Iran Beauty in the little things3 Mina-kari

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YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE:
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1459249-beauty-little-things3/
PLEASE SEE ALSO ARTS & CRAFTS OF IRAN:
http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/the-art-of-teahouse-painting
http://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/beauty-in-the-little-things4-13576399
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Minakari art called miniature of fire as well is the decoration of metal and tile with mina glaze. Enameling is in essence the art of connecting a glass surface to other bodies such as metallic surfaces. In order to make the transparent enamel powder, silica and sodium carbonate are used. For coloring the metal, oxidizing powders are added to the glazing powder containing tin oxide.
It is referred to as a laboratory art, as the enameling artist should be skilful in handling chemical reactions.
Fine silver is used in almost all enameling because the enamel (glass) melts and sticks best to a pure metal. In simple words, enameling is the process of making metal models (fine silver usually) and then melting various colors and types of glass on to the model to create an objet d’art.
In a more scientific approach, enamel (or vitreous enamel or porcelain enamel in US English) is defined as the colorful result of fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius.
The powder melts, flows and hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, glass or ceramic. According to some sources, the word enamel comes from the High German word smelzan (to smelt) via the Old French esmail. Used as a noun, an enamel work is a usually small decorative object, coated with enamel coating, such as a champlevŽ or a cloisonnŽ.
The paintings or patterns used for enamel works in Iran are traditional designs depending on the taste and preferences of the artist. In the Iranian version of enameling, copper and silver are the most dominant metals used. There are also special tools used in this ancient artistic endeavor such as furnace, pliers, press machine, brush and so on.
Enamel is usually used to embellish vase, jewelry and candleholder in addition to doors and chandeliers of holy shrines. Isfahan is the most important Iranian enameling hub. Enamel works can be washed with lukewarm water, soap and even ordinary detergents.

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  • Although specimens of Iranian enamel works dating back to the 10th century AH (after hegira) and the Safavid era have been found, experts believe it has a more ancient history. Enameling originated in Iran and then spread to other countries. French tourist, Jean Chardin, who toured Iran during the Safavid rule, made a reference to an enamel work of Isfahan, which comprised a pattern of birds and animals on a floral background in light blue, green, yellow and red. Some experts link the historicity of enameling in Iran to the Arsacides and Sassanid periods. However, the use of this art in the Islamic period is not clear before the reign of the seventh ruler of Mongol empire’s Ilkhanid division in Iran, Ghazan Khan (694-703 AH) who introduced Mongol Persia to Islam. Ghazan Khan acquired the science of chemistry in a short period and preferred to use his knowledge and endeavors for the art of enameling.
  • Origins Enameling is in essence the art of connecting a glass surface to other bodies such as metallic surfaces. In order to make the transparent enamel powder, silica and sodium carbonate are used. For coloring the metal, oxidizing powders are added to the glazing powder containing tin oxide. It is referred to as a laboratory art, as the enameling artist should be skilful in handling chemical reactions. Fine silver is used in almost all enameling because the enamel (glass) melts and sticks best to a pure metal. In simple words, enameling is the process of making metal models (fine silver usually) and then melting various colors and types of glass on to the model to create an objet d’art. In a more scientific approach, enamel (or vitreous enamel or porcelain enamel in US English) is defined as the colorful result of fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius.
  • The powder melts, flows and hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, glass or ceramic. According to some sources, the word enamel comes from the High German word smelzan (to smelt) via the Old French esmail. Used as a noun, an enamel work is a usually small decorative object, coated with enamel coating, such as a champlevŽ or a cloisonnŽ. The paintings or patterns used for enamel works in Iran are traditional designs depending on the taste and preferences of the artist. In the Iranian version of enameling, copper and silver are the most dominant metals used. There are also special tools used in this ancient artistic endeavor such as furnace, pliers, press machine, brush and so on. Enamel is usually used to embellish vase, jewelry and candleholder in addition to doors and chandeliers of holy shrines. Isfahan is the most important Iranian enameling hub. Enamel works can be washed with lukewarm
  • Enameling Masters The greatest master of enameling of Isfahan is Shokrollah Sanizadeh, whose ancestor was a renowned painter. One of the invaluable works of this master was used for printing a stamp for commemorating Iranian handicrafts in 2008-9 and registered as national heritage. The original objet d’art is being kept at the Museum of Traditional Arts and Handicrafts. Among the distinguished students of Sanizadeh, one could refer to Gholamhossein Feizollahi, who is dexterous in designing beautiful patterns. There are quite a few artists in Isfahan who produce enamels that are very exquisite. There is great demand for these works, because of its artistic value and relatively low price. These artists present their works in Chahar-Bagh Street and the vicinity of Naqsh-e Jahan Square. Isfahan province, located in central Iran, covers an area of 107,027 square km. To its north, stand the Markazi province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. To its south, it is bordered by the provinces of Fars, Kohkilouyeh-Boyerahmad. To the east, it is bordered by the province of Yazd and to the west, by the provinces of Lprestan and Chaharmahal-Bakhtiyari. Isfahan was the capital of Persia for 200 years during the 17th and 18th centuries when it enjoyed prosperity. Kilim weaving, woodworks and metalworks are among other handicrafts that originated from Isfahan. Although specimens of Iranian enamel works dating back to the 10th century AH (after hegira) (sec.xvi) and the Safavid era have been found, experts believe it has a more ancient history.
  • Production steps: The enameller use different kinds of metal oxide for enamel paint since, the chemical actions help to firm the paint on metal vessels. The best metals are gold, silver and copper. But copper is better than other, since it is cheap, available and easy to shaping. The enamel paints are divided to two groups: 1. non material paints: These are used rarely on gold or silver sheets, since; they are glass from and cover the metal surface in form of gem. This art is rarely common and is depend on customer's order. 2. Material paints: These paints can cover the whole surface of metal and we can see the paint not the real colour of metal. This method is common between all masters of enameling in Iran. So this kind of art is made by metal oxide and material paints on copper sheet in Iran.
  • The copper is a first material of enameling and is prepared from copper mines of Kerman city in form of 60x200 cm sheets with 0.8 to 1.5 mm thickness. Then this sheet is cut to special sizes and copper smiths give shape to them by bending and hammering in form of different kinds of vessels. Then carvers emboss the surface of vessels by hammer and chisel. This embossed surface is washed by sulphuric acid and so, the copper is become clean and shiny. In this stage the vessels are completely while colour and ready for enameling. After, the white paint is sprayed on surface in three times and after each time put the vessels on furnace with 800'C temperature for two minutes.  
  • But we must notify that the temperature and time for baking is depend on the size and dimension of vessels. All enameller works depend on their special interest and cultural specification. In Iran, there are 3 methods for enameling:  gilding   Golkhatai Chang&Eslimi. After painting, the enameling vessel is baked on furnace again but with 700'C temperature for 1-1.5 minutes. Also, is depends to size and dimension of the vessel.   At final these vessels are ready and are anti-friction, anti-heat and can wash them without any trouble and changing in colour or form.
  • The greatest master of enameling of Isfahan is Shokrollah Sanizadeh, whose ancestor was a renowned painter. One of the invaluable works of this master was used for printing a stamp for commemorating Iranian handicrafts in 2008-9 and registered as national heritage. The original objet d’art is being kept at the Museum of Traditional Arts and Handicrafts.
  • Mina-kari Enamel working and decorating metals with colorful and baked coats is one of the distinguished courses of art in Isfahan . Mina, is defined as some sort of glasslike colored coat which can be stabilized by heat on different metals particularly copper. Although this course is of abundant use industrially for producing metal and hygienic dishes, it has been paid high attention by painters, goldsmiths and metal engravers since long times ago. In the world, it is categorized into three kinds as below: painting enamel Charkhaneh or chess like enamel Cavity enamel.
  • What of more availability in Isfahan is the painting enamel of which a few have remained in the museums of Iran and abroad indicting that Iranian artists have been interested in this art and used it in their metal works since the Achaemenian and the Sassanid dynasties. The enamels being so delicate, we do not have many of them left from the ancient times. Some documents indicate that throughout the Islamic civilization of and during the Seljuk , Safavid and Zand dynasties there have been outstanding enameled dishes and materials. Most of the enameled dishes related to the past belong to the Qajar dynasty between the years 1810–1890 AD. There have also remained some earrings. Bangles, boxes, water pipe heads, vases, and golden dishes with beautiful paintings in blue and green colors from that time, Afterwards, fifty years of stagnation caused by the World War I and the social revolution followed. However, again the enamel red color, having been prepared, this art was fostered from the quantity and quality points of view through the attempts bestowed by Ostad Shokrollah Sani'e zadeh, the outstanding painter of Isfahan in 1935 and up to then for forty years.
  • Now after a few years of stagnation since 1992, this art has started to continue its briskness having a lot of distinguished artists working in this field. To prepare an enameled dish, the following steps are used. First, choose the suitable dish by the needed size and shape which is usually made by a coppersmith. Then, it is bleached through enameled working which is known as the first coat. It is then put into a seven hundred and fifty degree furnace. At this stage, the enameled metal will be coated with better enamels a few more times and again reheated. The dish is then ready to be painted. The Isfahanian artists, having been inspired by their traditional plans as arabesque, khataii (flowers and birds) and using fireproof paints and special brushes, have made painting of Isfahan monuments such as step, the enameled material is put into the furnace again and heated at five hundred degrees. This causes the enameled painting to be stabilized on the undercoat, creating a special "shining" effect. Most of today's enamel workings are performed on dishes, vases, boxes and frames in various size.
  • Iran Beauty in the little things3 Mina-kari

    1. 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1459249-beauty-little-things3/
    2. 2. Minakari art called miniature of fire as well is thedecoration of metal and tile with mina glaze. Mina is thesubstrate of glass or other transparent materials which isused to decorate and beautify the metal or tile. Thismaterial is a combination of azure paint and enamelpaint, etc. which is put in furnace and is set out when it istransparent like bruise color glass. In another wordmetallic body is painted and decorated in the colors andthen colors are stabilized at high temperature.
    3. 3. The process of making is not that complicated. First metallic substrate likecopper, silver or brass is chosen and is formed by expert coppersmith. As amatter of fact this layer is the infrastructure of enamel, In that past enamel hadbeen made with tile, ceramic or glass, but nowadays copper is more usualbecause it is malleable and flexible. (It should be noted that new and first handcopper layer is better than recycled one). Then body is covered with a whiteglaze by dipping technique. After this step, pure metal, which glaze being eatenon is cooked at maximum temperature of 750 ° C and then body is re-coatedwith higher quality glaze and is heated for the second time. This functionusually is done three to four times.
    4. 4. The greatest master of enameling of Isfahan is Shokrollah Sanizadeh,whose ancestor was a renowned painter. One of the invaluable works ofthis master was used for printing a stamp for commemorating Iranianhandicrafts in 2008-9 and registered as national heritage. The originalobjet d’art is being kept at the Museum of Traditional Arts andHandicrafts.
    5. 5. Generally, enamel glaze contents areincluded: Silicon, Magnesium, Potassium,Lead, precious stones, Feldspar, Kaolin,Zirconium, Boric acid, and Tin. Then, glazedand heated metal body is ready for any kindof design and creativity and it depends on thecreativity of artist to how paint on it. This stepis called painting with magic colors.These colors include:1- A white glaze: Tin, lead crystal, flint2-Turquoise color :Tin, lead crystal, flint,copper shingle3-Yellow: Iron oxide, tin oxide and lead oxide4-Black: Iron oxide , manganese dioxide,lead, cobalt oxide5-Red violet: Crystal, ammonium nitrate anddissolved gold6-Green: Copper shingle, flint glass (stone),lead chromate7-Brown: Chromium oxide green, iron oxide,zinc oxide8- Blue: Cobalt oxide zinc oxide, flint British Museum
    6. 6. Enamel plates after painting is sent back to the furnace but this time temperature is less than before and it is about 600 C. So,colors are well desired from artistic point of view. In the past which minakari was not so pervasive, just inorganic dyes were usedin this art, but nowadays chemical colors are used as well.
    7. 7. The criteria which could affect the quality of enamel are; appropriatemetal, decoration, standard heating, and finally elegance andaccuracy of artist.Some known and abundant damages in minakari, include: damagingof the edges of body caused by mechanical impacts or lack ofappropriate heating in furnace, abnormality in metal base (such ashaving a streak in the metal layer) or lack of strong junction betweendifferent layers
    8. 8. The copper is a first material of enameling and is prepared from copper mines of Kermancity in form of 60x200 cm sheets with 0.8 to 1.5 mm thickness.Then this sheet is cut to special sizes and copper smiths give shape to them by bendingand hammering in form of different kinds of vessels. Then carvers emboss the surface ofvessels by hammer and chisel. This embossed surface is washed by sulphuric acid andso, the copper is become clean and shiny.
    9. 9. The Isfahanian artists, having been inspired by their traditional plans asarabesque, khataii (flowers and birds) and using fireproof paints and specialbrushes, have made painting of Isfahan monuments such as step, the enameledmaterial is put into the furnace again and heated at five hundred degrees. Thiscauses the enameled painting to be stabilized on the undercoat, creating aspecial "shining" effect. Most of todays enamel workings are performed ondishes, vases, boxes and frames in various size.Schemes and PatternsDifferent kinds of local and domestic symmetrical patterns are used in finalpaintings of “enamel like; “eslimi” which is the one the well-known Islamic patternand is used in traditional architecture as well, painting with one color as thebackground and then using bright goldish colors on it, making an scheme byusing very fine pen to make miniature pattern and beautify the background withgreen, blue or brown color, making a scheme on colorful heated body by usinggoldish mina color. This scheme beauty is very valuable based on heating timesand artist‘s accuracy. Last scheme is calligraphy on the body before cooking, andthen stabilizing the mina by heating in the furnace.Maintenance Tips about the enamelGreatest danger which treats an enamel is separation of decorated surfacebecause of mechanical shock. So attention should be taken in the transportation.If a part of enamel was separated it should be repaired immediately otherwise itcauses other parts to be separated too. Last point in maintaining is enamel couldbe washed by warm water and sponge and it doesn’t make any problem for it,because the enamel is covered with transparent glaze.
    10. 10. In Iran, the most ancient enameling work belongs to the achaemenian dynasty. This art hadn’t progressed until safavid dynasty. Butin Qajar dynasty, this art was on top. Since, the kings and ruler concerned about the art, poem, music and they paid special attentionto the artists, poets, musicians and supported them. So this art improved and progressed day by day. At present, the enamelingworks in various sizes or colours in Isfahan.
    11. 11. Antique Persiansilver vases
    12. 12. Text and pictures: Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasandaSound: Hossein Alizadeh & Djivan Gasparyan – Birds

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