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Sleep Disorders

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One student's PPT from the Thinking Critically class at AES, summer 2007

One student's PPT from the Thinking Critically class at AES, summer 2007


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  • 1. Sleep Disorders Chi-Eun Kim
  • 2. Parasomnias Sleep Disorders VS Dyssomnias Lack of Sleep Disturbed sleep Excessive Sleep
  • 3. Lack of Sleep Sleep Deprivation Insomnia
  • 4. Insomnia
    • Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep.
    • It is common problem that most people
    • experience at least occasionally .
  • 5. Why?
    • Consequently, insomnia often disr u pts daily life. It can result from
    - Diet (intake of caffeine or alcohol) - Stress - Emotional Difficulties - Underlying Disease
  • 6. Result
    • When it occurs, people feel tired much
    • of the time and ofte n worry a lot about
    • not getting enough sleep.
  • 7. Sleep Deprivation
    • Actually sleep deprivation is not a
    • Disorder. It just indicates that a
    • person has not been getting enough
    • sleep.
  • 8. Result
    • It’ll affect person’s judgment,
    • reaction-time, hand-eye coordination,
    • memory, general well-being and immune
    • system.
  • 9. How can I know that I am a Sleep Deprived patient?
    • Feeling drowsy during the day?
    • Falling asleep for very short period of time(5 min or so) ?
    • Regularly falling asleep immediately after lying down?
  • 10.
    • It means you need more SLEEP!!!
    • Go to bed NOW !!!
  • 11. Disturbed Sleep Sleep Apnea Restless Leg Syndrome(RLS) and Periodic limb movement Disorder REM sleep behavior Disorder
  • 12. Sleep Apnea
    • Sleep Apnea is interrupted breathing
    • during sleep.
    • It usually occurs because of a
    • mechanical problem in the windpipe.
    • But it also indicates a neurological
    • disorder involving nerve cells (neurons).
  • 13. Process
    • As people age, muscle tone relaxes, which may cause the windpipe to collapse.
    • This condition is called Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
    • It results in loud snoring and blocked air flow through the windpipe.
  • 14.
    • It lasts from 10 to 60 seconds.
    • People may be gasping or snorting.
    • And then the brain quickly reacts to the sudden lack of oxygen, the muscles tighten.
    • Windpipe opens.
  • 15. Why?
    • Narrow nasal passages, enlarged
    • tonsils, and obesity are factors that
    • may contribute to obstructive sleep
    • apnea. It also may be re la ted to alcohol,
    • tobacco, or sedatives.
  • 16. Result
    • T he sleep cycle can be interrupted as many as 100 times a night.
    • E very time the windpipe closes, the brain is deprived of oxygen.
  • 17.
    • This lack of oxygen eventually can cause problems morning headaches and decreased mental function.
    • High risk for heart disease and stroke
  • 18. REM Sleep behavior disorder
    • It causes disruptions
    • in the brain
    • during REM sleep.
  • 19. Process Pons Signal Signal Cerebral Cortex Muscles Thinking & Organizing Information REM SLEEP
  • 20. Result
    • It caus es a type of temporary paralysis.
    • In a person with REM sleep behavior disorder, these signals translate into images that make up dreams.
  • 21.
    • If the signals are interfered with, the person may physically act out dreams during sleep. For example, if a patient with REM sleep behavior disorder dreams about running, he or she might actually get up and run.
    • As a result of this condition, patients may injure themselves or others.
    • BUT !!! REM sleep behavior disorder is rare.
  • 22. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD)
    • It is a common sleep disorder,
    • especially in the elderly.
    • Also RLS is a genetic disorder
  • 23. Result
    • It cause s patients to want to move their legs.
    • It often results in insomnia.
  • 24.
    • PLMD causes jerking in the legs or arms that occurs frequently during resting or sleeping. Jerking may occur as many as 3 times in a minute and each jerk can wake the patient.
  • 25. Excessive Sleep Disorder Narcolepsy Cataplexy Sleep paralysis Hypnagogic hallucinations
  • 26. Narcolepsy
    • It is a condition that causes patients
    • to fall asleep uncontrollably throughout
    • the day for periods lasting less than a
    • minute to more than half an hour.
  • 27.
    • These sleep attacks can occur
    • at anytime,
    • even while the person is
    • engaged in an activity !!!
  • 28. Process
    • During sleep, narcoleptics have an abnormal sleep pattern:
    • They enter REM sleep prematurely without going through the normal sequence of sleep stages.
  • 29.
    • Narcolepsy usually is a genetic (inherited) disorder, although it may be associated with brain damage or neurological disease.
  • 30. When?
    • age : 15 - 30
    • When people get pregnant, ill, a fever, or stress.
  • 31. Result
    • often feel tired most of the time.
    • cataplexy,
    • and sleep paralysis.
  • 32. Cataplexy
    • Cataplexy is weakness or paralysis of the muscles.
    • When cataplexy occurs, persons who are standing may fall down.
  • 33.
    • In narcoleptic patients, it may be
    • triggered by tiredness and intense
    • emotions and may be accompanied by
    • short, sudden episodes of laughter or
    • anger.
  • 34. Sleep paralysis
    • Sleep paralysis is the inability to move the arms, legs, or entire body that occurs when a person is falling asleep or waking up.
  • 35. Result
    • People who experience sleep paralysis
    • may become very anxious and often
    • regain movement only if they hear a
    • loud noise or another stimulus.
  • 36. Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams
    • Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams, are dream-like hallucinations that occur in the transition between being awake and being asleep.
  • 37.
    • Often, they are very vivid, frightening dreams.
  • 38. BONUS
  • 39. Sources: http://www.neurologychannel.com/sleepdisorders/types.shtml http://www.athealth.com/consumer/disorders/Sleep.html

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