Iran Taq e Bostan2

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Influenţa culturală Sasanidă s-a extins dincolo de graniţele imperiului ajungând în îndepărtata Europă de Vest, în Africa, China sau India.Ea a avut un rol important in formarea artei medievale, atât a celei Europene cât şi a celei asiatice.
The Sassanids' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.

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  • YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE:
    http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1449999-taq-e-bostan2/

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  • Thank you Nikos, I REALLY enjoy if you like
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  • Good morning dear Michaela. Congratulations again for your great work and many thanks for sharing. Wish you a beautiful day! Best greetings from Greece. I wish you also a wonderful weekend. Nikos
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  • thank you very much Cachi and Johndemi for visit, for comment, for support
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  • Beautiful and well documented ,thank you Michaela.
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  • About King Shapur II of Iran Shapur II (also spelled Šahpur II) was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379. When King Hormizd II (302–309) died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Roman Empire). The throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd II, who was Jewish. It is said that Shapur II may have been the only king in history to be crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates. But when Shapur II came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty.
  • During the early years of the reign of Shapur, Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Khora" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghlib", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd. He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him, as "Shabur Dhul-aktāf" or "Zol 'Aktāf" that means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle.
  • In 337, just before the death of Constantine I (324–337, also our ancestor), Shapur II broke the peace concluded in 297 between Narseh (293–302) and Emperor Diocletian (284–305), which had been observed for forty years. A 26-year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars, the first from 337 to 350. After crushing a rebellion in the south, he headed toward Mesopotamia and recaptured Armenia. From there he started his first campaign against Constantius II, a campaign which was mostly unsuccessful for Shapur II. He was unable to take the fortress of Singara in the Siege of Singara (344). Shapur II also attempted with limited success to conquer the great fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, Nisibis (which he besieged three times in vain) and Amida.
  • Although often victorious in battles, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. At the same time he was attacked in the east by nomad tribes, among whom the Xionites are named. He had to interrupt the war with the Romans and pay attention to the east. After a prolonged struggle (353–358) they were forced to conclude a peace, and their king, Grumbates, agreed to accompany Shapur II in the war against the Romans.
  • Under Shapur II's reign the collection of the Avesta was completed, heresy and apostasy punished, and the Christians persecuted. This was a reaction against the Christianization of the Roman Empire by our ancestor Constantine I. He was successful in the east, and the great town Nishapur in Khorasan (eastern Parthia) was founded by him. He founded some other towns as well.
  • In 358 Shapur II was ready for his second series of wars against Rome, which met with much more success. In 359, Shapur II conquered Amida after a siege of seventy-three days, and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 the Emperor Julian (361–363), at the head of a strong army, advanced to Shapur's capital at Ctesiphon and defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat.
  • He made peace with the Romans, something the Romans found disgraceful, and here is why: "King Shapuh of Iran ordered that all mature males be trampled by elephants, and that all the women and children should be put under the blades of threshers. They killed thousands upon thousands, myriads upon myriads, there was no counting the slain. [Shapuh] ordered that the women of the fugitive azats and naxarars should be taken to the horse-arena in the city of Zarehawan. He ordered that all the azat women should be stripped and seated here and there in the arena. Then king Shapuh himself, mounted on a horse quickly rode around the women. Those who caught his eye he took with him, one by one, to rape. For he had pitched a tent near the arena and he would go there to commit impiety. Thus he spent many days with the women. They killed all the mature males of the azg of the Siwnik' tohm, killed all the women, and [Shapuh] ordered that all the young boys should be made eunuchs and sent to the country of Iran.
  • Shapur II now invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II, the faithful ally of the Romans, prisoner by treachery: "Then king Shapuh of Iran ordered that chains be brought and cast around the neck of Arshak, and irons about his hands and feet, and that they should take him to Andmesh, which is called Anush fortress, and keep him bound there until he died--possibly by suicide. The next day king Shapuh ordered that Vasak Mamikonean, the general sparapet of Greater Armenia, should be brought before him, and he began to threaten hirn. Now Vasak was personally small, and Shapuh, king of Iran said to hirn: "Hey, fox, it was you who obstructed things and so fatigued us. You are the one who destroyed the Aryans for so many years. Why? I will kill you with a fox's death". Vasak replied, saying: "Now that you see me as personally short, you are not [accurately] measuring, my size. For until now I was a lion to you, but now, I am a fox. While I was Vasak, I was a giant with one foot on one mountain and the other foot on another mountain. When I leaned on my right foot the mountain [under my] right would be brought to the ground. When I leaned on my left foot, the left mountain would be brought to the ground".
  • King Shapuh of Iran then asked: "Pray tell me what were those two rnountains that you brought to the ground?" And Vasak replied: "Of the two mountains, one was you and the other was the Byzantine emperor. While God allowed, I brought you and the Byzantine emperor to the ground, since the blessing of our father Nerses was upon us, and God had not forsaken us. While we acted according to his word, and accepted his xrat, be aware, we could have given you xrat. But with our eyes open, we fell into the abyss. So, do what you want". Then the king of Iran ordered that the general of Armenia, Vasak, be flayed, that the skin be removed and filled with hay, and taken to that very Andmesh fortress (which they call Anyush) wherein king Arshak was being held. Shapur tried, during the Iranian invasions of Armenia in the late 360s, to exterminate the House of Siwnik': "They killed all the mature males of the azg of the Siwnik' tohm, and killed all the women; and [Shahpuhr] ordered that all the young boys should be made eunuchs and be sent to the country of Iran."
  • King Shapur II then attempted to introduce Zoroastrian orthodoxy into Armenia. However, the Armenian nobles resisted him successfully, secretly supported by the Romans, who sent King Pap, the son of Arshak II, into Armenia. The war with Rome threatened to break out again, but Valens sacrificed Pap, arranging for his assassination in Tarsus, where he had taken refuge (374). Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan and Pakistan. Shapur II had conducted great hosts of captives from the Roman territory into his dominions, most of whom were settled in Susiana. Here he rebuilt Susa, after having killed the city's rebellious inhabitants. By his death in 379 the Persian Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne, the eastern enemies were pacified and Persia had gained control over Armenia.
  • Iran Taq e Bostan2

    1. 1. The Sassanid rock reliefs Taq-e Bostan 2
    2. 2. Kermanshah Taq-e Bostan is a series of large rock relief from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia, the Iranian dynasty which ruled western Asia from 226 to 650 AD. L a doar 5 km de centrul oraşului Kermanshah, l a Taq-e Bostan , se află o serie de reliefuri şi inscripţii din epoca Imperiului Sasanid, dinastie iraniană care a condus Asia de Vest între anii 226 – 650 d.Hr Ardashir
    3. 15. Arcul mic ad ă poste şte două inscripţii şi sculpturile lui Shapur II supranumit Shapur cel Mare (cel de al nouălea rege sasanid, care a domnit între anii 309 şi 379) şi fiul său Shapur III (383-385). Înălţimea celor două statui este de 2,97 metri The smaller arch bears two Pahlavi scriptures and carvings of Shapur II, or Shapur the Great, ( the ninth King of the Persian Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 ) and his son Shapur III (383-385) facing each other. The figures of the two Kings have been carved in silhouette and each figure stands 2.97 meters tall. Khosrow II
    4. 19. Shapur II a fost probabil singurul rege din istorie încoronat in utero : coroana a fost plasată pe pântecele mamei sale . Dar când a crescut a devenit unul dintre cei mai mari domnitori ai dinastiei.
    5. 20. Shapur II was the only king in history to be crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. But when Shapur II came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty.
    6. 21. Imperiul Sasanid, cunoscut locuitorilor s ăi c u numele de Ērānshahr sau Ērān, a fost ultimul Imperiu Persan pre-islamic, condus de dinastia Sasanidă între anii 224-651. Statul sasanizilor cuprindea, pe lângă Iran, Afganistanul, Irakul, o mare parte din Armenia și Gruzia The Sassanid Empire (also spelled Sasanid Empire, Sassanian Empire, or Sasanian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān, was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty from 224 to 651. The coronation ceremony of Ardashir II (379–383)
    7. 22. Ahuramazda stands on the right and Ardashir receives the Ring of Kingship from him. Ahuramazda (î n partea dreapt ă) îi înmânează regelui Inelul Puterii Regale
    8. 23. Ardashir I I ( 379 to 383 ) the acts of brutality against Christians attributed to him severely contradict the unanimous view that he was the most kind and virtuous of the Sassanian rulers. Ardashir II was given the epithet "Nihoukar" or "Beneficient" by the Persians Ardashir II (379–383) Ardashir Ardashir I I ( 379 - 383 ) Actele de brutalitate împotriva creştinilor care îi sunt atribuite contrazic total părerea unanimă că a fost cel mai blând şi virtuos dintre monarhii sasanizi. Perşii l-au supranumit "Nihoukar" adică „B inefăcătorul”
    9. 24. Sub picioarele Regelui şi ale lui Ahuramazda zace leşul Împăratului Roman Iulian Apostatul, mort în anul 363 în Persia.
    10. 26. Beneath the feet of the King and Ahuramazda lies the body of the defeated Roman Emperor Iulianu s, the last pagan Roman Emperor, dead in 363 A.D.
    11. 27. The Sassanid Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognized as one of the two main powers in Western Asia and Europe, alongside the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years. Imperiul Sasanid, care a urmat Imperiului Part, a fost recunoscut ca una dintre cele două mari puteri din Vestul Asiei, atât de Imperiul Roman cât şi de Imperiul Bizantin, pentru o perioadă de mai bine de patru sute de ani. Purandokht , the daughter of the King Khosrow II of Persia Behind the King is shown Mithra as a symbol of protection. He is holding a "barsam" in his hands În spatele Regelui, Zeul Mithra, ca simbol al protecţiei divine, ţine în mână un „barsam”
    12. 28. Mithra stands on a lotus flower
    13. 29. Zeul Mithra st ă cu picioarele pe o floare de lotus
    14. 30. Perioada Sasanidă, în Antichitatea Tîrzie, este considerată cea mai importantă şi influentă perioadă istorică pentru Persia (Iran) şi constituie ultimul Mare Imperiu Persan înainte de cucerirea arabă şi adoptarea Islamului. The Sassanid era, during Late Antiquity, is considered to have been one of Persia's/Iran's most important and influential historical periods, and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. Ahuramazda
    15. 31. Shapur II supranumit Shapur cel Mare (cel de al nouălea rege sasanid, care a domnit între anii 309 şi 379) Shapur II, or Shapur the Great, ( the ninth King of the Persian Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 ) Ardashir I I (379–383)
    16. 32. The Sassanid Empire
    17. 34. Î n multe privinţe perioada Sasanidă a reprezentat culmea civilizaţiei persane. Persia a influenţat considerabil civilizaţia romană în timpul perioadei Sasanide. In many ways, the Sassanid period witnessed the peak of ancient Persian civilization. Persia influenced Roman civilization considerably during the Sassanid period. Shapur I
    18. 36. Influenţa culturală Sasanidă s-a extins dincolo de graniţele imperiului ajungând în îndepărtata Europă de Vest, în Africa, China sau India. Ea a avut un rol important in formarea artei medievale, atât a celei Europene cât şi a celei asiatice. The Sassanids' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.
    19. 39. Mithra
    20. 40. S ound: Hossein Alizadeh - Nahoft, Foroud Text: Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Arangement : Sanda Foişoreanu Iran

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