Models, Social Tagging and Knowledge Management    A fruitful Combination for Process Improvement Michael Prilla
Information and Technology Management (IMTM)  Institute for Applied Work Science (IAW) Ruhr University of Bochum IMTM – An...
This talk in one slide <ul><li>Goal: Integration of Process Models into Knowledge Management System content </li></ul><ul>...
Initial Situation: Use of Models <ul><li>Evidence from several case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Process Models are useful … ...
Resulting Demands <ul><li>Foster usage of process models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support understanding of models </li></ul><...
Approach: Social Tagging for Models in Knowledge Management <ul><li>Dissemination and Awareness of Models </li></ul><ul><u...
Empirical Exploration: Seven Fields of Support Needs <ul><li>Derived from interviews with practicioners </li></ul>Field of...
Models: Users and Recipients Periphery Process Participants, Users/Clients, new Employees, operative Staff, … Extended Cor...
Models: Search and Description <ul><li>Process Models cannot be found (by users and modelers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ This...
<ul><li>Models are not well accepted with staff in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ they are often seen as my artifac...
Empirical Exploration: Seven Fields of Support Needs Field of Support Description Creating Models Finding and integrating ...
Process Models: Dissemination Tagging as enabler
Design: Tagging for Process Models in Knowledge Management <ul><li>Series of workshops with 10 potential users </li></ul><...
Tagging for Process Models
Tag-based exchange Coupling to KMS „Kolumbus 2“ Open and save models to KMS Use tags for searching and browsing Coupling v...
Tags and AoW for KM with Process Models
Tag-based Support for Modeling  Push and Pull  for additional information sources Tagged  perspectives Personalized access...
Conclusion: Impact on BP(M) <ul><li>Tagging for Process Models will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Access to and Dissemina...
Further Work <ul><li>Coping with tags on different levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicating models‘ content </li></ul></ul...
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Models, Social Tagging and Knowledge Management - A fruitful Combination @ BPM 2009 Conference

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Talk given in the 2009 workshop on Social Software and Business Process Management in conjunction with the BPM 2009 Conference in Ulm, Germany (http://crinfo.univ-paris1.fr/users/nurcan/BPMS2_2009/)

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  • Before I start talking on the topic some words on where I come from Multiple disciplines, main topic: Transition from technology development to technology usage and adoption Main research areas comprise knowledge management, process modeling, innovation In service industry, software development, production, government agencies Our work on this in many different case study led to the approach presented here: In the companies we work with process models are – if at all – scarcely used. People cannot find them and use them only for certification issues. These people perceive this as a problem, as it causes extra work and redundant tasks. Moreover, lacking knowledge of process models hinders coordination between different roles and levels.
  • Models, Social Tagging and Knowledge Management - A fruitful Combination @ BPM 2009 Conference

    1. 1. Models, Social Tagging and Knowledge Management A fruitful Combination for Process Improvement Michael Prilla
    2. 2. Information and Technology Management (IMTM) Institute for Applied Work Science (IAW) Ruhr University of Bochum IMTM – An interdisciplinary Team: Applied Work Science, Communication Science, Computer Science , Economy, Engineering Science, Pedagogy, Social Science Focus areas: Work and Business Processes Knowledge Management and Web 2.0 Innovation and Creativity
    3. 3. This talk in one slide <ul><li>Goal: Integration of Process Models into Knowledge Management System content </li></ul><ul><li>Social Tagging as a semantic layer for heterogeneous content (Prilla, 2008; Prilla and Herrmann, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Research approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature study and case study analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth Interviews with 6 practicioners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping and participatory design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result: Dissemination of Process Models to foster feedback from users </li></ul>
    4. 4. Initial Situation: Use of Models <ul><li>Evidence from several case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Process Models are useful … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capturing and analysis of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding of corresponding knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of process knowledge in organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… but unsufficiently used in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary purposes dominate, secondary taken for granted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active usage limited to small groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low acceptance and barriers for usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting feedback for processes is costly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Modeling not supported by available (knowledge) resources </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Resulting Demands <ul><li>Foster usage of process models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support understanding of models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable feedback from users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleviate process knowledge acquisition </li></ul></ul>Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge from to Knowledge state transitions, adapted from Nonaka (1994) Socialization Models do not play a role* Externalization Models codify tacit knowledge Internalization Models for knowledge acquisition Combination Models as alternative or structure
    6. 6. Approach: Social Tagging for Models in Knowledge Management <ul><li>Dissemination and Awareness of Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate into knowledge management content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cope with heterogeneous content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic content description layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging advantages outweigh formal semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up semantic content description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal incentives  group benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low usage burden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration into existing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a useful and usable tagging mechanism for PMs </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Empirical Exploration: Seven Fields of Support Needs <ul><li>Derived from interviews with practicioners </li></ul>Field of Support Description Creating Models Finding and integrating information into models Re-using models Ensuring Understanding and Quality of a Model Ensuring understanding by supplementary information Ensuring quality by intersubjective approval Using Models together Distribution media and formats Means to share and remember models Using Models for Communication Awareness of models as information sources Acceptance of models Finding and Contextualizing Models Means for searching models and resulting problems Means for model description Connecting Models with other Content Technical support for linkage Implicit linking by similarity Facilitating and Extending Model Usage Scarce usage and small user groups Specifities of target groups: Create and propose Perspectives on Models
    8. 8. Models: Users and Recipients Periphery Process Participants, Users/Clients, new Employees, operative Staff, … Extended Core Management, Training, … Core Users Analysts, Developers, Process Owners Consideration: Distribution and active use is a self-runner. Practice: Usage is limited to a small group. Usage of KMS Models on Paper, Image Formats No access to tools Usage of BPMS Model Formats Usage of modeling tools <ul><li>Scattered resources </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of models </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of models </li></ul><ul><li>Tool support </li></ul>
    9. 9. Models: Search and Description <ul><li>Process Models cannot be found (by users and modelers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ This is a situation you are always in. And it is a real nightmare“ (I1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>„ There is no DMS for models, we do not have that“ (I3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>„ Interviewer: How do you find models? „Interviewee 1: By their file names.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacking findability causes redundancy: “If I do not find a model, I redo it” (I1) </li></ul><ul><li>Lacking findability hinders active usage by non-modelers: “ I think that models are not ready enough to hand - they seem to disappear in the depths of IT“ (I2) </li></ul><ul><li>Explicate model content and make them as findable as textual content </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Models are not well accepted with staff in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ they are often seen as my artifact“ (I2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>„ it is questionable whether someone is willing to use models“ (I6) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT: Strong coupling to modeler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ we are always present when they work with models, so we know what is going on“ (I2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>„ I keep an eye on the model, because otherwise people would change it unproperly“ (I5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving Acceptance: Make models available, decouple from modelers, keep modelers as experts </li></ul>Models: Acceptance
    11. 11. Empirical Exploration: Seven Fields of Support Needs Field of Support Description Creating Models Finding and integrating information into models Re-using models Ensuring Understanding and Quality of a Model Ensuring understanding by supplementary information Ensuring quality by intersubjective approval Using Models together Distribution media and formats Means to share and remember models Using Models for Communication Awareness of models as information sources Acceptance of models Finding and Contextualizing Models Means for searching models and resulting problems Means for model description Connecting Models with other Content Technical support for linkage Implicit linking by similarity Facilitating and Extending Model Usage Scarce usage and small user groups Specifities of target groups: Create and propose Perspectives on Models
    12. 12. Process Models: Dissemination Tagging as enabler
    13. 13. Design: Tagging for Process Models in Knowledge Management <ul><li>Series of workshops with 10 potential users </li></ul><ul><li>Task-based brainstorming and evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of needed functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of functions and interplay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation : Benefit from tagging apart from KM support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching: Keywords and explorative search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags : Permanent display without disturbing the modeler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing : Use models as a whole and parts (also for search) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage: Fit to Processes of tag-based model sharing </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Tagging for Process Models
    15. 15. Tag-based exchange Coupling to KMS „Kolumbus 2“ Open and save models to KMS Use tags for searching and browsing Coupling via Webservice-Interface
    16. 16. Tags and AoW for KM with Process Models
    17. 17. Tag-based Support for Modeling Push and Pull for additional information sources Tagged perspectives Personalized access to adequate view
    18. 18. Conclusion: Impact on BP(M) <ul><li>Tagging for Process Models will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Access to and Disseminate Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise Awareness and improve interest in Models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include Participtants‘ knowledge in process design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Modelers in ensuring understanding and quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect on BP(M) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in quality (modeling and feedback) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of models as everyday work artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synergies with existing BPMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination with existing repository </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Further Work <ul><li>Coping with tags on different levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicating models‘ content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching and ranking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clustering of tags in small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of search and content explication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of intended Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance and motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate and long-time effects for knowledge acquisition and process improvement </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Thanks for your attention!

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