CALL for a New Literacy: New Tools and Rules of Engagement
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CALL for a New Literacy: New Tools and Rules of Engagement

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Plenary for delivery in Russian Far East Fall 2007

Plenary for delivery in Russian Far East Fall 2007

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  • 1. CALL for a New Literacy: New Tools and Rules of Engagement I am always doing what I cannot do yet, in order to learn how to do it. Vincent Van Gogh
  • 2. Keeping the Students In Mind
    • During this plenary, we will:
    • Reconsider the meaning of literacy in today’s world
    • Consider our teaching objectives in light of the new literacy
    • Ask how CALL (and Web 2.0 specifically) can be exploited
    • Examine the role ELTs can play in this digital information age
  • 3. 10 Questions to Consider
    • 1. What does it mean to be literate in today’s world?
    • 2. What skills must ELLs possess to be literate?
    • 3. How can ELTs best help ELLs attain literacy?
    • 4. What role can CALL (and the Internet) play in achieving literacy for our students?
    • 5. What are some challenges in using the Web with ELLs (generally, and in Russia specifically)?
  • 4. 10 Questions to Consider
    • 6. What is Web 2.0?
    • 7. How can Web 2.0 tools be used with ELLs?
    • 8. Is Web 2.0 use consistent with current ELT methods and with a new literacy?
    • 9. What steps can ELTs take to integrate the Internet into the classroom?
    • 10. What can you take from the plenary today that will change what you do in the classroom?
  • 5. Why is literacy changing?
    • Global shift from industrial economy to information economy
    • Reading/writing forms = more complex » Literacy = more complex
    • Digital forms of reading/writing are replacing printed forms of reading/writing
      • Ex: Obsolescence of typewriter
      • Ex: Ubiquitous nature of email
      • Ex: Decreased importance of handwriting/increased importance of typing (voice recognition in future)
  • 6. What are two types of literacy?
    • Warschauer has identified two broad categories of literacy:
    • Academic Literacy - competencies related to academic work (note taking, summarizing, researching, critical reading, etc.)
    • Digital Literacy
      • Computer Literacy - ability to operate a computer
      • Information Literacy - ability to access, understand, organize and archive digital information
      • Multimedia Literacy - ability to create materials using digital resources (texts, images, audio, video)
      • CMC (Computer-mediated communication literacy) - ability to communicate orally and in writing online (email, chat, instant messaging, audio/video conferencing, etc.)
  • 7. What is one reason our students need to attain this new literacy?
    • "The need for technologically literate citizens and workers increases every year. Skilled people in the 21st century need to understand how to use technology tools. . . These tools enable people to perform effectively at work and in their daily lives. . . "
    • Learning for the 21st Century, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2003, p.10-11
  • 8. Is there another reason?
    • “ In our Information Age twenty-first century society, knowledge is the coin of the realm and the ability to think critically is a prerequisite for democratic participation.”
    • Cummins, Brown and Sayers: Literacy,Technology, and Diversity . 2007, p. vi
  • 9. And more?
    • There are many sociological implications of digital literacy:
    • Government - Impact on shaping of public opinion and formulation of policy
    • Law - Impact on concepts of intellectual property, copyright, plagiarism
    • Economics - Transformation of commerce; how people make purchases and manage finances
    • Mass Communication - How information is collected and disseminated
    • Education - How texts are produced and used; role of teachers
    • Aviram, A. & Eshet-Alkalai, Y. Towards a Theory of Digital Literacy: Three Scenarios for the Next Steps. http://www. eurodl .org/materials/contrib/2006/Aharon_Aviram. htm
  • 10. And finally?
    • Technology applied appropriately in the classroom prepares students to deal with dynamic systems. World problems involve dynamic systems!
    • Ex: St. research Q: Why is polar bear population declining?
    • Students don’t need to memorize information on p. xyz
    • Students do need to gather information from multiple sources (textbook, library, Internet, personal interviews, etc.)
    • Evaluate & synthesize data to understand interrelationships .
    • Ask how these interrelationships inform their research issue
    • Ex. Drive a car, emit CO 2 , contribute to global warming, melt polar ice caps, polar bears lose habitat. What should we do??
    • Proposed Video-Game School Gets $1.1 Million Boost Heather Chaplin
    • All Things Considered, June 21, 2007
    • http://www. npr .org/templates/story/story. php ? storyId=11259040
  • 11. What digital literacy reading skills are required?
    • Find appropriate information by searching the Internet
    • Locate the information on the Web site/page
    • Comprehend the information
    • Evaluate the source of information
    • Determine whether to follow hyperlinks
    • Decide whether and how to save/catalog information
    Warschauer, M. (2001). Millennialism and media: Language, literacy, and technology in the 21st century. AILA Review 14, 49-59.
  • 12. What digital literacy writing skills are required?
    • Choose the best vehicle for publication (email, discussion list, web page, blog, wiki, etc.)
    • Incorporate text, graphics, audio, and video into multimedia pages for the Web
    • Create and make effective use of hypertext links to convey the message
    • Tailor the writing to an Internet audience that may be largely unknown
    • Use appropriate pragmatic strategies for the intended electronic forum
    • Ensure that writing is free of plagiarized materials
    Warschauer, M. (2001). Millennialism and media: Language, literacy, and technology in the 21st century. AILA Review 14, 49-59.
  • 13. Challenges of Integrating the Internet What about the chaos?
    • There was a doctor, a civil engineer, and a computer scientist sitting around late one evening, and they got to discussing which was the oldest profession. The doctor pointed out that according to Biblical tradition, God created Eve from Adam's rib. This obviously required surgery, so therefore hers was the oldest profession in the world.
  • 14. Challenges of Integrating the Internet What about the chaos?
    • The engineer countered with an earlier passage in the Bible that stated that God created order from the chaos, and that was most certainly the biggest and best civil engineering example ever, and also proved that his profession was the oldest profession.
  • 15. Challenges of Integrating the Internet What about the chaos?
    • The computer scientist leaned back in his chair, and with a sly smile responded, "Yes, but who do you think created the chaos?”
    • ********************
    So, if using computers/Internet does create some “chaos” or at least adds a burden of risk, uncertainty and extra responsibility on the ESOL teacher, why do so? **********************
  • 16. Because with the correct pedagogy, use of the Internet helps the classroom come ALIVE
    • A uthenticity (unlimited access to authentic materials, communication and publishing)
    • L iteracy (read, write, communicate, research & publish on Internet = 21st century literacy)
    • I nteraction (key to acquiring fluency; Internet provides stimulus and opportunity)
    • V itality (flexible, modern medium; provides opportunity for meaningful, relevant work)
    • E mpowerment (mastery allows teachers and students to become lifelong learners).
      • Internet for English Teaching, Warschauer, Shetzer & Meloni, TESOL, 2000.
  • 17. Because CALL (and Internet) help develop digital and academic literacy
    • Technological tools can exert a powerful impact on literacy development and overall academic achievement when they are harnessed to a pedagogy that engages students affectively, cognitively, and imaginatively.
    Cummins, Brown and Sayers: Literacy,Technology, and Diversity . 2007, p. 4
  • 18. What would that pedagogy look like? THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACADEMIC EXPERTISE Teacher-Student Interactions Maximum Cognitive Engagement Maximum Identity Investment
    • Focus on Language
    • Awareness of language forms and uses
    • Critical analysis of language forms and uses
    • Focus on Meaning
    • Making input comprehensible
    • Developing critical literacy
    • Focus on Use
    • Using language to:
    • Generate new knowledge
    • Create literature and art
    • Act on social realities
    Adapted from J. Cummins, Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society
  • 19. Can you sum up?
    • If technology is integrated into the classroom using a pedagogy that meets students’ cognitive, affective and imaginative needs, it will help students:
    • 1. To become proficient language users, able to communicate via 21st century media.
    • 2. To become successful in the workplace.
    • 3. To become engaged, critical thinking, participatory citizens of the world.
  • 20. Has computer/Internet use in Russia grown?
    • Russia 2004
    • 14.9 million users
    • 14% Internet users
    • Russia 2006
    • 24.3 million users
    • 21% Internet users
    http: //bd . english . fom .ru/report/map/ocherk/eint0602/printable/
  • 21. How does the Russian Far-East compare? http: //bd . english . fom .ru/report/map/ocherk/eint0602/printable/
  • 22. What about future Internet growth in Russia?
    • According to ITC Ministry in 2007:
    • 70% now have mobile phones
    • Computer growth rate highest in world last year
    • Internet user growth increased by 21% last year
    • 50% will have Internet access by 2010
    • Entire country wired for Internet by 2015
    • What about Web 2.0 use?
    • 12 million LiveJournal users (blog on ZheZhe) http://www. thenation .com/doc/20070312/arutunyan
  • 23. What is Web 2.0?
    • Coined by Tim O’Reilly (7 characteristics)
    • Services, not packaged software (Ex. Google not sold or packaged but delivered as a service)
    • Harness collective intelligence (Ex. Blogging and Wikis with RSS = “global brain”)
    • Data is the next “Intel Inside.” Unique database is key (Ex. Amazon harnesses customer info)
    • The Long Tail - Web applications that appeal to a wide market (Ex. Ebay is broker for even very small transactions)
    http://www. oreillynet .com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html?page=1
  • 24. What are some examples of Web 1.0 Web 2.0 ?
    • Personal Web site
    • Encarta Online
    • Photo sharing (Ofoto)
    • (taxonomy)
    • Manual Web site monitoring
    • Text-based discussion forum (Nicenet)
    • Posting audio/video to personal site
    • Blogs and Wikis
    • Wikipedia
    • Flikr
    • (tagging = folksonomy)
    • RSS (Real Simple Syndication) subscription
    • Audio-based discussion forum (Chingswing)
    • Podcasting, videoblogging (YouTube, TeacherTube)
  • 25. Can you put it into a simple statement ?
    • If we consider the Internet to be a type of “ Broadcast Network ,” Web 1.0 would be more about the “ Broadcast ” aspect and Web 2.0 would be more about the “ Network ” aspect.
    • Web 1.0 was more about information dissemination, while Web 2.0 is more conducive to information enrichment and exploitation, social networking, collaboration and the creation of communities of practice.
  • 26. Is the public jumping on the Web 2.0 bandwagon? Wikipedia v. Encarta Online http://www. pewinternet .org/PPF/r/189/report_display.asp
  • 27. Can you show me some Web 2.0 uses in language teaching/learning? http://www. teachertube . com/view_video . php ? viewkey=7097425b52fc7afbb696 Click photo for video by Graham Stanley
  • 28. Can you show me a student blog? Academic Posting http: //sayaka-yamatonadeshiko . blogspot .com/
  • 29. What does it mean to subscribe to a blog? What is RSS? Personal Posting http: //sayaka-yamatonadeshiko . blogspot .com/
  • 30. Can you show me a class Wiki? http://aessum2007. pbwiki .com/
  • 31. What’s an example of social bookmarking and tagging? ( http://del. icio .us/michael_krauss/plenary_vladivostok_2007
  • 32. What’s a tag cloud? ( http://del. icio . us/michael_krauss ? settagsort=alpha
  • 33. Has Web 2.0 spawned copyright flexibility? Creative Commons http://search. creativecommons .org/
  • 34. Is Web 2.0 use consistent with current ELT methods and the new literacy?
    • Warschauer in “The Death of Cyberspace and the Rebirth of CALL”
    http://www. gse . uci . edu/faculty/markw/cyberspace .html
  • 35. What are some of the constructivist learning principles?
    • Learners actively engage in creating meaning for themselves from information around them.
    • Learners construct new understandings using pre-existing knowledge (schema).
    • Learners build knowledge through individual experiences and social interactions.
    • Learners are not passive recipients of knowledge given them by others.
  • 36. What are some basic characteristics of socio-cognitive learning theory?
    • Vygotsky (1896-1934)
    • Focus on social aspect of cognition (often contrasted with Piaget)
    • Social interactions are primary source of cognition and behavior
    • Learning optimized by interactions and collaboration with adults or more capable peers.
    • Incremental learning through social interaction with a more skilled parent/teacher/peer referred to as “ Zone of Proximal Development”
  • 37. So, what design criteria should be applied when creating CALL activities?
    • Ask yourself these 6 questions:
    • Does the technology-supported instruction. . .
      • 1. provide cognitive challenge and opportunites for deep processing of meaning?
      • 2. relate instruction to prior knowledge and experiences derived from students’ homes and communities?
      • 3. promote active self-regulated collaborative inquiry?
    Cummins, Brown and Sayers: Literacy,Technology, and Diversity . 2007, p. 109.
  • 38. So, what design criteria should be applied when creating CALL activities?
    • Ask yourself these 6 questions:
    • Does the technology-supported instruction. . .
      • 4. promote extensive engaged reading and writing across the curriculum?
      • 5. help students develop strategies for effective reading, writing, and learning?
      • 6. Promote affective involvement and identity investment on the part of the students?
    Cummins, Brown and Sayers: Literacy,Technology, and Diversity . 2007, p. 110.
  • 39. So, universal access itself doesn’t guarantee success? The quality of their Internet-based assignments was poor and uninspiring. They want to be assigned more--and more engaging--Internet activities that are relevant to their lives. The digital disconnect: the widening gap between internet-savvy students and their schools. Available online at: http://www. pewinternet .org/reports/toc.asp?Report=67
  • 40. So what is the critical link to make this all work?
    • Internet is more than computer network
    • Internet is a network of people
    • Unparalleled ability to collaborate
    • Universal Internet access does not guarantee success in education
    • Teachers are the critical links
  • 41. What should my role be?
    • Teacher should not be a sage on the stage
    • Teacher should not be a guide on the side
    • Teacher should be an expert learner
    • Teacher should be part of the learning process
    • Teacher should model learning for the students
    • Teacher should help students construct new knowledge --Tom Carroll
  • 42. What kind of training is most effective? Opportunities to explore, reflect, collaborate with peers, work on authentic learning tasks, and engage in hands-on, active learning. In essence, the principles for creating successful learning environments for children apply to teachers as well. Cradler, J. (2002-2003). Effective Integration. Learning and Leading with Technology 30 (4) 49-56. Available online at: http://caret. iste .org/caretadmin/resources_documents/30_4. pdf
  • 43. Integrating the Internet into the Classroom http://www. lclark . edu/~krauss/usia/
  • 44. Tapped In http://ti2.sri. com/tappedin/
  • 45. Webheads in Action htm
  • 46. Can you inspire me with something funny? http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=guELpieYlFU
  • 47. Could CALL help? Web 2.0 (YouTube Video) http://international. ouc . bc .ca/pronunciation/minpair1.html Minimal Pairs Drill http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=KF7UcpO5vF4
  • 48. Can you inspire me with a humanitarian project using Web 2.0? http://www. kiva .org
  • 49. Can you show me more about Kiva? http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=VGGT1eYPTeM
  • 50. Can we climb the hill to 21st century literacy?
  • 51. Yes! In communities of practice. . . step by step!
  • 52. Knowledge is of no value unless you put it into practice. Anton Chekhov www. mssu . edu/international/ russia/russiasem . htm CALL for a New Literacy: New Tools and Rules of Engagement