Gender Equality and Microloans
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Gender Equality and Microloans

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final presentation in esl class

final presentation in esl class

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Gender Equality and Microloans Gender Equality and Microloans Presentation Transcript

  • Gender Equality Reiko Fukushima
  • Women
    • social & economic mobility
    • + lack of physical collateral
    •  access to financial services  men
    • difficulty to be active in the labor market
    •  microcredit
    • promote self-employed
    • & increase women’s opinion
  • Women in Arab
    • Seeking to enter Parliament
    •  a history of high cultural hurdles
    • + Islamist & tribal lobbies
    • Government
    • - realize the importance of women’s status
    • e.g. promoting female equality
    • & a literacy rate / school enrollment
    •  problem : not the law but it’s culture
    • women want men to rule
    • e.g. 7 of the 22 Arab states
    View slide
  • Women in Bangladesh
    • Garment industry
    •  provide employment opportunities
    • (in 1990: 28%->in 2002 85%)
    • socio-economic transformation
    • · marriage rate/age
    • · population
    • · economic independent
    • · literacy rates
    •  factory conditions are unsafe and wages low
    View slide
    • • a leader of low-income countries offering microcredit
    • * three well-known programs
    • - the Grameen Bank
    • - Bangladeesh Rural Advancement   Committee (BRAC)
    • - Bangladesh Rural Development Boards’s Rural Development Project (RD-12)
  • What is Microcredit?
    • Very small loan with low interest rate
    • - to the unemployed
    • & poor entrepreneurs
    • & others living in poverty
    • = whoever not considered as bankable
    • esp. women
  • Effects of Microcredit
    • Raise living standards
    • = generate income
    • Alleviate poverty
    • increasingly gaining credibility
    • e.g. the U.N. & Muhammad Yunus
    •  a panacea for reducing poverty or reaching poor women
  • Impacts
    • Impact of credit given to women  men
    •  borrowing by women
    • - improve children’s welfare
    • nutritious wellbeing
    •  human capital
    • by men
    • - household net worth = physical capital
    •  household reproductive behavior
    • - have more children
    • Microcredit
    • = more attractive to women than to    men
    •      high rate of women membership
    •     : ave. 84%
  • Sources
    • Using microcredit to advance women, (Nov. 1998), Retrieved The World Bank, Prem notes from: www1.worldbank.org/prem/PREMNotes/premnote8.pdf
    • Microcredit, (n.d.), Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcredit