Bali 60 Nyepi, Balinese Hindu New Year

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From the religious and philosophy point of view, Nyepi is meant to be a day of self introspection to decide on values, e.g. humanity, love, patience, kindness, etc., that should kept forever. Balinese Hindus have many kind of celebrations (some sacred days) but Nyepi is, perhaps the most important of the island's religious days and the prohibitions are taken seriously, particularly in villages outside of Bali's southern tourist belt.

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  • @1456789
    Thank you Pilar. Nyepi is a Balinese 'Day of Silence' that is commemorated every Isaawarsa (Saka new year) according to the Balinese calendar (in 2013, it falls on March 12). It is a Hindu celebration mainly celebrated in Bali, Indonesia. Nyepi, a public holiday in Indonesia, is a day of silence, fasting and meditation for the Balinese. The day following Nyepi is also celebrated as New year.
    Other Hindu New Year:
    • Hindi New Year (Saka Era 1935): Thursday, 11-04-2013
    • Tamil New Year: Sunday, 14-04-2013
    • Bengali New Year 1420: Monday, 15-04-2013
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  • The penjor is a tall, curved bamboo pole decorated with coconut leaves with an offering at the base. This is one of the media used by Hindus in Bali as part of almost every important ceremony, especially for the anniversary temple celebrations. Material for a Penjor The basic material of a penjor is a curved bamboo pole. The pole is then decorated with yellow coconut leaves, pala bungkah (roots - sweet potato or cassava), pala gantung (fruit - cucumbers, oranges, bananas), pala wija (cereal - rice, corn), plawa (leaves), traditional cakes, 11 Chinese coins, and a small shrine with some offerings. All materials for a penjor constitute peoples' basic needs, signifying that we should take care of those things. In addition, livestock sacrificed for the ceremony are believed to become better creatures in their next life.
  • The penjor is a tall, curved bamboo pole decorated with coconut leaves with an offering at the base. This is one of the media used by Hindus in Bali as part of almost every important ceremony, especially for the anniversary temple celebrations. The Sri Jaya Kasunu manuscript states that the penjor symbolizes the mountain and the mountain itself is the symbol of the universe. Therefore, for the Balinese the penjor is synonymous with Mount Agung, the highest and holiest mountain in Bali. The aim of erecting penjors at Galungan is to show devotion to God in His manifestation as Hyang Giri Pati (the God of the mountain). Mountains with deep forests hold a lot of water, which flows into rivers. This then fulfils water needs for irrigation and drinking water.

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  • 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1902579-bali60/
  • 2. 6060
  • 3. Every religion or culture all over the world has their own way to define and celebrate their new year. The same thing also occurs in Bali, however the Balinese use many different calendar systems. They have adopted the Gregorian calendar for business and government purposes. But for the endless procession of holy days, temple anniversaries, celebrations, sacred dances, building houses, wedding ceremonies, death and cremation processes and other activities that define Balinese life, they have two calendar systems Pura Ulun Danu Bratan is a major Shivaite and water temple built in 1663. Tthis temple is used for offerings ceremony to the Balinese water, lake and river goddess Dewi Danu, due to the importance of Lake Bratan as a main source of irrigation in central Bali.
  • 4. The first calendar systems is the Pawukon (from the word Wuku which means week) and Sasih (which is means month). Wuku consists of 30 items starting from Sinta, the first Wuku and end up with the Watugunung the last one.
  • 5. Majestic cliff and Uluwatu Temple The Pawukon, a 210-day ritual calendar brought over from Java in the 14th century, is a complex cycle of numerological conjunctions that provides the basic schedule for ritual activities on Bali. Sasih, a parallel system of Indian origin, is a twelve month lunar calendar that starts with the vernal equinox and is equally important in determining when to pay respect to the Gods.
  • 6. Bathing the healing waters. Tirta Empul is considered one of the six most important temples in Bali. Westerners open the New Year in revelry, however, in contrast, the Balinese open their New Year in silence. This is called Nyepi Day, the Balinese day of Silence, which falls on the day following the dark moon of the spring equinox, and opens a new year of the Saka Hindu era which began in 78 A.D.
  • 7. Nyepi is a day to make and keep the balance of nature. It is based on the story of when King Kaniska I of India was chosen in 78 A.D. The King was famous for his wisdom and tolerance for the Hinduism and Buddhism societies. In that age, Aji Saka did Dharma Yatra (the missionary tour to promote and spread Hinduism) to Indonesia and introduce the Saka year.
  • 8. From the religious and philosophy point of view, Nyepi is meant to be a day of self introspection to decide on values, e.g. humanity, love, patience, kindness, etc., that should kept forever. The lead upto Nyepi day is as follows: •Melasti or Mekiyis or Melis (three days before Nyepi) •Tawur Kesanga (the day before Nyepi) •Nyepi day itself •Ngembak Geni (the day after Nyepi)
  • 9. Melasti is meant to clean the pratima or arca or pralingga (statue), with symbols that help to concentrate the mind in order to become closer to God.
  • 10. The ceremony is aimed to clean all nature and its content, and also to take the Amerta (the source for eternal life) from the ocean or other water resources (i.e. lake, river, etc).
  • 11. Three days before Nyepi, all the effigies of the Gods from all the village temples are taken to the river in long and colourful ceremonies. There, they have are bathed by the Neptune of the Balinese Lord, the God Baruna, before being taken back home to their shrines.
  • 12. Umbul-Umbul are beautiful celebration flags that originated in Bali
  • 13. Melasti is a ritual of purification. All Hindus flock to the sea to pray and perform special rituals.
  • 14. They bring colourful umbrella’s, fruits, cakes, flowers and gamelan. They purify the deities, known as pratima, with water.
  • 15. This procession is one of the unique Hindu ceremonies where the procession was followed by thousands of Hindus who wear the clothes and other accessories in white to indicate the purity.
  • 16. They also bring their Barong landung which are the protective effigies of their village. (The word landung means tall and these figures are about 3 metres tall). Jero Gede, with his wife, Jero Luh, help to exorcise evil spirits.
  • 17. Each banjar, or village council, arrive together at the beach at a designated time. Years ago, people would trek however many kilometres to get to the nearest water source. Now, in our more modern society, each banjar arrives by truck. Arriving for the Melasti ritual
  • 18. Melasti Ceremony is a Hindu religious ceremony to purify Bhuana Alit (small world) and Bhuana Agung (the universe). This ceremony is performed with a parade procession followed by thousand of Hindu people by bringing all the equipment ceremonies and the symbol of gods to the sea or other water sources that are believed by Hindus as a place to purify all the elements of this universe.
  • 19. The purpose of this Melasti ceremony is to purify Bhuana Alit (small world) and Bhuana Agung (this universe) from bad influences, bad deeds and bad thoughts. Bhuana Alit (small world) is meaning the heart / soul of each individual who lives in this world while Bhuana Agung was the wide world or this universe. This ceremony is very important value to remind /realize how important this life and we need a day to purify ourselves and the universe. With this ceremony, all the components that live in this world have a clean soul so the world can survive from the threat of a bad thing.
  • 20. Tawur Kesanga (the day before Nyepi) Exactly one day before Nyepi, all villages in Bali hold a large exorcism ceremony at the main village cross road, the meeting place of demons. They usually make Ogoh- ogoh (the fantastic monsters or evil spirits or the Butha Kala made of bamboo) for carnival purposes. The Ogoh-ogoh monsters symbolize the evil spirits surrounding our environment which have to be got rid of from our lives. The carnivals themselves are held all over Bali following sunset. Bleganjur, a Balinese gamelan music accompanies the procession.
  • 21. All the banjars make their traditional ogoh-ogoh, made especially for the Ngrupuk parade. They are normally mythological beings or demons. Their main purpose is the purification of the environment of any evil spirits and also pollutants emitted from the activities of humans.. The ogoh-ogoh is usually carried on a platform built of timber planks and bamboo. It is lifted and carried around the village or the town square. There are carried on the shoulders of the young men from the village.
  • 22. The procession is accompanied by gamelan music. During the procession, at each street intersection, they are rotated counter- clockwise three times. This is to confuse the evil spirits so they that leave the island and cease harming human beings.
  • 23. Some are giants taken from classical Balinese lore. All have fangs, bulging eyes and scary hair and are illuminated by torches.
  • 24. The procession is usually organized by the Seka Teruna, the youth organisation of Banjar. When Ogoh-ogoh is being played by the Seka Teruna, everyone enjoys the carnival.
  • 25. In order to make a harmonic relation between human being and God, human and human, and human and their environments, Tawur Kesanga is performed in every level of society, from the people's house.
  • 26. After dark, the streets are lined with parents and children to view the parade. It really is an amazing sight.
  • 27. The ogoh-ogoh are then taken back to the villages and burned. In the evening, the Hindus celebrating Ngerupuk, start making noises and light burning torches and set fire to the Ogoh-ogoh in order to get the Bhuta Kala, evil spirits, out of our lives. At 6am, the whole island is silent for 24 hours.
  • 28. On Nyepi day itself, every street is quiet - there are nobody doing their normal daily activities. There is usually Pecalangs (traditional Balinese security man) who controls and checks for street security. Pecalang wear a black uniform and a Udeng or Destar (a Balinese traditional "hat" that is usually used in ceremony). The Pecalangs main task is not only to control the security of the street but also to stop any activities that disturb Nyepi.
  • 29. No traffic is allowed, not only cars but also people, who have to stay in their own houses. Light is kept to a minimum or not at all, the radio or TV is turned down and, of course, no one works. Even love making, this ultimate activity of all leisure times, is not supposed to take place, nor even attempted. The whole day is simply filled with the barking of a few dogs, the shrill of insect and is a simple long quiet day in the calendar of this otherwise hectic island. On Nyepi the world expected to be clean and everything starts anew, with Man showing his symbolic control over himself and the "force" of the World, hence the mandatory religious control.
  • 30. Ngembak Geni (the day after Nyepi) Ngembak is the day when Catur Berata Penyepian is over and Hindus societies usually visit to forgive each other and doing the Dharma Canthi. Dharma Canthi are activities of reading Sloka, Kekidung, Kekawin, etc. (ancient scripts containing songs and lyrics).
  • 31. From the religious and philosophy point of view, Nyepi is meant to be a day of self introspection to decide on values, e.g. humanity, love, patience, kindness, etc., that should kept forever. Balinese Hindus have many kind of celebrations (some sacred days) but Nyepi is, perhaps the most important of the island's religious days and the prohibitions are taken seriously, particularly in villages outside of Bali's southern tourist belt. Hotels are exempt from Nyepi's rigorous practices but streets outside will be closed to both pedestrians and vehicles (except for airport shuttles or emergency vehicles) and village wardens (Pecalang) will be posted to keep people off the beach. So wherever you happen to be staying on Nyepi Day in Bali, this will be a good day to spend indoors. Indeed Nyepi day has made Bali a unique island.
  • 32. Text & pictures: Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Presentation: Sanda Foi oreanuş www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda Sound: Tirta Sari -Tabuh Sekar Jepun