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Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model
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Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model

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Slides presenting work done in the MIRROR project on creating a model to understand reflective learning in workplaces and to improve its support. Presented at EC-TEL 2013 conference.

Slides presenting work done in the MIRROR project on creating a model to understand reflective learning in workplaces and to improve its support. Presented at EC-TEL 2013 conference.

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  • The four stages in the CSRL cycle can be considered (loosely) as states in a reflective learning process in which some activities are relevant. By activity – which can also be referred to as a reflection activity – we here refer to “something people do to achieve reflective learning”. This definition has a focus on the perspective of the learner, and is accompanied by the assumption that any reflection activity undertaken in a real-life workplace setting can be linked to a reflective learning cycle (whether short or elaborate)In the case of the CSRL cycle view, the activities are generic and based on activity seen as essential to reflective learning in the literature and in conceptual/empirical work in MIRROR (see e.g. the interim version of D1.4 and chapter 4 in this deliverable). The generic activities are meant to cover reflective learning processes in all types of reflective learning settings. Furthermore, the list of activities for each stage in the reflection cycle indicates what types of activity may be involved in a specific reflection cycle I.e. in a specific case, not all activities need to be present.In the following, we use boldface text to refer to the activities within each stage. The stages can be seen as implicitly or explicitly containing checkpoints for how (and whether) to proceed in the process (see below on transitions between stages). In particular, what happens in the Apply outcome stage is decisive for how and whether the reflection leads to immediate change to work and/or to the initiation of further reflection. As argued previously (see D1.4) the four stages may all benefit from various forms of reflection support (see section ).
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    • 1. Understanding and supporting reflective learning processes in the workplace: The CSRL Model Birgit R. Krogstie1, Michael Prilla2, Viktoria Pammer3 1Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway 2Information and Technology Management, Ruhr University of Bochum 3Know-Center Graz, Austria http://mirror-project.eu
    • 2. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Reflection? Activity Articulation Documented Experience “Patient with *diagnosis+. Excited relative talks about [problem] that she allegedly does not know about. Wants information about [the problem] and how we deal with it, which has already been given before.” Own Comment “[Maybe] medical lay people cannot understand some terms and are irritated rather than informed.” Comment by others “Here a second talk could help. Sometimes it needs to be explained again and again to reach understanding. (…) There is still the option to ask the senior physician” Reflection?
    • 3. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Agenda ▪ Why do we need a model for reflection? ▪ The CSRL model: Computer Supported Reflective Learning ▪ Applying the model ▪ Next steps: Challenges and Open Issues
    • 4. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work WHY DO WE NEED A MODEL FOR COMPUTER SUPPORTED REFLECTIVE LEARNING? A model helps to analyse, plan and implement reflection support.
    • 5. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Why do we need a new model of reflection? Existing models: Focus & Descriptiveness vs. Support for Tool Design ▪ Granularity: Activities involved in the process? ▪ Process: What initiates the process, what keeps it alive? ▪ Which tools / features support which aspects of reflection? ▪ Different forms of reflection: Individual and Collaborative
    • 6. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Models of reflection Boud (1985) Behavior Ideas Feelings Returning to experience Attending to feelings Re-evaluating experience New perspectives Change in behavior Readiness for application Commitment to action Experience(s) Reflective process Outcomes “Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created by the transformation of experience” (Kolb, 1984)
    • 7. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Models of reflection / including reflection Dewey (1938), Stahl (2000), Argyris (1999)
    • 8. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work The MIRROR CSRL model Computer Supported Reflective Learning Interactive version: http://research.idi.ntnu.no/mirror/csrl_v1_2_1/CSRL_v1_2 _1_Clickable_General_version/start.html Focus on: • Stages • Activities within stages • Transitions between stages, • Transitions (triggers) to new reflection cycles
    • 9. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work The CSRL model: Stages of computer- supported reflective learning Plan and Do work ▪ Doing everyday work, planning and monitoring ▪ Real or virtual environments, simulations Initiate Reflection ▪ Starting (each) cycle ▪ Make plan(s) / set objective(s), involve others ▪ More or less elaborate / explicit http://research.idi.ntnu.no/mirror/csrl_v1_2_1/CSRL_v1_2_1_Clickable_General_version/start.html
    • 10. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work The CSRL model of computer- supported reflective learning Conduct reflection session ▪ Re-assess experiences , understand them and draw conclusions ▪ Results in an outcome Apply outcome ▪ Create change in the work arena or initiate further reflection ▪ Plan implementation http://research.idi.ntnu.no/mirror/csrl_v1_2_1/CSRL_v1_2_1_Clickable_General_version/start.html
    • 11. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Explicit focus on triggers and transitions Starting and continuing the cycle Connecting steps Trigger Transition
    • 12. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Triggers ▪ What causes people to reflect? What causes them to involve others? ▪ (often initiated by) Individual discrepancies ▪ Need to make sense, need for emotion regulation ▪ Involving others ▪ Get help to understand problem / find solution ▪ Get help to implement solution ▪ Create awareness (e.g. give help/guidance)
    • 13. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Advances in the model: Triggers for reflection
    • 14. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Transitions ▪ Change in the stage ▪ Keeping the cycle active until a resolution has been achieved or applied
    • 15. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Advances in the model: Supporting Transitions • Objective / subjective: Proximity, performance, notes 1: Data • Goals, participants: Meeting agenda, question asked 2: Frame 1 2
    • 16. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Applying the model: Cycles Observations in practice: Back and forth between individual reflection and reflection in groups (Prilla, Pammer and Krogstie ECSCW 2013) Requirement for CSRL model: Connect sessions
    • 17. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Example: Reflecting on a Failed Emergency Procedure One day, a nurse failed to initiate the emergency procedure when a patient was brought to the emergency room and the state of the patient suddenly deteriorated severely.
    • 18. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Example: Reflecting a Failed Emergency Procedure The nurse tried to initiate the procedure, but failed and had to call the team in manually. The nurse felt bad about it and wanted to prevent similar situations in the future. He thought back to this situation, but did not understand what had gone wrong and why. Plan and do work: Start emergency proc. Conduct Reflection: Failure why? Initiate Reflection : Prevent future issues Cycle 1: Nurse reflecting individually
    • 19. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Example: Reflecting on a Failed Emergency Procedure The nurse went to the head nurse in order to reflect with her about the procedure. The head nurse remembered that she had also had similar problems in the past. They came up with changes to the procedure, but were not sure whether these changes would work for others, too. Plan and do work: Start emergency proc. Apply Outcome: Acceptance? Conduct Reflection: Failure why? Initiate Reflection : Prevent future issues Conduct Reflection: Too complex Initiate Reflection: Ask head nurse Cycle 1: Nurse reflecting individually Cycle 2: Nurse reflecting with head nurse
    • 20. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Example: Reflecting a Failed Emergency Procedure The nurse and the head nurse decided to take the topic into a staff meeting to involve more people in finding a solution. In the staff meeting, some nurses reported similar problems. The group came up with a proposal for an adapted procedure. Plan and do work: Start emergency proc. Apply Outcome: Acceptance? Conduct Reflection: Failure why? Initiate Reflection : Prevent future issues Conduct Reflection: Too complex Initiate Reflection: Ask head nurse Conduct Reflection: Create proposal Initiate Reflection: All staff Cycle 1: Nurse reflecting individually Cycle 2: Nurse reflecting with head nurse Cycle 3: Reflection in staff meeting
    • 21. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Example: Reflecting a Failed Emergency Procedure In the ward meeting, the participants decided to propose to management that the adapted procedure be used on all wards of the hospital. Plan and do work: Start emergency proc. Apply Outcome: Acceptance? Conduct Reflection: Failure why? Initiate Reflection : Prevent future issues Conduct Reflection: Too complex Initiate Reflection: Ask head nurse Apply Outcome: Management needed Conduct Reflection: Create proposal Initiate Reflection: All staff Cycle 1: Nurse reflecting individually Cycle 2: Nurse reflecting with head nurse Cycle 3: Reflection in staff meeting Management
    • 22. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Applying the model in practice ▪ Identification of reflection cycles and support needs ▪ Analysing / Modelling collaborative reflection ▪ Checking existing support / identifying requirements ▪ Mapping technology ▪ Central role of initiation phase ▪ Needs sufficient data basis for reconstruction ▪ Needs support for different triggers ▪ Support for transitions as a central task for tools
    • 23. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Modelling collaborative reflection Model element Symbol Work Trigger Reflection Change
    • 24. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work The MIRROR CSRL model: Tool view
    • 25. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Mapping tool use
    • 26. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Advances to other models With the CSRL model ▪ reflective learning in the workplace can be represented as a process involving multiple, interconnected cycles ▪ each reflection cycle can be characterized in a way that captures important differences between cycles ▪ tool support can be adapted to the particular characteristics of the reflective learning process in question
    • 27. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Next steps: towards CSRL model 2.0 ▪ Use of the CSRL model for communication among stakeholders ▪ Switching between different levels of abstraction ▪ The need for guidelines, facilitation and experts present ▪ Embedding the model in the socio-technical context of reflection ▪ Design of applications supporting reflection, with guidelines for design and further (socio-technical) context for reflective learning
    • 28. Fostering Collaborative Redesign of Work Practice: Challenges for Tools Supporting Reflection at Work Thank you very much! Questions? Michael Prilla michael.prilla@rub.de www.imtm-iaw.rub.de www.mirror-project.eu @IMTM_RUB @MirrorIP imtm mirrorip

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