Esfahan New Joulfa

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Today the Armenians are Iran's largest Christian religious minority. They mostly live in Tehran and Jolfa district, Isfahan

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  • Thank you Andonia for watching my show about Christian Community in Iran, thank you! Am so glad you liked and added it to your favorites. THANK YOU! For instant you have not yet opened your wall!
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  • Gracias a ti estimada amica Cachi por tu apoyo, tus palabras, tus comentarios! Muchas gracias! Una alegria tu visita en mi pagina, y que lindos tus cometarios, siempre una fiesta! GRACIAS
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  • An excellent presentation well explained and documented; thank you !
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  • Vank Cathedral was one of the first churches to be established in the city's Jolfa district by Armenian immigrants settled by Shah Abbas I after the Ottoman War of 1603-1605. The varying fortunes and independence of this suburb across the Zayandeh River and its eclectic mix of European missionaries, mercenaries and travelers can be traced almost chronologically in the cathedral's combination of building styles and contrasts in its external and internal architectural treatment.
  • Construction is believed to have begun in 1606, and completed with major alterations to design between 1655 and 1664 under the supervision of Archbishop David. The cathedral consists of a domed sanctuary, much like a Persian mosque, but with the significant addition of a semi-octagonal apse and raised chancel usually seen in western churches. The cathedral's exteriors are in relatively modern brickwork and are exceptionally plain compared to its elaborately decorated interior.
  • Author: George A. Bournoutian Prior to the third century A.D., Iran had more influence on Armenia's culture than any of its other neighbours. Intermarriage among the Iranian and Armenian nobility was common. The two peoples shared many religious, political, and linguistic elements and traditions and, at one time, even shared the same dynasty. Sasanian policies and the Armenian conversion to Christianity, in the fourth century, however, alienated the Armenians from Zoroastrian Iran and oriented them toward the West. The Arab conquests which ended the Iranian Empire and the conversion of Iran to Islam in the seventh century culturally separated the Armenians even further from their neighbour. In the eleventh century, the Seljuk Turks drove thousands of Armenians to Iranian Azerbaijan, where some were sold as slaves, while others worked as artisans and merchants. The Mongol conquest of Iran in the thirteenth century enabled the Armenians, who were treated favourably by the victors, to play a major role in the international trade among the Caspian, Black, and Mediterranean seas. Armenian merchants and artisans settled in the Iranian cities bordering historic Armenia. Sultanieh, Marand, Khoi, Saimas, Maku, Maraghe, Urmia, and especially Tabriz, the Mongol center in Iranian Azerbaijan, all had, according to Marco Polo, large Armenian populations.
  • Painting . The interiors of All Savior’s Cathedral, St. Bethlehem Church, and the Church of the Holy Mother of God were completely covered with frescoes, but only those of the cathedral have been studied in more detail (Boase; Ghazarian; Kurdian). Wall paintings became an accepted element of the interior of Armenian churches and were also widely used for the decoration of secular structures, such as private residences. Unfortunately, in recent decades many important houses were significantly altered, or even demolished, before their frescoes could be investigated, and many wall paintings are now irrevocably lost.
  • In the 17th and 18th centuries, the interior of the New Julfa churches was decorated with bands of polychrome tiles. This Iranian technique of glazed relief tiles is known as haft rangi (lit. “of seven colors”). The commonly employed colors are yellow, blue, turquoise, brown, green, purple, and white. In the Armenian context the haft rangi tiles of the walls and pillars, whose diameter ranges between 120-40 cm, not only show inscriptions and geometrical and floral patterns, but their biblical scenes are populated with animals, angels, and mythical creatures such as the phoenix and dragons. Another style of glazed relief tiles reveals the influence of Indian art. The two lush landscapes of St. Sargis’ Church , with their palm trees, monkeys, tigers, and elephants, illustrate the close ties with the Armenian community in India.
  • New Julfa artists preserved the Armenian traditions, and they created a local New Julfa style, because they were also receptive to Safavid and European art. Safavid miniature painting was very sophisticated, and in the 17th century such masters of the art as Reżā (d. 1635) and Moḥammad Zamān (fl. 1649-1704) displayed European influences, though the precise origin of these influences is a matter of debate (Welch). While the shahs employed European artists in the Safavid capital (Carswell, p. 22), the Armenian merchants purchased European artworks on their business travels. Moreover, in 1666 the priest Oskan Erevanci (1614-74) edited and published in Amsterdam the first printed Armenian Bible, which circulated widely among Armenian communities in Turkey, Persia, and India. Its illustrations by the Dutch artist Christoffel van Sichem became an important source of inspiration for New Julfa frescoes and miniatures
  • In the beginning of the 17th century (during the Safavid period), over 150,000 Armenians were moved there by force from Julfa in Nakhichevan. New Julfa is still an Armenian populated (25.000) area with an Armenian school. Vank Cathedral, the Church of Bethlehem at Nazar Avenue, Saint Mary church at Julfa Square and the Yerevan church in the Yerevan area are all placed there. However the wars between Turkey and Persia during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries brought a lot of suffering to the region. Julfa's region was given to Persia in 1555 by the treaty of Amasia, being recaptured by the Turks in 1570-90. Persia under Shah Abas I tried to regain the area, conquering large extents of territory in 1603. Even through these events, Julfa managed to survive.
  • By the start of the seventeenth century `Abbas felt strong enough to break the peace he had made with the Ottomans in 1590. In the autumn of 1603 the shah advanced to retake Iranian Azerbaijan and to force the Ottomans out of Transcaucasia as well. He succeeded in taking the cities of Tabriz, Marand, Ordubad, Akulis, and the province of Nakhichevan, which included the town of Julfa. The shah was greeted as a liberator by the Armenians, who could no longer endure heavy Ottoman taxes, and the Shi`i Muslims, who were tired of religious persecutions.Primary sources estimate that between 1604 and 1605 some 250,000 to 300,000 Armenians were removed from the area. Thousands died crossing the Arax River. Most of the Armenians were eventually settled in Iranian Azerbaijan, where other Armenians had settled earlier. Some ended up in the Mazandaran region and in the cities of Sultanieh, Qazvin, Mashhad, Hamadan, Arak, and Shiraz. The wealthy Armenians of Julfa were brought to the Safavid capital of Isfahan. The Julfa community was accorded special care and seems to have suffered less in their migration. They were settled across the banks of the Zayandeh Rud and in 1605 a town, called New Julfa (Nor Jugha), was constructed especially for them
  • the interior is covered with fine paintings and gilded carvings and includes a wainscot of rich tile work. The delicately blue and gold painted central dome depicts the Biblical story of creation of the world and man's expulsion from Eden. Pendentives throughout the church are painted with a distinctly Armenian motif of a cherub's head surrounded by folded wings. The ceiling above the entrance is painted with delicate floral motifs in the style of Persian miniature. Two sections, or bands, of murals run around the interior walls: the top section depicts events from the life of Jesus, while the bottom section depicts tortures inflicted upon Armenian martyrs by the Ottoman Empire.
  • Esfahan New Joulfa

    1. 1. Esfahan New Joulfa
    2. 3. The Armenian Community of New Joulfa at Esfahan Iranian-Armenians, sometimes called Persian-Armenians, are Iranian citizens of Armenian origin. Their number is about 100,000. They mostly live in Tehran and Jolfa district, Isfahan. The Iranian-Armenians were very influential and active in the modernization of Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. After the Iranian Revolution, many Armenians immigrated to Armenian diasporas communities in North America and Western Europe.
    3. 6. Today the Armenians are Iran's largest Christian religious minority. Although Armenians have a long history of interaction with Persia/Iran, Iran's Armenian community emerged when Shah Abbas relocated tens of thousands of Armenians from Nakhichevan to an area of Isfahan called New Julfa in the early 17th century, which was created to become an Armenian quarter. The community became active in the cultural and economic development of Iran. In addition to having their own churches and clubs, Armenians of Iran are one of the few linguistic minorities in Iran with their own schools
    4. 7. Dome of Holy Mother of God church
    5. 8. The Armenian Community of New Joulfa at Esfahan In the 1660s New Julfa had 24 churches that belonged to the Armenian Apostolic Church, as well as a few other missionary houses and chapels. Today 13 Apostolic churches are still standing. The most important are All Savior’s Cathedral (also known as Vank Cathedral), and the churches of the Holy Mother of God, St. George, and St. Bethlehem.
    6. 9. The Church of the Holy Mother of God, built in 1613. Its sumptuous interior decoration combines frescoes, stucco reliefs, and tiles with oil paintings on canvas imported from Venice.
    7. 11. The Church of Bethlehem was built in 1628
    8. 16. The Church of Bethlehem has Christian icons over Islamic tiles Internet image
    9. 20. In Iran the knockers have different designs. For women the design is one of flowing curves The knockers make a different sound when knocked, alerting whoever is inside the gender of the person at the door.
    10. 22. Wall paintings became an accepted element of the interior of Armenian churches and were also widely used for the decoration of secular structures, such as private residences. Unfortunately, in recent decades many important houses were significantly altered, or even demolished, before their frescoes could be investigated, and many wall paintings are now irrevocably lost.
    11. 27. Prior to the third century A.D., Iran had more influence on Armenia's culture than any of its other neighbours. Intermarriage among the Iranian and Armenian nobility was common. The two peoples shared many religious, political, and linguistic elements and traditions and, at one time, even shared the same dynasty. Sasanian policies and the Armenian conversion to Christianity, in the fourth century, however, alienated the Armenians from Zoroastrian Iran and oriented them toward the West.
    12. 28. Holy Savior Cathedral, also known as Vank Cathedral, was one of the first churches to be established in the city's Jolfa district by Armenian immigrants settled by Shah Abbas I after the Ottoman War of 1603-1605.
    13. 29. In front of the Vank Cathedral the statue of Archbishop Khachatout Kesaratsi, (first typography in Iran, 1636) The Vank printing house is known as the first of its kind in Iran and the Middle East. The first book published at Vank was about the lives of Armenian priests and monks, a few prints of which are now kept at the Vank museum.
    14. 36. Armenian Genocide Memorial at the Vank Cathedral in Isfahan
    15. 40. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the interior of the New Julfa churches was decorated with bands of polychrome tiles. This Iranian technique of glazed relief tiles is known as haft rangi (lit. “of seven colors”).
    16. 46. Archbishop Khachatout Kesaratsi (1590 – 1646) He established the first publishing house in Persia (Iran) and Middle East in 1636 and printed the first book in Persia: Saghmosaran (the Psalter in Armenian). The first Persian book in Persia was published 192 years later in 1830.
    17. 47. Archbishop Khachatout Kesaratsi (1590 – 1646) Saint Mesrop Mashtots (361-441) - inventor of the Armenian alphabet
    18. 53. S ound: Djivan Gasparyan - Armenian duduk, prayer Iran Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Arangement : Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda
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