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Frumuseţea edificiilor face din Mitla unul dintre cele mai importante situri arheologice. Templele sunt decorate cu orname...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Palatul Coloanelor este cel mai bine conservat edificiu
Se crede că mozaicurile îl reprezintă pe  „Şarpele Cerului”
 
Se crede că mozaicurile îl reprezintă pe  „Şarpele Cerului”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alevriches
 
 
 
 
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Peter Kater and Nawang Khechog - The Dance of Innocents Lakota Lullaby F otografii: Sanda Foişoreanu Sanda Potroviţă Preze...
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Mitla, Mexico

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Mitla is the second most important archeological site in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, and the most important of the Zapotec culture. However, what makes Mitla unique among Mesoamerican sites is the elaborate and intricate mosaic fretwork and geometric designs that cover tombs, panels, friezes and even entire walls. These mosaics are made with small, finely cut and polished stone pieces which have been fitted together without the use of mortar. No other site in Mexico has this (Wikipedia).
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  • Mitla is the second most important archeological site in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, and the most important of the Zapotec culture The site is located 44 km from the city of Oaxaca in the upper end of the Tlacolula Valley, one of the three that form the Central Valleys Region of the state The archeological site is within the modern municipality of San Pablo Villa de Mitla While Monte Albán was most important as the political center, Mitla was the main religious center.
  • The name Mitla is derived from the Nahuatl name Mictlán, which was the place of the dead or underworld. Its Zapotec name is Lyobaa, which means “place of rest.” The name Mictlán was hispanicized to Mitla by the Spanish.
  • However, what makes Mitla unique among Mesoamerican sites is the elaborate and intricate mosaic fretwork and geometric designs that cover tombs, panels, friezes and even entire walls. These mosaics are made with small, finely cut and polished stone pieces which have been fitted together without the use of mortar. No other site in Mexico has this.
  • Mitla itself was inhabited at least since the Classic Period (100-650 CE) and perhaps as early as 900 BCE. It began as a fortified village on the outer edge of the valley to become the main religious center for the area. The Mixtecs took control of the area around 1000 CE although the area remained populated by the Zapotec. The city reached its height and largest size between 750 and 1521, with both Zapotec and Mixtec influences in its architecture during that time. Mitla is one of the areas which represents Mesoamerican attitudes towards death, as the most consequential part of life after birth. It was built as a gateway between the world of the living and the world of the dead.
  • During the early colonial period, some of the best descriptions of the site come from the soldiers and missionaries who arrived first in the valley. One of the first to write formally about Mitla was Friar Toribio de Benavente Motolina in the mid 16th century. He states that the name meant “hell.” As the site held great political and religious significance for the area, most of the buildings suffered destruction, dismantling and sacking, with a few buildings spared. Some of the rooms of the site were inhabited by the Spanish clergy. This destruction was ordered by Oaxacan Archbishop Albuquerque in 1553. The remains were used as building materials for churches, including the Church of San Pablo, which sits on top of part of the ruins. The north side of the Cathedral of Oaxaca also has design features from Mitla to symbolize the new religious order.
  • In the state of Oaxaca, Mitla is second in importance as an archeological site only to Monte Alban. At the beginning of the 20th century, the government of Porfirio Díaz chose Mitla to be one of the emblematic symbols of pre-Hispanic Mexico for Centennial celebrations of Mexico’s Independence. Alfonso Caso, the archaeologist who excavated Monte Albán also did work at Mitla in the 1920s and 1930s. Mitla has been the site of further excavations since the 1980s with important work done on the North Group as well as the colonial church at the turn of the century. For the bicentennial celebrations in 2010, INAH has been intensifying efforts to conserve the ancient ruins.
  • Instead of building a set of pyramids on a hill, like at Monte Albán, Mitla is a set of constructions built on the valley floor, and it lacks the wide and far vistas of Monte Alban. The architecture is geared more for the comfort of the residents than for magnificence. The construction of Mitla as a ceremonial center began in 850 and was still being expanded when the Spaniards arrived and destroyed it. The oldest of the groups is dated to between 450 and 700 CE and shows similar architectural features as the earlier Monte Alban
  • It is one of the few sites that originate in the Classic period.] The site represents the most developed architecture of the Zapotecs and is the product of the syncretism of Mixtec and Zapotec design features which reached it height in 1200. This syncretism can also been seen in the Catholic churches built over the foundations of destroyed temples in this area, such as the San Pedro Church located in the North Group and the Calvario Chapel, located in the Adobe Group
  • The main distinguishing feature of Mitla is the intricate mosaic fretwork and geometric designs that profusely adorn the walls of both the Church and Columns groups. The geometric patterns called grecas in Spanish seen on some of the stone walls and door frames are made from thousands of cut, polished stones that are fitted together without mortar. The pieces were set against a stucco background painted red.
  • The stones are held in place by the weight of the stones that surround them. Walls, friezes and tombs are decorated with mosaic fretwork. In some cases, such as in lintels, these stone “tiles” are embedded directly into the stone beam. The elaborate mosaics are considered to be a type of “Baroque” design as the designs are elaborate and intricate and in some cases cover entire walls. None of the fretwork designs are repeated exactly anywhere in the complex. The fretwork here is unique in all of Mesoamerica.
  • Palace building
  • Church of San Pedro On average 500 people per day visit the site.
  • Text : Wikipedia
  • Transcript of "Mitla, Mexico"

    1. 1. Frumuseţea edificiilor face din Mitla unul dintre cele mai importante situri arheologice. Templele sunt decorate cu ornamentaţii „ grecas”,unice în ţară, în care nu apar figuri umane, animale sau fiinţe mitologice. Mozaicurile elaborate din piatră cioplită se crede că l-ar reprezenta pe Şarpele Cerului, o variantă a omniprezentului Quetzalcoatl. Aşezarea a fost locuită în aceeaşi perioadă ca şi Monte Alb á n (de la 500 î.C) iar zapotecii au început să construiască aici cam pe la anul 200 d.C. Mitla
    2. 9. Palatul Coloanelor este cel mai bine conservat edificiu
    3. 10. Se crede că mozaicurile îl reprezintă pe „Şarpele Cerului”
    4. 12. Se crede că mozaicurile îl reprezintă pe „Şarpele Cerului”
    5. 24. Alevriches
    6. 29. Hacienda San Augustin
    7. 32. Peter Kater and Nawang Khechog - The Dance of Innocents Lakota Lullaby F otografii: Sanda Foişoreanu Sanda Potroviţă Prezentare: Sanda Foişoreanu
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