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CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade
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CFA Institute - Into Our 5th Decade

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  • 1. The CFA ProgrAm Our FiFth DecaDeRobert R. Johnson, PhD, CFA | Jan R. Squires, DBA, CFA | Peter B. Mackey, CFA | Bobby Lamy, PhD, CFA
  • 2. THE CFA progrAmOn 15 June 1963, 284 senior analysts sat for the first CFA® Today’s CFA Program covers a much broader Candidateexamination at various cities throughout the United States Body of Knowledge™ (CBOKTM), depicted in Figure 1, whichand Canada (during the initial year, the equivalent of the cur- reflects the continuing evolution of the profession. Althoughrent Level III examination was the only examination required equity security analysis and ethical and professional stan-to earn the CFA charter). According to C. Stewart Sheppard’s dards still occupy a prominent position in the program, so doThe Making of a Profession: The CFA Program (1992, p. 8), fixed-income analysis, alternative and derivative investments,“ . . 268 were successful, and those who failed attributed it. portfolio management, and several other topics—all set in amainly to their lack of adequate preparation.” global context. The current program is best described as a self-study, distance-learning program that takes a general-In June 2008, CFA Institute administered the CFA exami- ist approach to investment analysis, valuation, and portfolionations for the 46th year and saw more than 115,000 management, and emphasizes the highest ethical andcandidates from over 150 countries register for one of the professional standards.three levels of the CFA Program. More than 70,000 candi-dates registered for the Level I December 2008 examination. The purpose of this article is to describe the CFA ProgramGrowth has been particularly strong since 1990. Much of process in detail. You will learn how the CBOK and curriculumthe growth can be attributed to demand outside of North are established, how the examinations are developed andAmerica, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2008, more administered, and finally, how the examinations are gradedthan 60 percent of CFA candidates were from outside North and the minimum passing score is determined. After readingAmerica, with the Asia-Pacific region representing approxi- this article, we hope you will conclude that the current CFAmately 36 percent of the total. Program not only maintains but also substantially enhances the value of the CFA charter. Past CFA Institute Chair FrankThe program has evolved greatly since its inception. The Reilly, CFA, has aptly described the charter as the “crownoriginal program focused on equity security analysis in a U.S. jewel” of CFA Institute.setting and emphasized ethical and professional standards.Figure 1CFA Program CBOK Knowledge/Comprehension Application/Analysis Synthesis/Evaluation LEVEL I LEVEL II LEVEL III ETHICS ETHICS ETHICSEthics & Professional Investment Tools Asset Classes Portfolio ManagementStandards Quantitative Methods Equity Investments & Wealth Planning Economics Fixed Income Financial Reporting & Analysis Derivatives Corporate Finance Alternate InvestmentsThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 2
  • 3. Practioners at Every Step of the Process Education Advisory Council of CFA Institute CFA Institute, Board of Committee Examiners & Member Member Volunteers Governors Volunteers & Consultants Global Candidate Curriculum Examinations Grading Standard Setting Minimum Practice Body of Passing Score Analysis KnowledgeTMFigure 2The CFA Program ProcessovErviEwThe success of the CFA Program is a function of active After administration of the examinations, CFA charterhold-practitioner involvement. Practicing CFA charterholders are ers from all over the world arrive in Charlottesville, VA, USA,involved at every stage of the process, which is shown in to grade the constructed response (essay and problem)Figure 2. The CFA Program is not an academic program but, portions of the Level III examinations. Multiple-choice andrather, one that focuses on the global investment manage- item-set portions of the Level I, II, and III examinations arement profession from the standpoint of a practitioner. The machine graded. With grading concluded, additional groupsCFA Program process begins with a global practice analysis— of charterholders convene to “standard set” the examina-a survey of current practicing investment professionals—to tions. Charterholder members of the CFA Institute Board ofdevelop the CBOK, which is the foundation of the program. Governors then determine the minimum passing score forThis process is led by the Education Advisory Committee each level of the examinations.(EAC), a group of prominent volunteer CFA charterholders.With the CBOK determined, CFA Institute staff, members, Level I candidates receive their examination results inand consultants design the curriculum with EAC oversight mid-July (June examination) and mid-January (Decemberof the process. The Council of Examiners (COE)—comprised examination); Level II and III candidates receive their resultsentirely of CFA charterholders—then directs the development in mid-August. Only after passing the Level III examinationof the CFA examinations by the CFA Exam Team (a larger and fulfilling the CFA Program’s work-experience require-group of CFA charterholders who write the examination ment is a candidate awarded the right to use the covetedquestions) based on the curriculum. CFA designation.CUrriCULUm DEvELopmENTGlobal Practice analysisMany credentialing agencies use standardized examinations responsibility and knowledge areas. The panels of CFAto ensure that candidates demonstrate a sufficient level of charterholders around the world were selected to representcompetence in their particular fields of interest. The claim the diversity in the profession with respect to geography,that candidate scores are meaningful indicators of profes- work setting, and professional role. The resulting product wassional competence depends on evidence that supports the converted to a survey and mailed to a global sample of char-examination’s job relatedness or content validity. The Stan- terholders. A total of 16,103 surveys were mailed, and baseddards for Educational and Psychological Testing state that a on a healthy 23 percent response rate, the results confirmedpractice analysis study—a compilation and confirmation of the work of the panels and committees in identifying thethe knowledge and skills required for competent professional most critical knowledge areas for investment professionals.practice—is the basis for establishing the content validity of This practice analysis guided development of the CFA cur-credentialing examinations. CFA Institute has worked closely riculum and the Level I, II, and III examination specifications.with psychometricians—experts in testing and measurement—to develop and refine a high-quality practice analysis. CFA Institute began its third formal practice analysis in late 2004. As with the processes in 1995 and 2000, regional expertThe CFA Institute Board of Governors first commissioned panels were convened to define a CBOK that reflects thea practice analysis in 1995; previously, committees of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of a generalistcharterholders developed the CBOK. In 2000, the board com- investment practitioner with four years of experience. Themissioned Knapp & Associates International, Inc., to assist first such panel was held in December 2004, and the processprofessional staff in conducting a second practice analysis. continued with panels involving approximately 330 investment practitioners from 21 cities in 13 countries. A new feature ofA series of panels and committees consisting of prominent the third practice analysis was the addition of groups of seniorinvestment practitioners created an inventory of critical investment professionals, known as employer panels, toThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 3
  • 4. define the KSAs expected of new charterholders. The expertand employer panels were followed by a broad online surveyof all active CFA charterholders in February 2006, and a revisedCBOK based on the results of the new practice analysis wasavailable in November 2006. The revised CBOK was fullyreflected in the 2008 curriculum and examinations. In 2007 , Global Body of Investment Knowledgethe EAC began to conduct the practice analysis continu-ously rather than every five years, and expanded the focus toinclude the Global Body of Investment KnowledgeTM (GBIKTM).A continuous process allows for more real-time inputs into Candidate Body of CIPMthe Global Body of Investment Knowledge while retaining the Knowledge BOKhigh standing of the CBOK. The continuous practice analysisprocess incorporates significantly more member input in the PWMinitial phase by using a collaborative website to collect informa- BOKtion from around the world. The GBIK is the comprehensive outline of knowledge forthe investment profession. Investment professionals mayuse GBIK concepts at any stage of their career—novicethrough expert, generalist, or specialist. The GBIK includesmainstream and frontier concepts based on research that Frontier (emerging)has been, or is being, debated and may encompass views Figure 3well outside those of the mainstream. The GBIK guides all Bodies of KnowledgeCFA Institute lifelong learning activities, including publica-tions, conferences, and other continuing education programs.CFA Institute also develops specialty bodies of knowledge Planning, as shown in Figure 1. The CFA examinationsfor those members practicing in specialty areas such as have always focused primarily on testing investment toolsthe private wealth management (PWM) body of knowledge at Level I, asset valuation (investment analysis) at Level II,and investment performance measurement (CIPM) body of and portfolio management at Level III. This structure is theknowledge. Figure 3 shows the relationships among these logical progression of the investment process: A practitionerbodies of knowledge. needs to master investment tools to apply those tools to security valuation, and securities need to be valued and thencandidate body of KnowledGe analyzed in a risk–return portfolio context. Because integrityand toPic area weiGhts must be exercised throughout the investment process, CFAA major outcome of the practice analysis is an updated Institute has emphasized ethical and professional standardsCBOK. The CBOK is the scope of knowledge needed for at each level. Although all CBOK topic areas relate directlybasic competence in investment management, with “basic to competence in investment management, they do not allcompetence” defined as the baseline level of knowledge and have the same degree of impact on professional practice.skills required to perform professional responsibilities in an Some areas may be of greater importance or may be usedeffective and ethical manner. more frequently than others in day-to-day responsibilities. Consequently, based on practice analysis survey respon-The CBOK has been gradually broadened from the body of dents’ recommendations about content coverage, weightsknowledge for the first CFA examination, which focused on are assigned to each topic area to indicate relative emphasis1) investment goals, investment timing, and portfolio bal- within the CBOK. In turn, these weights, shown in Table 1,ance; 2) institutional investing; 3) ethical issues; and 4) review guide the selection of the curriculum and the development ofof securities regulations. Over time, entire topic areas—such the examinations.as the valuation of fixed income, derivatives, alternativeinvestments, and private wealth management—have been the curriculum Processadded to keep pace with the changing profession. Because The CFA curriculum constitutes the study material onthe CFA Program is global in scope and laws and regulations which the examination questions are based and providesdiffer among countries, the CBOK no longer includes specific the foundation for the development of the exams. The cur-country securities regulations. riculum topics are those CBOK elements identified in the practice analysis.In the CBOK, a total of 10 topics are grouped into four func-tional areas: Ethical and Professional Standards, Investment The purpose of the curriculum is to facilitate candidateTools, Asset Valuation, and Portfolio Management & Wealth learning while recognizing the constraints inherent inThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 4
  • 5. Table 1Topic Area Level I Level II Level III Topic Area WeightsEthical and Professional Standards 15 10 10 Quantitative Methods 12 5–10 0 Note: These weights are intended to guide the Economics 10 5–10 0 curriculum and exam Financial Reporting and Analysis 20 15–25 0 development processes. Corporate Finance 8 5–15 0 Actual exam weights may vary slightly from yearInvestment Tools 50 30–60 0 to year. Please note that Equity Investments 10 20–30 5–15 some topics are combined for testing purposes. Fixed Income Investments 12 5–15 10–20 Derivatives 5 5–15 5–15 Alternative Investments 3 5–15 5–15Asset Valuation 30 35–75 35–45Portfolio Management and Wealth Planning 5 5–15 45–55Total 100 100 100a generalist, self-study program designed for working candidates can do what LOS indicate, they should be wellprofessionals. More than 150 practicing charterholders from prepared for the examinations. It is the job of the CFAthroughout the world participate in the annual curriculum Institute staff, with process oversight of the EAC and thereview and development process. input of members, to ensure that the readings enable the candidates to achieve each LOS.The CFA Program is fundamentally different from typical aca-demic programs. The curriculum traditionally has been based The following is an example of the Level II reading-specificon textbooks, professional journal articles, commissioned LOS and associated command words from Chapter 16,readings, cases, and research analysts’ reports, but it is more “Multinational Operations, in International Financial ”than just a reading list. In 1996, CFA Institute significantly Statement Analysis by Robinson, van Greuning, Henry, andimproved the design of the curriculum by adding learning Broihahn (2008):outcome statements (LOS) at Level III, which were thenincorporated at Levels I and II the following year. “The candidate should be able to: a) distinguish local currency, functional currency, and theMany involved in the curriculum review and development presentation currency;process believe that reading-specific LOS—a common b) analyze the impact of changes in exchange rates on thefeature throughout education—are the most significant translated sales of the subsidiary and parent company;curriculum innovation since the inception of the program. c) compare and contrast the current rate method and theThe purpose of the LOS is to enhance candidate learning temporal method, analyze and evaluate the effects ofwhile guiding examination writers, the COE, as to what each on the parent company’s balance sheet and incomeexamination questions the curriculum material will support. statement, and distinguish which method is appropriate inThe LOS link the CBOK to the curriculum and thus to the various scenarios;examinations, which helps candidates prepare for the exact- d) calculate the translation effects, evaluate the translationing standards of the investment profession. Finally, the LOS of a subsidiary’s balance sheet and income statementhelp shape candidate expectations with respect to learning into the parent company’s currency, use the current rateexpectations and topic proficiency. method and the temporal method to analyze how the translation of a subsidiary’s financial statements will affectReading-specific LOS help candidates understand the knowl- the subsidiary’s financial ratios, and analyze how usingedge they must gain from each reading. Each LOS contains the temporal method versus the current rate method willthe words, “The candidate should be able to . . . ., followed ” affect the parent company’s financial ratios;by command words (such as calculate, describe, and analyze) e) illustrate and analyze alternative accounting methods forthat indicate what candidates can be expected to demon- subsidiaries operating in hyperinflationary economies. ”strate on the examinations. curriculum innovationsThe COE and CFA Exam Team write examination ques- In response to candidate demand, CFA Institute begantions and guideline answers within the bounds of the LOS, phasing in a customized format for delivery of the curriculumoften integrating more than one LOS in a question. The for the 2006 exam. CFA Institute sequenced the LOS andCOE views the LOS as a contract with the candidates: If assigned readings in conformity with the study sessions andThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 5
  • 6. assembled those components into self-contained volumes. for Investment Analysis was first published in 2001 and wasThe improved packaging offers candidates a more user- revised in 2004. Analysis of Equity Investments: Valuation,friendly and integrated curriculum that reduces candidate published in 2002, is the focus of the Level II equity analysiscosts and facilitates examination preparation. curriculum. Analysis of Derivatives for the CFA® Program was published in 2003 and is the foundation of the deriva-Historically, the curriculum was drawn from existing profes- tives curriculum at all three levels. International Financialsional and academic publications. CFA Institute advisory Statement Analysis was introduced in the 2008 Level Icommittees, however, recognized the disadvantages of these curriculum, with additional IFSA readings developed for the“off-the-shelf” sources. For instance, college texts are often 2009 curricula for Levels I and II.overly academic and “country-centric, while practitioner ”texts are rare and often inappropriate for a generalist. Journal A distinguishing feature of CFA Institute curriculum develop-articles often presume more knowledge than is required of ment is the extensive review process to which all productsa generalist. Perhaps the greatest weakness in off-the-shelf are subject. Practicing charterholders review each reading orproducts is that they often contain a significant amount of article to ensure that it is conceptually correct and relevant.material outside the CBOK. As a result of these disadvan- Practitioners from all over the world participate in thistages, much of the curriculum now consists of materials process. In reference to the aforementioned texts, Fabozzideveloped specifically for the CFA Program. said: “Of all the books I have authored (more than 100), these books have been the hardest to write. . . . The reviewersThe following principles have been established for the devel- made me an almost paranoid writer, as every word andopment of CFA Program curriculum. The material must be: statement was scrutinized to make sure it would be clearly• faithful to the practice analysis and CBOK; understood by the CFA candidate. ”• valuable to members, employers, and investors;• globally relevant; Providing a testament to the quality of the CFA curriculum,• generalist (as opposed to specialist) in nature; many academic institutions have designed degree programs• appropriate for a new charterholder; around the CFA Program, adopted CFA Program curriculum• replete with examples and practice problems both within materials, or embedded the entire CFA Program CBOK into and at the end of readings; their programs. Such universities as the Oxford University,• pedagogically sound in a self-study framework; and Cornell, HEC, the University of Virginia, Concordia University,• testable. London Business School, and the University of North Carolina have adopted all or part of the CFA Program CBOK. Indeed,Curriculum development is not a recent phenomenon at this adoption trend led CFA Institute to create an educationalCFA Institute. In The Making of the Profession: The CFA partnership program: CFA Program Partners.Program, Sheppard notes the “marked paucity in 1965 ofrelevant study guide materials” and states, “Gone were the The purpose of the CFA Program Partners is to encouragedays when reliance could be placed on general textbooks serious students to focus on the professional side of invest-and selected articles” (p. 10). Since that time, CFA Institute ment management and to view their university studies and(known as Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts at the CFA work as part of an integrated lifelong learning program.time and later as Association for Investment Management As an educational partner, a university is able to promoteand Research) has worked closely with many subject matter the CFA Program in its own global recruiting strategy, andexperts, authors, and publishers to customize materials for faculty and students have the opportunity to interact withthe CFA Program. professionals from local CFA Institute societies. At the heart of the partnership program is the leadership role in ethicsA cornerstone of the CFA curriculum has been the book of CFA Institute, facilitating the study of ethics in universityManaging Investment Portfolios (1983), edited by John L. programs that are developing serious investment profession-Maginn, CFA, and Donald L. Tuttle, CFA. The third edition of als. Find out more about CFA Program Partners at:this seminal work was produced by CFA Institute in 2006. http://www.cfainstitute.org/cfaprog/university/partners.htmlThe 2001 curriculum introduced Fixed Income Analysis forthe Chartered Financial Analyst Program (2000) and FixedIncome Readings for the Chartered Financial Analyst Program(2000), each by Frank J. Fabozzi, CFA. Quantitative MethodsThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 6
  • 7. EXAmiNATioN DEvELopmENTWhen the first CFA charters were awarded in 1963, CFA Exam Team members are generally asked to write twocandidates had to successfully complete a single four-and-a- or three item-set or essay questions or approximately 30half-hour examination to earn the charter. The examinations multiple-choice questions in their assigned topics. The CFAwere given in two separate two-hour-and-fifteen-minute Exam Team develops more questions than needed so thatsessions. In 1964, all three levels of the examination were the COE leadership can select the best portfolio of questionsadministered to 1,732 candidates in the United States and to appear on the examinations.Canada. In 1968, the examination consisted of two sessionsfor a total of five hours and fifteen minutes. The year 1981 The CFA Exam Team rewrites examination questions severalmarked the first time that the examinations totaled six hours times during a development cycle. Each new version benefitsin length. CFA Institute has retained the current format of from continual review by the COE and CFA Exam Teamtwo separate three-hour sessions since that time. members as well as expert and generalist volunteer and staff reviewers. During the cycle, hundreds of hours of review timeexamination content contribute to the improvement of examination questions.A commitment to excellence in the development of theCFA examinations has been the hallmark of the program. CFA Exam Team members are also responsible for writingThe COE and CFA Exam Team write the examinations with guideline answers, grading keys, LOS and reading references,CFA Institute staff assistance. In 1963, the original COE answer justifications, and other supporting documentation.consisted of four U.S. academic experts and the president ofthe Montreal Stock Exchange. Today, the COE and CFA Exam level i examinationTeam consists of approximately 65 global CFA charterhold- The format of the Level I examination is entirely multipleers, representing a mix of practitioners and academics. In choice. There is a long history of multiple-choice ques-addition, a similar number of charterholders from across the tions on the CFA examinations, dating back to 1968 whenglobe are involved in an extensive review process. CFA Exam 25 multiple-choice questions first appeared at Level I. ByTeam members are recruited based on their expertise in 1986, 50 percent of the Level I examination was multiplediverse areas of investment practice and the CFA curriculum. choice. The first all multiple-choice Level I examination wasProspective members are often identified on the basis of administered in 1996.other services supporting the CFA Program (e.g., standardsetting, curriculum development, exam review, grading). Level I multiple-choice questions are crafted with each of the incorrect responses (distracters) carefully constructedEach exam development cycle starts more than a year in to represent common mistakes in either calculation or logic.advance of the Level II and III examinations and seven to A Level I examination consists of 240 questions to be com-eight months in advance of the Level I examinations. Each pleted in a six-hour time frame.cycle begins when COE leaders meet to set the guidelinesfor the next examination. These guidelines are disseminated A new Level I examination is produced for each admin-to CFA Exam Team members, who then begin drafting istration. CFA Institute does not release the entire Levelquestions before the first of a series of team meetings. To I examination; however, to orient candidates to the stylebe included on the CFA examination, a question must relate and format of the questions, past examination questionsdirectly to one or more curriculum LOS. CFA Exam Team are included as practice problems at the end of curriculummembers are also encouraged to draw on assigned curricu- readings and in the online sample and mock exams. One orlum problems for ideas on question structure and content. more online and mock exams may be included in materials offered to each registered candidate, and additional examsThroughout the development process, the COE and CFA are available for a fee. In addition, a small sample of Level IInstitute staff work with psychometricians. COE and CFA questions are available on the CFA Institute website: http://Exam Team members pay careful attention to question con- www.cfainstitute.org/cfaprog/courseofstudy/sample.htmlstruction. And because the CFA Program is global in scope,team members consider language usage and grammar as level ii and iii item-set Questionswell. Once the examination is in nearly final draft form, CFA The current Level II examination consists entirely of item-setInstitute staff conducts review sessions with charterholders questions, and Level III consists of constructed responsefrom around the world. Participants review the questions to questions (morning session) and item-set questions (after-ensure that the language is clear, simple, unambiguous, and noon session). The CFA Institute Board of Governors firstfree of cultural bias. Reviewers also identify any investment directed the COE to use the item-set format on the ethicspractices that may confuse candidates in their regions. Input portion of the 2000 Level II and III examinations. The fol-received in these sessions is delivered to the question writ- lowing year, the board directed the COE to use the item-seters, who then have the opportunity to revise the questions format for 50 percent of the Level II and III examinations.before the printing of the examination. Beginning in 2005, the Level II examinations have beenThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 7
  • 8. entirely in item-set format. There is currently no initiative to Today’s CFA examination questions are less open-endedmove Level III entirely to item-set format. Sample item-set and of smaller point values in order to sample more of thequestions are available on the CFA Institute website: assigned curriculum. Questions are often presented in tem-http://www.cfainstitute.org/cfaprog/courseofstudy/ plate format to assist candidates in following the logic of thesample.html application being tested and to give candidates an idea of how much writing is needed to adequately answer the question.Testing research has shown that examinations consisting ofmultiple-choice items (and item sets) typically have greater It was common on the early CFA examinations to givevalidity, reliability, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness than candidates choices. Candidates were allowed to select theconstructed response (essay) questions addressing the same industry of their choice, the institution of their choice, ortopics. Validity indicates that an examination is measuring even which of two or three questions from a longer list theywhat it intends to measure; reliability provides an indication wanted to answer. For example, the 1965 Level III examina-of the accuracy of that measurement; efficiency refers to the tion gave candidates the choice of answering either a bond orbreadth and depth of topic coverage; and cost-effectiveness stock valuation question. That same examination gave candi-refers to the economics of constructing and grading the dates the choice of one of eight institutions (e.g., investmentexamination. The CFA Institute Board of Governors con- companies, endowment funds, pension funds) as the subjectsidered these factors before making the determination to of a question and also asked candidates to answer a questionemphasize the item-set testing format. in the industry of their choice.Testing research also indicates that the format of the exami- Today’s CFA examinations cover all of the broad topics in thenation has little impact on the difficulty of the examination. CFA Program curriculum. Candidates must answer the entireDifficulty is primarily a function of the subject matter and set of questions, each based on specific readings. This policyquestion construction. Most importantly, multiple-choice and is consistent with the premises that the CFA examinationitem-set questions can be used to test higher-level thinking, takes a generalist approach to investment analysis and port-including critical thinking and problem solving. Although the folio management and that all successful candidates havemultiple-choice and item-set formats are not appropriate for mastered the same curriculum. One of the strengths of thetesting creative thinking and writing abilities, the CFA Pro- CFA Program often cited by employers is that charterholdersgram is not intended to test those skills (and these abilities are knowledgeable even in investment topics in which theywould be difficult to fairly assess for a large global candidate are not expert.population). Nearly all licensing and professional credentialingexaminations with large candidate populations are conducted Candidates today are also given an indication as to how muchin the multiple-choice and/or item-set formats. detail is required to successfully answer a question. For example, questions may state, “Discuss three reasons... , ”level iii constructed and the candidate will have a good indication of how muchresPonse Questions discussion is necessary.The constructed response portions of the Level III exami-nation (morning session) include questions with varying Although it may appear that the constructed response andstructure and point values. Questions are organized in groups problem portion of the CFA examinations has remainedrelated to a case or vignette that describes investment chal- constant since the founding days of the program, today, thelenges facing hypothetical individuals or institutions. Each candidates’ responses require a higher degree of specificity. Thequestion begins with a command word that corresponds to current CFA examinations are dramatically different from thethe command words contained in the curriculum LOS. Typical examinations given in the early history of the program, properlycommand words appear on the CFA Institute website: reflecting the evolution of both investment management prac-http://www.cfainstitute.org/cfaprog/courseofstudy/ tice and testing techniques used to evaluate that practice.commandwords.html Constructed response questions that have appeared onConstructed response examination questions have changed recent exams are available on the CFA Institute website:significantly over the history of the CFA examination. In the http://www.cfainstitute.org/cfaprog/courseofstudy/early years of the examination, large point value, open-ended sample.htmlquestions were common. For instance, the 1965 Level IIIexamination contained the following 25-minute question: Note that guideline answers published by CFA Institute reflect most of the answers that received high scores on “The value of a common stock or any other security is each question. There may often be more than one appro- what you can sell it for. ” priate (and full credit) answer to a question. All possible Analyze the above statement and explain fully how you approaches that received high scores are not necessarily would arrive at the value of a common stock. included in a published guideline answer.The CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 8
  • 9. examination administrationOnce the COE and CFA Exam Teams finish writing the CFA present a current government-issued photo ID for admit-examinations, the examination books are produced following tance to the examination to ensure that charters are beinga secure workflow process developed by CFA Institute and awarded only to those individuals who actually passed theits vendors. After printing and before distribution, the CFA examinations. Candidates are required to use only approvedInstitute staff performs quality control checks on examina- calculator models to ensure that no candidates use calcula-tion books to ensure the quality of the printing process. The tors that have the ability to store text in memory and thusbooks are then distributed globally and securely stored until gain an unfair advantage. Unauthorized personal belongingsexam day. are not permitted in the testing room. CFA Institute consults with other respected testing organizations in an effort toCFA Institute enlists the help of professional testing person- improve policies and practices. Security and testing rules willnel around the world, who are responsible for selecting continue to evolve. You can review testing policies on theand training examination proctors/invigilators to administer CFA Institute website: http://www.cfainstitute.org/cfaprog/the test with the utmost attention paid to the security and resources/examdetails/policies/index.htmlintegrity of the examination process. In addition, trainedCFA Institute employees travel to the larger test centers to The CFA Institute Professional Conduct Program investigatesobserve testing operations and ensure that the administra- matters involving alleged violations of the CFA Program rulestion runs as smoothly as possible. and regulations. Sanctions are imposed on candidates found to have violated the rules and regulations, such as writingIn June 2008, the one millionth CFA examination was admin- past time, using scratch paper, and giving/receiving assis-istered. For fiscal year 2008 (September 2007–August 2008), tance during the examination. Since 1998, CFA Institute hasmore than 129,000 candidates (approximately 25 percent of imposed more than 1,100 sanctions on candidates, rangingregistered candidates are “no-shows”) from 141 countries from private censure to prohibition from further participationtested in 86 nations around the world. This current situation in the CFA Program. In conjunction with the sanctions, theis in sharp contrast to 1985, when only 70 of 4,285 candi- candidates’ examination results were usually voided.dates sat for the examinations outside of North America. Once the examinations have been successfully administered,CFA Institute strives to produce a fair and equitable testing they are collected, reconciled, and returned to CFA Instituteenvironment and to ensure the safety of CFA candidates and headquarters for processing and grading. It may take astesting personnel. To ensure the integrity of the process, long as two weeks for all exams to be returned because ofstrict testing rules are enforced. Candidates are required to complex customs procedures in some countries.grADiNgImmediately upon receipt at CFA Institute, all exam materi- adjusted to credit all answers. If more than one answer wasals are individually reconciled with attendance rosters and correct, then all correct answers are credited.prepared for the grading and quality control processes. Thefirst step in the grading process is the machine grading of In 2008, more than 340 individuals from 31 countries spentall multiple-choice and item-set exam answer sheets. This between a week and two weeks in Charlottesville, Virginia,process also encompasses a number of quality controls. USA, exercising one of the most important duties availableIn addition to manually checking all blanks, multiple marks, to CFA charterholders—grading the constructed responsedamaged papers, and other unusual situations, a random portions of the Level III CFA examination.sample representing 5–10% of papers is independentlyhand graded. The involvement of CFA charterholders in the grading of examinations is one of many checks and balances in the CFAAnother quality control during this time period is the Program designed to ensure that each candidate receivesinvestigation of all comments and complaints related to the fair and consistent evaluation. The identity of all candidatesexaminations. The staff reviews the exam questions and is held in the strictest of confidence. Examination booksanswers, curriculum readings, and exam results related identify candidates only by number. Graders do not know theto each comment or complaint. Special focus is given to name or even the geographic origin of the candidates whosereviews under any of the following circumstances: multiple examinations they evaluate.similar complaints, exam results suggesting more than onecorrect answer, or exam results that otherwise suggest that To ensure that each grader has adequate time to prepare,a question was confusing or unfair. If, after investigation, a graders receive their question assignments, appropriatequestion is determined to be confusing or unfair, results are curriculum materials, and draft guideline answers and gradingThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 9
  • 10. keys well in advance of the grading session. This process is to ensure that candidates whose papers fall within a largeallows graders to suggest changes to the guideline answers range that encompasses possible minimum passing scores areand grading keys before grading begins. afforded every opportunity to pass the examination.Graders are separated into grading teams that include both All examinations are subject to an additional quality controlexperienced and first-time graders. Each team grades a check. CFA Institute staff review each examination book pagespecific question or question part(s), which brings a high by page to ensure that every candidate answer was located,level of specialization to the process. Each team has a graded, and scored and that the number of points awardedcaptain, an assistant captain, and senior graders. These by the grader on the inside of the examination book is consis-team leaders review all suggestions made by graders tent with the score recorded in the grading database.before grading. They also review a large sample of actualcandidate answers to ensure that the grading keys credit standard settinGall valid responses and award partial credit consistent with In 1996, a methodology for arriving at the minimum pass-the relative importance of the information provided by ing score (MPS)—the modified Angoff Standard Settingthe candidate. After extensive review and trial application, Method—was introduced to the CFA Institute Board of Gov-grading coordinators approve the final grading keys that ernors. A 2001 survey of professional credentialing programswill be applied to the assigned question. Graders undergo found that 85% used standard setting, including the Certifiedextensive training with respect to evaluation procedures Financial Planner (CFP) and Certified Public Accountant (CPA)and techniques. U.S. designations. Of those using standard setting, 88% used the Angoff method.Grading coordinators oversee the grading process, ensuringthat all grading teams treat candidates consistently across The Angoff method has been used as a criterion for thequestions. Once grading begins, captains, assistant captains, establishment of the MPS for the Level I examinationand other assigned leaders spend much of their time since 1996, for Level II beginning in 2005, and for Level IIIreviewing graders’ work to ensure that points are awarded beginning in 2007 CFA Institute retains independent psycho- .accurately and consistently across the team. metricians to conduct two-day standard setting workshops.Quality control is built into all aspects of the grading This method involves a large and diverse group of CFA char-process. Access to the examination grading center is terholders. The lead psychometrician divides participants intoclosely monitored. CFA Institute staff members assemble two smaller groups for each level of the examinations. Eachexaminations into stacks of 20 books. Only graders are participant reviews the entire examination question by ques-permitted to check out examinations, and they may grade tion and makes an independent judgment on the expectedonly their assigned question, one stack at a time. A formal performance of a just-competent candidate on each questionaudit process compares and reconciles points awarded on the examination.by individual graders, with points awarded by the teamcaptain for the same candidate’s response to a given Participants review the entire examination a second time afterquestion on a sample of exam papers. Team captains (and briefly viewing general impact data and overall actual candidatecoordinators) are provided with detailed daily statistical performance on the exam. In the second round, each participantreports (including audit reports) to ensure that grading is again records his/her judgment as to the expected performanceconsistent and accurate. of a just-competent candidate on each question. In this way, both difficulty of the examination content and actual candidateGrading coordinators, team captains, and CFA Institute performance are considered. The workshops result in MPSstaff meet daily to ensure consistent application of grad- recommendations that equate to competence in the subjecting policies. Examinations are also checked several times matter from the perspective of demographically representativeduring grading to be sure that no recording errors or data groups of charterholders. The size of the group, its diversity, andentry errors have been made. The error checking process its reliance on independent judgments contribute to the poweris repeated several times and continues after the grading of standard setting results.process has been completed. settinG the minimum PassinG scoreAfter all examinations have been fully graded during the first CFA charterholder members on the CFA Institute Boardweek, approximately the middle 50 percent of the distribution of Governors set the MPS each year. The board convenesof scores are graded in their entirety again—a process known approximately five to six weeks following the Level I examas senior grading. Senior graders, approximately half the initial to determine the MPS and approximately seven weeks aftergrading group, are not permitted to re-grade papers that they the Level II and III exams to determine the MPS. This is onegraded during initial grading. The purpose of senior grading of the board’s most important responsibilities. Although passThe CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 10
  • 11. rates may fluctuate, the board’s objective is to set a consis- these rates were in excess of 80 percent. In the 1970s,tent standard competency level across years. pass rates were typically above 70 percent, while the 1980s witnessed pass rates in the mid- to upper 60 percent range.The board must assess the difficulty of the examinations and The year 2002 was the first time the combined pass ratethe demonstrated competency of candidates. The board consid- fell below 50 percent; since then, combined pass rates haveers all available information relevant to these factors. The results ranged from 40 to 52 percent. Falling pass rates over timeof the standard setting workshops are the most important input. reflect, among other things, the expansion of the candidateFrom the board’s perspective, standard setting is a systematic pool, candidate aptitude, and candidate preparation habits.process that adheres to sound psychometric principles, provid-ing the board with a valid range of MPS values. Candidates receive examination results in late July or mid- August (for the June examination) and late January (for theCFA Institute professional staff and the board will continue to December examination). Candidate results are available inmonitor advances in the psychometric field to augment the a secure section of the CFA Institute website. CFA Instituteinformation currently used to set the MPS. posts scores as “pass” or “fail” and provides candidates with an indication of performance across topic areas or ques-Pass rates tions to help identify strengths and weaknesses. CandidatesFollowing the Board’s MPS decision, CFA Institute processes learn whether they scored less than 50 percent of the points,the results and conducts a variety of quality control mea- between 50 and 70 percent of the points, or above 70 per-sures before the results are released to candidates. The time cent of the points on specific topics for multiple choice andperiod required is the minimum necessary to ensure that the item set and by question for constructed response.MPS is set in accordance with best practices in testing andthat every candidate’s paper is processed with appropriate For the first time in 2008, CFA Institute provided faileddue diligence. candidates with additional information to help them decide whether to continue to pursue the designation. The totalFigure 4 provides the combined (or weighted average) pass number of candidates who failed at each level were dividedrates for the CFA examinations since 1963. The combined into 10 groups or score bands. Failing candidates canpass rate is determined by multiplying each Level’s pass rate now see how they performed relative to all other failingFigure 4Combined Pass Rates: 1963−2008 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010by the percentage of candidates who sat for that Level of the Combined Pass Rates candidates. The highest score bands indicate proximity to theexamination. For example, in June 2008, the individual pass MPS. CFA Institute does not release the MPS or individualrates for Levels I, II, and III were 35 percent, 46 percent, and scores. CFA Institute does not consider one candidate as53 percent, respectively—a combined pass rate of 42 percent. more (or less) accomplished than another because of theirPass rates are calculated from those candidates who actually relative score in a particular year or across years. This is espe-sat for the examination. If CFA Institute were to include the cially true for candidates taking the same-level examinationapproximately 25 percent of enrolled candidates who register in different years. Results or ranking on a 1998 examination,but do not sit for the examination (no-shows) each year, pass for example, cannot be compared with results on the 2008rates would be substantially lower. examination.As the chart shows, the combined pass rates have droppeddramatically over time. In the early years of the program,The CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 11
  • 12. THE FUTUrE oF THE CFA progrAmWe hope after reading this article you agree that the standards the Series 86 Examination for certain applicants who haveand rigor of the CFA Program have been maintained and even passed Level II of the CFA examination.enhanced. The stakes of the CFA Program are higher than everas the CFA charter has become a de facto condition of employ- CFA Institute staff and CFA charterholder volunteers involvedment in many investment management organizations. in the activities described in this article are committed to upholding fair and consistent standards for obtaining the CFAIn addition, largely as a result of CFA Institute advocacy charter. The CFA Institute Board of Governors established aefforts, the CFA designation is highly regarded by regulators clear guiding principle for governance of the CFA Program onthroughout the world: http://www.cfainstitute.org/centre/ which all decisions will be made: “Never lower standards,overview/waiverrequirements. either educational or ethical. Growth for growth’s sake is not the goal. This commitment to upholding ethics, educational ”The list of countries that now require investment profes- rigor, and professional excellence is why The Economistsionals to pass one or more levels of the CFA exam to termed the CFA charter “the gold standard” in a Februarypractice in their jurisdictions is growing. For example, the 2005 article.Monetary Authority of Singapore has recognized the CFAdesignation as meeting certain qualification or licensing The CFA Program will continue to evolve to meet the chang-requirements, as have regulators in Greece, Turkey, Hong ing needs of the capital markets. We are proud of the CFAKong, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and in seven Canadian Program and its history. As emphasized throughout thisprovinces (Ontario, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Sas- article, much of the success of the CFA Program is attribut-katchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and Quebec). These able to the participation of many practitioner charterholdersactions on behalf of charterholders enhance the value and who, with CFA Institute staff, specify the CBOK, developsubstantially increase public recognition of the charter. the curriculum and examinations, and grade and recom- mend the passing standards for the examinations to theAll but three of the U.S. state securities commissions Board of Governors.that require investment adviser and investment adviserrepresentatives to pass a licensing examination grant Our profession is fortunate in that a large number of CFACFA charterholders a blanket exemption. Notably, the CFA charterholders are willing to commit their time and effort todesignation is one of only a handful of designations that the program. If you are a CFA charterholder and would likehave been awarded this status by U.S. state securities to participate in any of the activities described in this article,commissions and regulators. In addition, the New York please visit the members section of the CFA Institute web-Stock Exchange and the National Association of Securities site (http://www.cfainstitute.org/memresources/getinvolved/Dealers provide an exemption from the analytical portion of index.html) to volunteer.The CFA Program: Our Fifth Decade 12

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