Todorov.Todorov suggested that there are 5 stages of Narrative..1. Equilibrium2. Disequilibrium3. Recognition of Equilibrium4. Attempt to repair Equilibrium5. New EquilibriumThe 3 main stages of Narrative according to Todorov are1. Disequilibrium2. Recognition of Equilibrium3. Attempt to repair Equilibrium
2012.Part of the theory. From the move.Equilibrium Everyone is leading their normal lives, going to work, looking after their children etc.Disequilibrium Earthquakes and freak weather conditions batter the world.Recognition of Equilibrium People notice there is something not right about the weather conditions they have been faced with and begin to panic.Attempt to repair Equilibrium People hear of space shuttles that will result in their survival and fight to get on them.New Equilibrium The space shuttles aid their survival until they reach dry land resulting in a new life.
Levi-Strauss.Believed that the world of film is described in binary opposites.Word. Opposite.Night DayHero VillainGood BadHappy Sad
Horror.Orphan. Villain. Hero. The girl who was adopted The family who adopt Ester in the by a normal American hope of giving her a better life. family starts doing evil things to harm members The woman eventually saves her of her adoptive family and family from the evil child. others.
Drama.Precious.Good. Bad.Precious is determined to try and Precious’s mum disheartens her andbetter herself, she is determined to encourages her to drop out ofcontinuing going to school and education and rely on the welfaredreams of being an actress. system.
Thriller. Taken. Middle aged man. Young teenage girl. The girl is irresponsible and doesn’t see the dangers of her situation like herThe middle aged man is concerned father does.about his teenage daughters safety.He embarks on a long battle to findhis kidnapped daughter after she istaken.
Barthes.Barthes believes that film narrative is broken up using a set of 5 codes..1. Enigma code2. Action code3. Semantic code4. Symbolic code5. Cultural code
Enigma Code.Set up as a puzzle to • At the start of Titanic we are shown the sunkenbe solved, set up to ghost ship at the bottom of the ocean.portray a mystery anddraw in the audience • This makes the audience think about what causedattention. the ship to sink and the chain of events that led to the sinking of the ship. • This draws in the audience as it makes them want to watch the movie and gain answers to their curiosities.
Action Code. Paranormal Activity, there is always a clock onAn action that the right hand corner of the screen whilst theautomatically makes couple are sleeping, when the clock speeds upthe audience know then suddenly stops it is a signal to thethat something is audience that something is about to happen.going to happen. The time always appears at the bottom of the screen whilst the couple are sleeping.
Semantic Code.Working out whatcertain thingsconnote, for examplea particular colour orobject. • Comedy. • Drama. • Mass audience. • Targeted at a more niche audience Unwanted pregnancy. In knocked up and if these • Pregnancy is not seen as a big deal. • Pregnancy is not walls could talk. accepted, the girls are • Couple who had one night forced to abort or give stand get together and up their babies. raise the baby in an ideal family unit.
Symbolic Code.Opposites.. Forexample men andwomen and how theyare presenteddifferently in movies. • Dressed girly in • Dressed in dark The difference bright colours. clothes. between men and women in Grease the • Singing dancing, • Playing it cool, musical. asking questions smiling. about what the girl looks like not what shes like.
Cultural Code.When an old book or • Romeo and Julietold movie is remade In which was originally acurrent times involving Shakespearean playmore modern things was remade 1996.such as guns and cross-dressing men. • The remake involves the use of guns, there is a cross-dressing man and a swimming pool also present in the movie. • We know guns and swimming pools were not around in the time period Romeo and Juliet was set in however we do not question there use due to the time period we are watching the remake in.
Propp.Propp believed that there are 7 different types of characters in the average movie..1. Hero2. Villain3. Dispatcher4. Donor5. Helper6. False hero7. Heroine
Cinderella.Character types from theory. Character from the movie.Hero The prince/ fairy godmotherVillain Evil stepmother/ stepsistersDispatcher Evil stepmotherHeroine Fairy godmotherHelper The animalsFalse Hero Stepsisters Propps theory is especially relatable to Disney movies.
Key terms.DiegesisThe internal world created by the story that the characters themselves experience andencounter.Unrestricted narrationA narrative which has no limits to the information that is presented (gives as muchinformation as possible), not hiding any pieces of information from the audience.Restricted narrationOnly offers minimal information regarding the narrative (offering little about ofnarrative which hides some information from the audience) perhaps to create enigmaor mystery.
Cameron.Cameron based his theory on contemporary cinema.His theory was based around 4 Modular narratives..1. Forking Path2. Episodic3. Anachronic4. Split Screen
Forking Path.Forking path . Evidence.18.104.22.168. • We are shown the climax of the movie at the start. • The same time frame is repeated for all 4 characters. • We are shown them all together at the start before they go there own separate ways. • We are shown the 4 girls meeting back up at the end.Sliding Doors. • We are shown the 2 different ways the womans life could have went if she missed the train or if she caught the train. • Her two possible lives link back at the end when she finds herself in labour in the hospital.
Spilt-Screen.Split Screen. Evidence.Mean Girls. • We are shown the 4 girls on the phone in separate locations.The Parent Trap. Split-screen camera shot have seen used and consequently resulted in one person being duplicated on screen to appear as two people.