Lucca, un tesoro nascosto tra le sue mura


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Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Lucca. Among other reasons, it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls

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  • Panoramic view out over Florence from the Bardini Garden, Florence
  • First republic Main article: Republic of Lucca After the death of Matilda of Tuscany , the city began to constitute itself an independent commune , with a charter in 1160. For almost 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina ; Tuscany in this time was a part of feudal Europe. Dante ’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo (captain of the people) named Luchetto Gattilusio . In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca. The Lucchesi expelled him two years later, and handed over the city to another condottiere Castruccio Castracani , under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio , Castracani defeated Florence 's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco. His biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca hosted the convocation intended to end the schism in the papacy. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola, then seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Martino della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, and then nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, and after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, and painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789
  • Lucca, un tesoro nascosto tra le sue mura

    1. 1.
    2. 2. Lucca is a cityand comune inTuscany, CentralItaly, situated onthe river Serchioin a fertile plainnear theTyrrhenian Sea.It is the capitalcity of theProvince ofLucca. Amongother reasons, itis famous for itsintactRenaissance-eracity walls
    3. 3. Lucca was founded by theEtruscans (there are tracesof a pre-existing Liguriansettlement) and became aRoman colony in 180 BC.The rectangular grid of itshistorical centre preservesthe Roman street plan, andthe Piazza San Micheleoccupies the site of theancient forum. Traces of theamphitheatre can still beseen in the PiazzadellAnfiteatro.Piazza Anfiteatro
    4. 4. LuccaPiazza Anfiteatroand the Basilicadi San Frediano
    5. 5. At the LuccaConference, in 56BC, JuliusCaesar, Pompey,and Crassusreaffirmed theirpolitical allianceknown as theFirst Triumvirate.LuccaPiazza Anfiteatro
    6. 6. Frediano, anIrish monk, wasbishop of Luccain the early 6thcentury. At onepoint, Lucca wasplundered byOdoacer, thefirst GermanicKing of Italy.LuccaPiazza Anfiteatro
    7. 7. Lucca was animportant city andfortress even in the6th century, whenNarses besieged itfor several months in553. Under theLombards, it was theseat of a duke whominted his owncoins.LuccaPiazza AnfiteatroPiazza Anfiteatro
    8. 8. During the 8th - 10thcenturies it was a center ofJewish life, led by theKalonymos family (who atsome point during thisperiod migrated to Germanyand became a majorcomponent of proto-Ashkenazic Jewry).Lucca Piazza Anfiteatro
    9. 9. The Holy Face of Lucca (orVolto Santo), a major relicsupposedly carved byNicodemus, arrived in 742The Holy Face of Lucca(Volto Santo di Lucca) is avenerated wooden corpus ofa crucifix, located in thecathedral of San MartinoThe Holy Face (Volto Santo)
    10. 10. Lucca becameprosperousthrough the silktrade that beganin the 11thcentury, andcame to rival thesilks ofByzantium.During the 10–11th centuriesLucca was thecapital of thefeudalmargraviate ofTuscany, more orless independentbut owingnominalallegiance to theHoly RomanEmperor.Luccas archetypical medieval Piazza dellAnfiteatro central piazza on the site of the original Roman
    11. 11. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes manyreferences to the great feudal families who had hugejurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dantespent some of his exile in Lucca.
    12. 12. LuccaPiazza Anfiteatro
    13. 13. Lucca had been thesecond largest Italiancity state (after Venice)with a republicanconstitution ("comune")to remain independentover the centuries.In 1805, Lucca wasconquered byNapoleon, who installedhis sister ElisaBonaparte Baciocchi as"Queen of Etruria".After 1815 it became aBourbon-Parma duchy.The only duke of Luccawas Charles II, Duke ofParma, though between1815 and 1824 hismother, Maria Luisa ofSpain, was a regent.After his death, in 1847,Lucca lostindependence andbecame part of Tuscanyand finally part of theItalian State.
    14. 14. LuccaPiazza Napoleone
    15. 15. PIAZZACITTADELLA isthe site of themonumentdedicated to thenoted composerGiacomo Puccini,as well as thehouse in which hewas born.
    16. 16. Giacomo AntonioDomenicoMichele SecondoMaria Puccini(1858 –1924),generally knownas GiacomoPuccini has beencalled "thegreatestcomposer ofItalian opera afterVerdi".LuccaPiazza Cittadella
    17. 17. The Pretorio PalaceIn 1492 the Republic of Luccaorganized the construction ofthe City council and itsoffices. The task wasassigned to the architectMatteo Civitali - who was tostart the work, finished by hissons after his death. Atpresent the building isoccupied by Magistratescourt - maintaining intact allits Renaissance lines, andpresenting itself as a typicalpublic palace of the
    18. 18. The Ducal PalaceAt present the palace is thecouncil hall of the regioncouncil. Through the centuriesvarious royal families used itas their residence - fromCastruccio Castracani at thebeginning of the 1300century, to Maria Luisa diBorbone - in the first half ofthe 1800 century.The Ducal PalaceAmmannatis loggia
    19. 19. The Ducal PalaceAmmannatis loggia
    20. 20. The Ducal Palace
    21. 21. The Ducal Palace
    22. 22. Durante il corso della storia,diverse famiglie vi hanno presoresidenza, a partire da CastruccioCastracani agli inizi del 1300 finoa Maria Luisa di Borbone, primametà del 1800.
    23. 23. MostraPompeoBatoni(1708–1787),Lucca,PalazzoDucaleRitrattodiRichardMilles,PompeoBatoni(1708–1787)SanGiovanniEvangelista,PompeoBatoni
    24. 24. MostraPompeoBatoni,Lucca,PalazzoDucaleRitrattodiAbbondioRezzonico,PompeoBatoniRitrattodiSirCharlesWatson,PompeoBatoni
    25. 25. The Ducal Palace
    26. 26. The Ducal Palace
    27. 27. The Palazzo Ducale is the headquarters of the Provincial Government in Lucca and also houses the Institution and Centre FORPopular Traditions and the Paolo Cresci Foundation for the History of Italian Emigration, the first of which was set up to preserve,safeguard and promote appreciation and understanding of folklore and traditions, and the second to do likewise for memories anddocuments relating to emigration. Also to be found in the Palazzo are the History Institute in Lucca, the Resistance Institute, theUNESCO Forum, the Lucchese Academy for Science, Literature and Art, the Institute for Calabrian Studies and the RisorgimentoMuseum.
    28. 28. Today’s visitor to thePiazza Napoleone,which is perhaps themost spectacular ofthe Baciocchi’s urbanprojects in Lucca, willnot find a likeness ofNapoleon, nor of hissister Élisa: the gazethat looks out overthe large piazza isinstead that of MarieLouise of Bourbon,who ruled the Duchyof Lucca from 1817to 1824.As the rulers whopreceded her, MarieLouise alsodedicated herself topublic works, first andforemost therenovation of theDucal Palace and theadjacent piazza.
    29. 29. The project was entrusted to Lorenzo Nottolini, the Royal Court Architect, who, between 1817 and 1820, completely renovated theinterior decoration of the building and replaced the statue of the Emperor in the middle of the piazza, which had been commissionedby Élisa just a few years earlier, with a monument portraying Marie Louise. The sculpture was made by Lorenzo Bartolini. The basrelief panels that decorated the base of the monument are kept in the National Museum of Palazzo Mansi
    30. 30. Piazza Napoleone, LuccaStatua Maria Luisa di Borbone
    31. 31. The Bernardini Family wasone of the most powerfulfamilies of Lucca.In 1512 Matteo Civitali, animportant architect of the day,built the Bernardini Palacelocated on the northside of thePiazza Bernardini in the heartof the city of Lucca. Originallylocated on the site of the newBernardini Palace was theMadonna Church, where theMadonnas holy image was.
    32. 32. Some of the ruins of thechurch were used to build thenew palace, including thewindow to the right of the mainfront door. But one stone ofthe window folded up towardthe outside, as if it wanted torun away. This frightened themasons, and they refused totouch the stone anymore. Thebent stone has remained, andafter five centuries this stonecan still be seen. This is thelegend that explains the stonethat did not want to be walled.
    33. 33. The Bernardini Palace
    34. 34. The construction of Palazzo Pfanner dates back to 1660. Itwas the Moriconi family, members of the Lucca merchantnobility that commissioned its building.The Pfanner palace in Lucca is undoubtedly one of the mostspectacular residences of the 16 century. Its exquisitegarden up to today remains one of the rare baroque styleexamples in the region. At present the palace hosts theexhibition of the court costumes of Lucca of the 17 and 18centuries.
    35. 35. The Pfanner palace in Lucca
    36. 36. The Pfanner palace in Lucca
    37. 37. The Pfanner palace in Lucca
    38. 38. Torre Guinigi
    39. 39. From the 13th centuryonwards the Guinigifamily, who were richmerchants and a leadingfamily of the town,concentrated theirmansions between viaSantAndrea and viaGuinigi, which haspreserved its medievalappearance practicallyintact.At the base of the TorreGuinigi it is difficult tovisualise its importance,climb to the top of its treetopped tower (230 steepsteps) however, forstunning views of Lucca.The surrounding streetsare narrow butcharacteristic andpleasant just to take in theatmosphere.
    40. 40. The Guinigi Palace and TowerBuilt around the end of the 1500, it is a typical palacein Roman-Gothic style. Thanks to its height - more than40 meters - the tower offers the opportunity to admirethe amazing panorama of the city of Lucca.
    41. 41. Panorama di Lucca from Torre Guinigi
    42. 42. The walls around theold town remainedintact as the cityexpanded andmodernized, unusualfor cities in the region.As the walls lost theirmilitary importance,they became apedestrian promenadewhich encircled the oldtown, although theywere used for anumber of years in the20th century for racingcars. They are stillfully intact today; eachof the four principalsides is lined with adifferent tree species.
    43. 43. The Passeggiata delle Mura
    44. 44. Lucca’s biggest attraction is its12m-high city walls, built snugaround the old city in the 16thand 17th centuries, defendedby 126 canons and crownedwith a wide, silky-smoothfootpath just made for a leafyPasseggiata della Mura.Be it strolling, cycling, runningor rollerblading, this legendary4km-long circular footpathabove the city proffers shotafter shot of local Lucchesilife.
    45. 45. Sound: Mina - Mi chiamano Mimì (la Bohème di Giacomo Puccini)Text and pictures: InternetCopyright: All the images belong to their authorsPresentation: Sanda Foi oreanuş