heart of King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis). The royal cortege stopped here for a funeral en route to France following Louis' death during the Tunisian Crusade (in 1270) when his less-saintly younger brother, Charles of Anjou, was king of Naples and Sicily Tat ăl lui Wilhelm II, Wilhelm I cel Rău, zace într-un mormânt din porfir (sec XII) iar mama sa, Margareta de Navarra este şi ea îngropată la Monreale. De asemenea şi inima regelui Franţei Ludovic cel Sfânt, mort în timpul cruciadei în Tunis pe când fratele său Carol era regele Siciliei Imagini Internet
    15. 40. S ound: Roberto Alagna - Vitti 'na Crozza Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Gabriela Cristescu Internet slide24 Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement : Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda

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