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Naqsh i Rustam3
 

Naqsh i Rustam3

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YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE (You have a link on the first slide): http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1461536-naqsh-rustam3/...

YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE (You have a link on the first slide): http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1461536-naqsh-rustam3/

Thank you!
Naqsh-i Rustam (in English, the Throne of Rustam) was considered a sacred mountain range in the Elamite periods (early first millennium BCE).
The façades of Naqsh-i Rustam became the burial site for four Achaemenid rulers and their families in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE, as well as a major center of sacrifice and celebration during the Sasanian period between the third and seventh century CE.
Naqsh-e Rustam, un fel de Vale a Regilor persani, un loc sacru unde sunt înmormântaţi Darius cel Mare şi succesorii săi. Mormintele sunt tăiate în stâncă şi amplasate la înălţime.
The Battle of Gaugamela took place in 331 BC between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. The battle, which is also called the Battle of Arbela, resulted in a massive victory for the Macedonians and led to the fall of the Persian Empire. After the battle, Parmenion rounded up the Persian baggage train while Alexander and his own bodyguard pursued Darius. As at Issus, substantial amounts of loot were gained following the battle, with 4,000 talents captured, as well as the King's personal chariot and bow. The war elephants were also captured. In all, it was a disastrous defeat for the Persians and one of Alexander's finest victories.
Darius had managed to escape the battle with a small core of his forces remaining intact. The Bactrian cavalry and Bessus managed to catch up with him, as did some of the survivors of the Royal Guard and 2,000 Greek mercenaries.
At this point, the Persian Empire was divided into two halves–East and West. On his escape, Darius gave a speech to what remained of his army. He planned to head further east and raise another army to face Alexander, assuming that the Macedonians would head towards Babylon. At the same time, he dispatched letters to his eastern satraps asking them to remain loyal.
The satraps, however, had other intentions. Bessus murdered Darius before fleeing eastwards. When Alexander discovered Darius murdered, he was saddened to see an enemy he respected killed in such a fashion, and gave Darius full burial and ceremony at Persepolis, the once ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire, before angrily pursuing Bessus, eventually capturing and executing him the following year. The majority of the remaining satraps gave their loyalty to Alexander and were allowed to keep their positions. The Persian Empire is traditionally considered to have ended with the death of Darius.

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  • The Royal Tombs and Other Monuments About 4.8 kilometers northwest of Persepolis lies the imposing site of Naqsh-i-Rustam in the mountain range of Husain Kuh, where Darius the Great and his successors had their monumental tombs carved into the cliff. Here in 1933 Herzfeld conducted a short survey and made soundings, but it was not until 1936 that Schmidt started to clear and document the royal tombs and to excavate the Ka'bah-i-Zardusht.
  • Only the tomb of Darius I can be identified beyond doubt by inscriptions. The three other tombs at Naqsh-i Rustam are attributed to his immediate successors, Xerxes, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II. Other royal tombs of similar form, thought to be those of the later Achaemenids, were built at Persepolis itself, cut into the rock face of the Kuh-i Rahmat, overlooking the Terrace. The two complete tombs are assigned to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III; an incomplete tomb was perhaps meant for the last Achaemenid king, Darius III. About 2 km south of Naqsh-i Rustam, on the south bank of the river Pulvar, are the remains of an unfinished freestanding structure, perhaps the base of a tomb intended for Cambyses II, modeled on the imposing tomb of his father, Cyrus the Great, at Pasargadae, up the Pulvar 43 km northeast of Persepolis.
  • Upper inscription (DNa) A great god is Ahuramazda , who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many. Darius' tomb I am Darius the great king, king of kings, king of countries containing all kinds of men, king in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes , an Achaemenid , a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan , having Aryan lineage. King Darius says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I seized outside of Persia; I ruled over them; they bore tribute to me; they did what was said to them by me; they held my law firmly; Media , Elam, Parthia , Aria , Bactria , Sogdia, Chorasmia , Drangiana , Arachosia , Sattagydia , Gandara , India, the haoma-drinking Scythians , the Scythians with pointed caps , Babylonia , Assyria , Arabia , Egypt, Armenia , Cappadocia , Lydia , the Greeks , the Scythians across the sea , Thrace, the sun hat-wearing Greeks, the Libyans, the Nubians, the men of Maka and the Carians .
  • King Darius says: Ahuramazda, when he saw this earth in commotion, thereafter bestowed it upon me, made me king; I am king. By the favor of Ahuramazda I put it down in its place; what I said to them, that they did, as was my desire. If now you shall think that "How many are the countries which King Darius held?" look at the sculptures [of those] who bear the throne, then shall you know, then shall it become known to you: the spear of a Persian man has gone forth far; then shall it become known to you: a Persian man has delivered battle far indeed from Persia. Darius the King says: This which has been done, all that by the will of Ahuramazda I did. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I did the work. May Ahuramazda protect me from harm, and my royal house, and this land: this I pray of Ahuramazda, this may Ahuramazda give to me! O man, that which is the command of Ahuramazda, let this not seem repugnant to you; do not leave the right path; do not rise in rebellion!
  • Lower inscription (DNb) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this excellent thing which is seen, who created happiness for man, who set wisdom and capability down upon King Darius. King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda I am of such a sort, I am a friend of the right, of wrong I am not a friend. It is not my wish that the weak should have harm done him by the strong, nor is it my wish that the strong should have harm done him by the weak. The right, that is my desire. To the man who is a follower of the lie I am no friend. I am not hot-tempered. What things develop in my anger, I hold firmly under control by my thinking power. I am firmly ruling over my own impulses. The man who is cooperative, according to his cooperation thus I reward him. Who does harm, him according to the harm I punish. It is not my wish that a man should do harm; nor indeed is it my wish that if he does harm he should not be punished.
  • The facade of tomb I, which faces southeast, lies about 15 m above the surface total height is 22.93 m, but a vertical enlargement toward the bottom may have been intentional as the quarrying slots at the base suggest. The facade is divided into three registers: the bottom register is blank, the middle is sculptured to imitate the front of a palace, and the top shows the monarch at worship on the top of a piece of furniture that is supported by representatives of the nations in his realm.
  • The middle register, which gives access to the burial chamber, is adorned with a relief representing a building facade. Erich F. Schmidt (1970, p. 81) has shown that the model for it was the facade of the residential palace of Darius at Persepolis (tacara: a portico with two rows of four columns in antis). In addition to the architectural similarities, Schmidt notes that the principal dimensions are identical (length, height, distances between the centers of the columns, width of the doorway), except for the height of the columns (the lost palace columns are computed from the steps in the antae). This difference arises from a common misunderstanding resulting from the transposition of three-dimensional architecture into two-dimensional relief, however: the capitals, in the shape of addorsed bulls carrying the stepped architrave between their heads, are turned 90 degrees, to be seen in profile; the architrave is consequently shown in cross section and looks instead like small roof beams. If the palace columns are reconstructed with the architrave placed between the bulls' heads of the capitals, they have the same height as the relief columns carved at the tomb. The panels between the columns bear a trilingual cuneiform inscription of Darius I (designated DN b); an Aramaic inscription was added later. 
  • The top register is adorned with a framed relief panel showing an imposing estrade (or dais) supported by thirty representatives of the nations of the empire, identified by cuneiform captions. They are arranged in two tiers of fourteen people with raised arms between the legs, and two people on the outside support the feet of the estrade. Unlike the sculptured supporting figures on Assyrian or Urartian furniture, the figures here are actually lifting the dais, and, as they are all facing right, they appear to move it in this direction. On the top, the king, standing on a three-stepped pedestal, faces a fire altar. A figure in a winged disk hovers above, between king and altar, and there is a moon symbol farther to the right. Since the last century, the man in the winged disk has usually been called Ahuramazda [ fravahar ], but Shapur Shahbazi (1974) has shown that this interpretation is mainly based on a circular argument. On the tombs and in the Persepolitan palaces, the figure is not only related to the king by his position, he also wears the royal garment and crown; this, along with some written sources, and the Assyrian prototype, points to his being a royal daimon or daimon of kingship. Behind the king is a second inscription of Darius I (DN a). The frame of the relief panel and the projecting side walls are adorned with reliefs. Behind the king stand his spear bearer, the bearer of his battle-ax and bow, and several anonymous spear-bearing Persians. On the opposite strip of frame and wall, several Persians, with their left hands raised to their mouths, face the king. 
  • Three copies of Darius's tomb facade (tombs II-IV) were cut into the same cliff by his successors, but definitive attributions to individual Achaemenid kings have not yet been reached. 
  • Achaemenid Period Four tombs of Achaemenid monarchs are cut into the rock of the cliff (Schmidt, 1970). A square tower erected in stone blocks (Kabah-i Zardusht) stands in front of the cliff, and some minor walls of built structures were detected in trenches dug there.  The sepulchral compartments tunneled into the rock differ in plan and in the number of burial cists, but their facades are essentially alike. The oldest (no. I) is dated to Darius I the Great (521-486 BCE) by his inscriptions ; the other tombs (nos. II-IV) can be assigned to his successors only through iconography and style .
  • The Kabah-i Zardusht is a square tower (12.50 m high and 7.32 m wide) with reinforced corners that stands on a three-stepped base. It is built of light-colored stone with false windows in dark stone. Most of the tower is solid, but in the upper half a small room with a door facing the cliff can be reached through a stone staircase. An identical monument was built at Pasargadae (Zendan-i Sulaiman). The purpose of these towers is not known, but it has been proposed that it was either a royal tomb, a depository for objects of dynastic or religious importance, or a fire sanctuary. The third can be ruled out because there is no ventilation or outlet for smoke or gases. In the Sasanian period inscriptions of Shapur I and Kartir the high priest were cut into the tower.
  • The Kabah-i Zardusht is a square tower (12.50 m high and 7.32 m wide) with reinforced corners that stands on a three-stepped base. It is built of light-colored stone with false windows in dark stone. Most of the tower is solid, but in the upper half a small room with a door facing the cliff can be reached through a stone staircase. An identical monument was built at Pasargadae (Zendan-i Sulaiman). The purpose of these towers is not known, but it has been proposed that it was either a royal tomb, a depository for objects of dynastic or religious importance, or a fire sanctuary. The third can be ruled out because there is no ventilation or outlet for smoke or gases. In the Sasanian period inscriptions of Shapur I and Kartir the high priest were cut into the tower.
  • Bătălia de la Gaugamela ( astăzi Tel Gomel în nordul Irakului ) a avut loc pe 1 octombrie 331 î.Hr. și a fost una dintre bătăliile decisive din istoria lumii. A fost dusă între Alexandru Macedon și Darius III al Persiei . Bătălia numită în mod greșit și Bătălia de la Arbela a fost o mare victorie pentru statul macedonean și a dus la prăbușirea Imperiului Persan . Fiind amenințat direct, Darius părăsește câmpul de luptă, cauzând o derută totală în rândul oștenilor săi. Și-au pierdut viața peste 40.000 de perși, în timp numai câteva sute de macedoneni au căzut victime. Alexandru Macedon renunță la urmărirea lui Darius, deoarece flancul drept al armatei sale se afla în dificultate.
  • The Battle of Gaugamela took place in 331 BC between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia . The battle, which is also called the Battle of Arbela , resulted in a massive victory for the Macedonians and led to the fall of the Persian Empire . After the battle, Parmenion rounded up the Persian baggage train while Alexander and his own bodyguard pursued Darius. As at Issus , substantial amounts of loot were gained following the battle, with 4,000 talents captured, as well as the King's personal chariot and bow. The war elephants were also captured. In all, it was a disastrous defeat for the Persians and one of Alexander's finest victories. Darius had managed to escape the battle with a small core of his forces remaining intact. The Bactrian cavalry and Bessus managed to catch up with him, as did some of the survivors of the Royal Guard and 2,000 Greek mercenaries. At this point, the Persian Empire was divided into two halves–East and West. On his escape, Darius gave a speech to what remained of his army. He planned to head further east and raise another army to face Alexander, assuming that the Macedonians would head towards Babylon . At the same time, he dispatched letters to his eastern satraps asking them to remain loyal. The satraps, however, had other intentions. Bessus murdered Darius before fleeing eastwards. When Alexander discovered Darius murdered, he was saddened to see an enemy he respected killed in such a fashion, and gave Darius full burial and ceremony at Persepolis, the once ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire, before angrily pursuing Bessus, eventually capturing and executing him the following year. The majority of the remaining satraps gave their loyalty to Alexander and were allowed to keep their positions. The Persian Empire is traditionally considered to have ended with the death of Darius.

Naqsh i Rustam3 Naqsh i Rustam3 Presentation Transcript

  • http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1461536-naqsh-rustam3/
  • The practice of rock carving as a form of artisticexpression, already known in ancient Persia, found a newand splendid lease of life during the Sassanid period.These carvings are notable not only for their great numberbut also for their enormous dimensions and compositionalexcellence.Basoreliefurile sculptate în stâncă, formă majoră deexprimare artistică practicată în Persia antică, a cunoscutîn perioada Sasanidă o înflorire deosebită. Acestesculpturi sunt notabile, nu numai datorită numărului mare,dar, de asemenea, pentru dimensiunile lor de-a dreptulenorme şi pentru excelenta realizare şi compoziţie
  • Tomb II. Artaxerxes I? Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitous cliff at the south side of the Husain Kuh, located north of Persepolis, Iran, with rock reliefs ranging from Elamite (second millennium BCE) to Sasanian times (fifth century CE). Surrounding it are other rock installations and some Achaemenid and Sasanian architecture, most of which lies under several meters of debris and has not yet been excavated. Naqsh-i Rostam este o stâncă abruptă situată în partea de sud a munţilor Kuh Husain, la nord de Persepolis. Aici se găsesc basoreliefuri Elamite săpate în stâncă (mileniul II î.Hr.), morminte ahemenide şi reliefuri Sasanide (secolul V d.Hr). Există şi alte basoreliefuri în împrejurimi precum şi unele construcţii ahemenide şi sasanide la o adâncime de câţiva metri în pământ, care nu au fost încă scoase la lumină.
  • Tomb II. Artaxerxes I?Tomb I. Darius II?
  • Naqsh-i Rustam, probably the ancient Nupistaš, is situated about five kilometers northwest of Persepolis, the capital of the ancient Achaemenid empire. As is shown by a pre-Achaemenid relief and several old graves, Naqsh-i Rustam was already a place of some importance when king Darius I the Great (522-486) ordered his monumental tomb to be carved into the cliff, which is known as the Huseyn Kuh. High above the ground there are four crosses carved in to the sheer rock face.Naqsh-i Rustam, probabil vechiul Nupistash, este situat la aproximativ cinci kilometrinord-vest de Persepolis, capitala imperiului antic ahemenid. După cum indică unbasorelief pre-ahemenid, Naqsh-i Rustam era deja un loc de o anumită importanţăatunci când regele Darius I cel Mare (522-486) a ordonat să-i fie sculptat în stâncanumită azi Kuh Husein mormântul monumental.Mult deasupra solului, există patru „cruci” sculptate în faţa stâncii.
  • Although Tomb I (left) and II(right) have no inscriptions thatmay help us identify its owners,they probably belongedto Darius II Nothus (423-404)and to Artaxerxes I Makrocheir(465-424).Like Tomb IV, which is generallyattributed to Xerxes (486-465),they are almost exact copies ofthe final resting place of Dariusthe Great.Deşi Mormintele I (stânga) şi II(dreapta) nu au inscripţii care arputea ajuta la identificarea lorcertă, ele au aparţinut probabillui Artaxerxe I Makrocheir(464-424 î. H.), fiul şi succesorullui Xerxes I şi al prineţeseiAmestris şi lui Darius II Nothus(423-404), fiul acestuia.Ca şi mormântul IV, care este,în general, atribuit lui Xerxes(486-465), ele sunt copiiaproape exacte ale locului deveci al lui Darius cel Mare(mormântul III).
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424) Known locally as the Persian Crosses, these are the tombs of Achaemenid monarchs. This realm, also known as the Persian Empire, persisted until the third century BCE and its rulers included names we still recognize today, such as Cyrus, Xerxes and Darius (all referred to as The Great). At the center of each of the crosses the entrance to each of the tombs is still visible. Cunoscute pe plan local drept crucile persane, acestea sunt mormintele regilor ahemenizi. Acest Imperiu, cunoscut sub numele de Imperiul Persan a rezistat până în secolul III î.Hr când a fost cucerit de Alexandru cel Mare, devenind o parte a lumii elenistice. Printre conducătorii săi se numără nume pe care le recunoaştem şi astăzi, cum ar fi Cyrus, Xerxes sau Darius (toate denumite în continuare „cel Mare”). În centrul fiecărei cruci se vede intrarea în fiecare dintre morminte.
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424) Achaemenid Empire around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes The upper register is identical to the relief of Darius tomb: the king is standing in front of an altar, praying to the supreme Ahuramazda and sacrificing to the holy fire. In his right hand, the king has his bow, the royal attribute par excellence. Again, the plaform is carried by people that represent the subject nations. The symbol in the upper right corner represents the moon. Registrul superior este identic cu basorelieful de la mormântul lui Darius: regele este în picioare în faţa unui altar, rugându-se zeului suprem Ahuramazda şi aducând sacrificii focului sacru. În mâna dreaptă are arcul, un atribut regal prin excelenţă. Şi aici plaforma este purtată de oameni care reprezintă popoarele supuse. Simbolul din colţul din dreapta sus reprezintă luna.
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424) Again, the plaform is carried by people that represent the subject nations. Platforma pe care se află regele este dusă pe umeri de reprezentanţii naţiunilor care formează imperiul
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)
  • Tomb III. Darius ITomb II. Artaxerxes I? Tomb IV. Xerxes
  • Tomb II. Artaxerxes I? Tomb III. Darius I
  • In 1923, the German archaeologistErnst Herzfeld made casts of theinscriptions on the tomb of Darius I.Since 1946, these casts are held inthe archives of the Freer Gallery ofArt and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery,Smithsonian Institution, inWashington, DC.Naqsh-e Rustam was excavated forseveral seasons between 1936 and1939 by a team from the OrientalInstitute of the University of Chicago,led by Erich Schmidt.În 1923, arheologul german ErnstHerzfeld a făcut mulaje dupăinscripţiile de pe mormântul lui DariusI. Din anul 1946, aceste mulaje seaflă în arhivele din Muzeul de ArtăAsiatică a Institutului Smithsonian, dinWashington, DC (Galeria de ArtăFreer s-a alăturat galeriei Arthur M.Sackler, formând împreună Muzeulde Artă Asiatică a InstitutuluiSmithsonian).Naqsh-e Rustam a fost excavat înmai multe etape între 1936 şi 1939 decătre o echipă de la Institutul Orientalal Universităţii din Chicago, condusăde Erich Schmidt.
  • Tomb I. Darius II?
  • Tomb I. Darius II? Each tomb could contain three to nine people. The later Achaemenid kings, Artaxerxes II Mnemon, Artaxerxes III Ochus and Darius III Codomannus were probably buried in tombs at Persepolis. Archaeologists are almost certain that the tombs were closed after the burial. After Alexander the Great had overthrown the Achaemenid empire, the doors were smashed and the tombs were looted. În fiecare mormânt s-au aflat trei, până la nouă persoane. Regii ahemenizi de mai târziu, Artaxerxes II Mnemon, Artaxerxe III Ochus şi Darius al III-lea Codomannus au fost probabil îngropaţi în mormintele de la Persepolis. Arheologii sunt aproape siguri că intrările în morminte au fost zidite după înmormântare. După ce Alexandru cel Mare a cucerit imperiul ahemenid, uşile zidite au fost sparte, iar mormintele au fost jefuite.
  • Tomb I. Darius II? The entrance leads in to a small chamber in which the king would be laid in his sarcophagus. To indicate that it was a king’s tomb, the horizontal arch at the top of the relief is thought to be a reproduction of the one which lay above the entrance to the palace located in Persepolis. Yet the tombs are empty now – and have been for a considerable time. When the Persian Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great they were desecrated and their precious contents stolen. Perhaps they were too obvious a target to remain unspoiled for long. Intrarea conduce la o încăpere mică unde se află sarcofagul regelui. În partea superioară a basoreliefului este o un arc orizontal (considerat a fi o reproducere a celui aflat la intrarea în palatul din Persepolis) care indică faptul că este vorba de un mormânt regal. În prezent mormintele sunt goale şi au fost aşa o perioadă considerabilă de timp. Atunci când Imperiul Persan a fost cucerit de către Alexandru cel Mare ele au fost profanate şi conţinutul lor preţios jefuit. Poate au fost un obiectiv prea evident pentru a rămâne intact
  • Tomb I. Darius II? The middle register, which gives access to the burial chamber, is adorned with a relief representing a building facade. Erich F. Schmidt (1970, p. 81) has shown that the model for it was the facade of the residential palace of Darius at Persepolis (tacara: a portico with two rows of four columns in antis). Registrul de mijloc, care asigură accesul la camera de înmormântare, este împodobit cu un relief reprezentând faţada unei clădirii. Erich F. Schmidt (1970, p. 81) a arătat că modelul a fost faţada sudică a palatului rezidenţial al lui Darius de la Persepolis (tacara: un portic cu două rânduri de patru coloane).
  • Tomb I. Darius II?
  • Tomb II (Artaxerxes I (465-424)Tomb I. Darius II?
  • Tomb I. Darius II?
  • Tomb II. Artaxerxes I? Tomb III. Darius I
  • The Kabah-i Zardusht is a square tower (12.50m high and 7.32 m wide)
  • The Kabah-i Zardusht is a square tower (12.50 m high and 7.32m wide) with reinforced corners that stands on a three-steppedbase. It is built of light-colored stone with false windows in darkstone. Most of the tower is solid, but in the upper half a smallroom with a door facing the cliff can be reached through astone staircase. An identical monument was built atPasargadae (Zendan-i Sulaiman). Thepurpose of these towers is not known, but it hasbeen proposed that it was either a royal tomb, adepository for objects of dynastic or religiousimportance, or a fire sanctuary. The third canbe ruled out because there is no ventilationor outlet for smoke or gases. In theSasanian period inscriptions of Shapur Iand Kartir the high priest were cutInto the tower.
  • Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Internet (slides 1,5,7) Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement: Sanda FoişoreanuSound: Vangelis - The Drums Of Gaugamela www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda