Gender Equality and Microloans

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Gender Equality and Microloans

  1. 1. Gender Equality Reiko Fukushima
  2. 2. Women <ul><li>social & economic mobility </li></ul><ul><li>+ lack of physical collateral </li></ul><ul><li> access to financial services  men </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty to be active in the labor market </li></ul><ul><li> microcredit </li></ul><ul><li>promote self-employed </li></ul><ul><li>& increase women’s opinion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Women in Arab <ul><li>Seeking to enter Parliament </li></ul><ul><li> a history of high cultural hurdles </li></ul><ul><li>+ Islamist & tribal lobbies </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>- realize the importance of women’s status </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. promoting female equality </li></ul><ul><li>& a literacy rate / school enrollment </li></ul><ul><li> problem : not the law but it’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>women want men to rule </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. 7 of the 22 Arab states </li></ul>
  4. 4. Women in Bangladesh <ul><li>Garment industry </li></ul><ul><li> provide employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>(in 1990: 28%->in 2002 85%) </li></ul><ul><li>socio-economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>· marriage rate/age </li></ul><ul><li>· population </li></ul><ul><li>· economic independent </li></ul><ul><li>· literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li> factory conditions are unsafe and wages low </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>• a leader of low-income countries offering microcredit </li></ul><ul><li>* three well-known programs </li></ul><ul><li>- the Grameen Bank </li></ul><ul><li>- Bangladeesh Rural Advancement   Committee (BRAC) </li></ul><ul><li>- Bangladesh Rural Development Boards’s Rural Development Project (RD-12) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Microcredit? <ul><li>Very small loan with low interest rate </li></ul><ul><li>- to the unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>& poor entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>& others living in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>= whoever not considered as bankable </li></ul><ul><li>esp. women </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of Microcredit <ul><li>Raise living standards </li></ul><ul><li>= generate income </li></ul><ul><li>Alleviate poverty </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>increasingly gaining credibility </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. the U.N. & Muhammad Yunus </li></ul><ul><li> a panacea for reducing poverty or reaching poor women </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impacts <ul><li>Impact of credit given to women  men </li></ul><ul><li>  borrowing by women </li></ul><ul><li>- improve children’s welfare </li></ul><ul><li>nutritious wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li> human capital </li></ul><ul><li>by men </li></ul><ul><li>- household net worth = physical capital </li></ul><ul><li> household reproductive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>- have more children </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Microcredit </li></ul><ul><li>= more attractive to women than to    men </li></ul><ul><li>     high rate of women membership </li></ul><ul><li>    : ave. 84% </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sources <ul><li>Using microcredit to advance women, (Nov. 1998), Retrieved The World Bank, Prem notes from: www1.worldbank.org/prem/PREMNotes/premnote8.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Microcredit, (n.d.), Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcredit </li></ul>

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