Myanmar37, Kachin tribes

  • 475 views
Uploaded on

YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE: …

YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE:
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-2062036-myanmar37-kachin-tribes/
Thank you!
Kachin State is in the extreme north of Burma and shares borders with China and India. There are six different ethnic sub groups: each has its own colourful traditional dress and each has its own dialect but Jinghpaw is the lingua franca.
Formerly animists, the vast majority of Kachins have converted to Christianity since missionaries first arrived in the mid nineteenth century. But animist practices still survive e.g. in the Manau Festivals which originated as part of the ‘Nat’ or spirit worship of the past.
The Manau dance is a huge celebratory dance around the Manau structure, which follows symbolically the steps of the ancestors when they migrated to Burma from the Qinghai Tibet plateau. The dance can last anything from 1-3 hours up to 4-8 days!

More in: Travel , News & Politics
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • @MABAGI
    Thank you Mabagi for your kind words, thank you
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Welcome Thais, thank you for adding to your favourites this presentation, thank you
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Thank you Michaela for your lovely and quite interesting creation; the docummentary is pretty good. Congratulations for your wonderful work, this delightful presentation,
    MABAGI
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • @johndemi2
    Thank you John, thank you so MUCH
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • @carmadruga
    Thank you Carmen, thank you; So sad what happens there....
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
475
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
17
Comments
12
Likes
5

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • internet

Transcript

  • 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-2062036-myanmar37-kachin-tribes/
  • 2. Myanmar is an ethnically diverse nation with 135 distinct ethnic groups officially recognized by the Burmese government. These are grouped into eight "major national ethnic races”. There are approximately one hundred languages spoken in Burma. Burmese, spoken by approximately 65% of the populace, is the official language and the primary language of instruction. Kachin State is in the extreme north of Burma and shares borders with China and India. There are six different ethnic sub groups: each has its own colourful traditional dress as demonstrated in the photograph of the children, and each has its own dialect but Jinghpaw is the lingua franca. Formerly animists, the vast majority of Kachins have converted to Christianity since missionaries first arrived in the mid nineteenth century. But animist practices still survive eg in the Manau Festivals which originated as part of the ‘Nat’ or spirit worship of the past. The Manau dance is a huge celebratory dance around the Manau structure, which follows symbolically the steps of the ancestors when they migrated to Burma from the Qinghai Tibet plateau. The dance can last anything from 1-3 hours up to 4-8 days! The Manau varies in its decoration, but the basic designs are diamond shaped and curved lines. The top and bottom is usually painted with pictures of the sun, moon and earth, and the topmost side is cut, shaped and painted in the form of a bird’s beak
  • 3. From their folklore, language and culture, it is clear the Kachin originated in Tibet. By the time the British in 19th century colonial Burma first became aware of them, in the far north of that newly conquered territory, the Kachin had expanded southwards into the highlands of what is today known as Kachin State. Because of the aggressive, warlike behavior of the Kachin, the relation ship between the Kachin and most other people groups was uneasy. Each Kachin chief considered himself independent and under no foreign domination, which resulted in strained relations with the Burmese. The Burmese look down on the Kachin as “wild men from the hills.”
  • 4. These forest-clad mountains, deeply fissured by river valleys, have rich mineral resources, including alluvial gold, rubies and sapphire, and the jadeite (imperial green jade) historically revered as “the stone of heaven” in China.
  • 5. During the 90 years of the British Raj, the Kachin began to adapt to their changing circumstances. Their society did not disintegrate under the impact of the new political dispensation, and the arrival of powerful forces from distant regions fermented growth. American Baptist missionaries brought medicine, education, and above all literacy. A gifted linguist, the Swedish-American Ola Hanson, still revered by the Kachin, devised a writing system modeled on the Western alphabet in order to print a Kachin translation of the Bible.
  • 6. Over time, prompted by their martial traditions, young Kachin began to volunteer to serve in newly organized army and police units recruited by the British. This vocation continued through World War II, when both the Americans and the British raised Kachin units to oppose the Japanese. They fought a highly successful guerrilla campaign against over-extended Japanese supply lines, making a vital contribution, along with the Chindits, to the destruction of the Japanese advance into India. Their contribution earned them the accolade “the Gurkhas of Southeast Asia.” In fact, just as the Gurkhas’ kukri forms part of their traditional ceremonial uniform, so the Kachin shortsword, or dah, is still carried upright by the male Kachin as part of their ritual costume as they dance the manau
  • 7. the Kachin shortsword, or dah, part of the ritual costume
  • 8. Dha (also spelled dah or dhaw) is the Burmese word for "knife." The term dha is conventionally used refer to a wide variety of knives and swords used by many people across Indochina A Kachin ‘Dah’ or sword is an important feature or the Manau Dance and is held upright by the dancer. In Kachin culture the sword or knife is the most unique and indispensable tool of life. With this knife, land is cleared for cultivation, trees felled for timber to build house and vows are exchanged with the Kachin ‘dah’ as witness in betrothal ceremonies much as a Bible is used in Christian ceremonies. It was also with this sword that Kachin nationalists revolted against colonial rule. So it is no wonder that the Kachin sword features so prominently in the most important of the Kachin Manau festivals
  • 9. But most important of all these swords are heirlooms handed down through the generations. They form the dowry at a wedding ceremony and the parents of the newly-wedded couple exchange the family sword as a wedding gift. This serves the forging and recognition of a new relationship. Thus by tradition the Kachin sword is the emblem of kinship.
  • 10. The Kachin are renowned for their weaving skills. A woven shoulder bag and a silver sword in a sheath are essential components of a typical Kachin man's dress (these two articles for the men represent protection and provision) while women decorate themselves with silverware that covers half of their torsos.
  • 11. Brighton Museum
  • 12. The myth accounting for the origin of the manau describes how the sun god summoned to his court the earthly community of birds, led by the hornbill—a “king black bird” (probably a raven)—and ordered them to dance for his entertainment. In later times, the birds are then said to have taught the Kachin the same dances
  • 13. Black and white hornbill feathers adorn the elaborate headdresses of the lead dancers, while their costumes also feature images of various birds, including the peacock. The elaborate ceremonial is an art form that expresses the quintessence of the pride the Kachin have in their history and culture.
  • 14. The Manau dance which is a tradition of the Kachin peoples is celebrated to worship and propitiate the "Lamu Madai", God of the Spirits. The divine God Lamu Madai is believed to be the creator of the Universe and the Manau Celebration is a tradition ritual conducted with various aims in worship of this divinity. The Great Hornbill is the State bird of Chin state in Myanmar.
  • 15. Kachin Man - manau lider In the arena where the Manau festivities are to be held, 12 emblazoned poles are erected of which 10 are fixed upright as colonnades and two are laid horizontally at the base. The Manau sacred pillars are the symbol of Kachin identity. The two main middle poles stand for father and mother. The pole with the symbol of the moon represents the father and that with the symbol of the sun is for the mother. The Ma-nau is said to have originated from the coupling of the sun and the moon as husband and wife
  • 16. This is why these two poles with the sun and the moon are prominently designed and displayed. The two poles on each side of the central poles stand for sons and daughters. Then there are a couple of poles flanking each side of the four erect poles to form a kind of crucifix. These are the sacrificial poles. According to ancient Kachin mythology, the first ancestors of the Kachin ethnic group, were Ja Nyi and Ja Ngai, an ancient brother and sister. They are believed to be the parents of the Kachin race. From the son of Ja Nyi and Ja Ngai who married the daughter of the King of Dragons are descended the second generation of the Kachin ancestors. So the Kachin people are the descendants of a mythical dragon and an ancient brother and sister.
  • 17. Jinghpaw Rawang Kachin National Manau Park
  • 18. The pole with the dragon of the Manau sacred pillars represents the origin of the Kachin race. The pole with the design of a hornbill bird, represents the master of ceremonies of the Ma-nau celebrations.
  • 19. The patterns on the Manau poles depict the style of movement, the route of an army of ants, birds in flight, bulls fighting, fertile seeds germinating and waves undulating. The Manau dance movements follow the patchwork design on the Ma-nau poles.
  • 20. The men wearing elaborate head gear who lead the participating dancers are the masters of the celebration and are called "Dum Sa". The masters of the ceremonies, as dictated by custom, adorn their heads with long and elaborate head ornaments of a taxidermized head of a horn bill and a few feathers of the peafowl. The reason is that this very hornbill bird is believed to be the pioneer and leader of the Ma-nau dance. Hence the reason why the masters of the dance wear the horn bill. They also wear a long garment in the style of a crosier. This kind of attire was worn exclusively by former Kachin chieftains known as Duwa and Salang Wa. They were the only ones privileged to wear these long robes.
  • 21. Peacock Pheasant the national bird of Kachin State
  • 22. Thus there are 7 principal Ma nau celebrations each with its own aim. (1) Sut Manau (for prosperity) (2) Padang Manau - (for victory) (3) Ju Manau (for health) (4) Kumreng Manau (for preservation tradition) (5) Shadip hpaw Manau (for blessing) (6) Daw Jau Manau (in praise and thanksgiving) (7) Hpaji Jan Mau Manau (for enlightenment)
  • 23. (6) Daw Jau Manau (For praising and thanksgiving) This occasion is for house warming. Nowadays, the Kachin people hold such a celebration even for a Church inauguration but with modifications and adaptations to suit Christian teaching. The ceremony is performed as an act of gratitude to the Holy God of Christianity and to ask for his blessings.
  • 24. Hpaji Jan Mau Ma-nau (For enlightenment) is performed in adoration and thanksgiving for enlightenment through education. Educational qualifications and degrees are highly valued and a Kachin national thanks God for his education and intellectual development and for not being an illiterate person. They also make a wish for further education and to be free of ignorance.
  • 25. In actual fact, the Daw Jan Manau and Hpaji Jan Mau Manau are late additions arising from the introduction of Christianity.
  • 26. It was only after conversion to the Christian faith, that the Manau for praise and thanksgiving and that for enlightenment were added to the more conventional and traditional Manau ceremonies. The object of homage in the latter two ceremonies is God the Father.
  • 27. Other legend sais that in the beginning no one knew how to dance. Only the sun nats knew the secret, and when they danced they called the birds to participate. The birds went to the sun country to learn the dance. Returning, they saw a Banyan tree with ripe fruit. The black bird, skipping about, said, “let us eat.” The Npring bird also began to dance and said, “let us eat.” Thus, while partaking of the fruit, the birds danced the dance of the sun country. Then, imitating birds, a man named Shingra wa Gumja and his wife Madai Hpraw (the white celestial woman) learned the dance and introduced it among men.
  • 28. There are several variations to traditional Kachin dress corresponding to the traditional tribes.
  • 29. The word for God in Kachin is “Karai Kasang.” The Kachin people believed that there is Karai Kasang, someone beyond this creation, since in the time of Nat worship (Spirit worship) before they became Christians. Karai Kasang did not demand anything from human beings. The Kachins did not give any offering or sacrifice to Karai Kasang. However, Karai Kasang is the merciful one who is always ready to help the people in need; to do justice if one does injustice to others; to stand on the side of the poor, the orphan, the widow and the weakest. No one can see Karai Kasang. Karai Kasang is, thus, a spirit–the Great Spirit. The Kachin people do not call Karai Kasang father or mother because Karai Kasang is neither female nor male: Karai Kasang is beyond gender. Karai Kasang is not just transcendent but also immanent. So, for Kachin people, Karai Kasang is neither hierarchal nor patriarchal
  • 30. Text and pictures: Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Presentation: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda Sound Traditional Kachin Dance