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2011 09-15 magic potion of gamification

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2011 09-15 …

2011 09-15
Gamification Summit NYC
The magic potion of gamification

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  • 1. The Magic Potionof GamificationMichael Wu, PhDPrincipal Scientist of AnalyticsSeptember 16th, 2011Gamification Summit NYC
  • 2. what’s the magic behind gamification? CommunalR Response Collection CCountdown d Discovery Variable Ratio Cross SituationalCollaboration Fun Once, Delayed Lottery Reward ScheduleReputation Fun Always Leader-boards Mechanics Fixed Ratio Status Free Lunch Serendipity P i t Points Moral Hazard Social Shell Game Communal Reward Schedule Modifiers of Game PlayCohesion Interval Discovery LoyaltyRank Leader-boards Avoidance Reinforcement Reinforcer d Schedules Urgent Appointment Schedules Virtual Items Reward S h d l R Privacy Envy Optimism Dynamic Chain SchedulesSet Completion Companion Epic MeaningMicro Leader-boardsLoss Aversion Cascading Rolling Social Fabric of Games Gaming ContingencyViral Game Mechanics Free Lunch Information Physical Level Up Virality Pride Achievement Theory Goods Behavioral Contrast Endless Infinite Gameplay Combos Games Disincentives Ownership Variable Interval Reward Schedules Progression Dynamic Fixed Interval Behavioral Momentum Blissful Ratio Reward Real-time Reward Schedules Extinction Productivitytwitter: mich8elwu Schedules Quest Mechanics linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 2
  • 3. behavior model▪ F B h i M d l (FBM): Fogg Behavior Model (FBM) • 3 Factors underlying human behavior. • Temporal convergence of 3 factors. MotivationAction Ability Trigger wants can told to twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 3
  • 4. behavior model▪ F B h i M d l (FBM): Fogg Behavior Model (FBM) Trigger • 3 Factors underlying human behavior. • Temporal convergence of 3 factors. vation activation threshold Motiv Action Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 4
  • 5. what motivates people▪ Ab h M l ’ hi Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) h f d Game mechanics/dynamicsbeing-needs(meta-needs) status, achievements, ranks, reputation, etc. ranks reputation etcdeficiency social cohesion, virality &needs most communal/community dynamics y security, money (gambling) food, water, etc , , twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 5
  • 6. what motivates people ▪ Ab h M l ’ hi Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) h f d Dan Pink’s intrinsic Game mechanics/dynamics being-needs motivators (2009) (meta-needs) ownership, blissful productivity, DRiVE autonomyMaslow’sM l ’ meta-motivators: t ti t serendipity, etc. serendipity etc mastery points, progression, level up, set completion, etc. l ti t purpose epic meaning, quest, discovery, justice, save the world, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 6
  • 7. Watson & Skinner: Learning & Conditioning▪H Human b h i behaviors are l learned th d through conditioning h diti i • Radical: disregard innate needs, only use external conditions & reinforcement • The conditioned reinforcers (which are usually some kind of points) are learned and they become the motivator • However, points themselves are not inherently rewarding▪ Proper use of points depends on the reward schedule • When, how many, and at what rate the points are given (or taken away) • Progression and l P i d level up d l dynamics i twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 7
  • 8. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Flow▪ Fl an optimall state off iintrinsic Flow: ti t t ti i motivation • Forget about physical feelings (e.g. hunger, sleep), passage of time, and their ego▪ Skill ~ Challenge Flow▪ Certainty vs. Uncertainty • People love the control state • b/c it gives them a sense of security & safety / f f • People hate the boredom state • People like arousal • People dislike worry twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 8
  • 9. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Flow▪ P l acquire skills over ti People i kill time move i t the into th relaxation/boredom state steep learning curve to get back to flow • We are motivated by challenges, shallow surprises, and varieties, to avoid way t hard too h d learning boredom curve • IRL, matching challenge to a bit too hard people’s skills exactly i h d l ’ kill tl is hard • They are either too easy (boring) or too hard (frustrating) too easy▪ Gamification must adapt & evolve with the player twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 9
  • 10. ability: 2 perspectives▪ U perspective: ability ( lit ) User ti bilit (reality)▪ Task perspective: simplicity (perceptual) activation threshold ation2 ways to push a user beyond his activation threshold ti ti th h ld Motiva • Hard way: Increase his real ability by motivating him to train & practice • Easier way: Increase the task’s perceived simplicity (or user’s perceived ability) Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 10
  • 11. what is simplicity▪ T k thatt are ttruly simple mustt not require any resources Tasks th l i l t i you don’t have▪ Simplicity is a measure of your access to the following 3 categories of resources at the time when y need to g you perform the task • Effort resources: physical effort + mental effort. • Scarce resources: time, money authority/permission attention etc time money, authority/permission, etc. • Adaptability resources: capacity to break norms, which may be personal (routines), social, behavioral, cultural, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 11
  • 12. what is simplicity▪ Si li it d d i Simplicity dependencies • Individual: different people have access to different resources • Time & context: resource can be lost and become in accessible or gain▪ Resource trade off • Time + money • Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at the time when you need to perform the task▪ Motivation + Ability can also trade off • Usually happens at extreme the ends twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 12
  • 13. perceived simplicity▪ A task iis perceived simple if you can complete it with ffewer t k i d i l l t ith resources than you expect • You expect the task to be harder▪ S game mechanics/dynamics d i d tto simplify Some h i /d i designed i lif • Divide and conquer • Cascading information theory • Chaining reward schedules • Behavioral momentum (people’s tendency to follow personal norms, routines) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 13
  • 14. what is a trigger and why is it needed▪ S thi th t prompts or tells the users to carry outt the Something that t t ll th t th target behavior now. • User must aware of the trigger. • Must understand what the trigger means.▪ Why a trigger is necessary • Unaware of his ability (e.g. unaware of options or simplicity of task) • Hesitant (e.g. question his motivation) • Distracted (e.g. engaged in another routine activity) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 14
  • 15. trigger depends on behavioral trajectory▪ H ability b t nott motivated: S k Has bilit but ti t d Spark • built-in as part of the motivation mechanism▪ Motivated but lack ability (or perceived Motivated, ability): Facilitator activation ation • highlights the task’s simplicity threshold Motiva • often used with the progress bar dynamics to create anticipation as user improve towards his goal▪ Has ability and motivated: Signal • should only serve as a reminder Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 15
  • 16. trigger depends on gaming personalityBartle type Characteristics Effective triggerKiller (<1%) highly competitive challenge themSocializer hate confrontation, followers, value , , show that their friends are~80% relationship doing itAchiever spark trigger associated driven by status (i.e. special access, etc.)~10% with an status increaseExplorer driven by discovery & uniqueness of their call upon their unique skill,~10% contributions, hate spatial & temporal limits no time pressure ▪ Trigger is all about timing! • Poorly timed trigger: spam mails + p p ups ads y gg p pop p twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 16
  • 17. an evaluative framework+ a design paradigm▪ If we k why gamification works, th know h ifi ti k then… • We can evaluate the effectiveness of any gamification strategies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 17
  • 18. speed camera lottery ▪ M ti ti Motivation: win $ lottery ▪ Abilit Ability: the player is driving, and has the ability to y slow down the car ▪ Trigger: gg lottery sign on camera fixture • thi is a spark t i this i k trigger twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 18
  • 19. an evaluative framework + a design paradigm▪ If we k why gamification works, th know h ifi ti k then… • We can evaluate the effectiveness of any gamification strategies • We can design and create new gamification that drives a specific action • It’s all about driving players above the activation threshold by temporal alignment of 1. Motivating them by positive feedback 2. Increasing their ability (or perceived ability) by simplifying the behavior 3. A d th applying th proper t i 3 And then l i the trigger at the right ti t th i ht time▪ The magic formula of gamification • Place the proper triggers in the behavioral trajectory of motivated players at players, the moment when they feel the greatest excess in their ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 19
  • 20. reference▪ M bl articles on gamification (hyperlinked: clickable in pdf) My blog ti l ifi ti • Gamification from a Company of Pro Gamers • The Magic Potion of Game Dynamics • Gamification 101: Th P G ifi ti 101 The Psychology of M ti ti h l f Motivation • Simplicity Counts - Even in Gamification • The Final Touch: Trigger and Gamify • No Game No Gain: Realizing the ROI of Your Facebook Fans Game, • The Future of Enterprise Software will be Fun and Productive • Real Life Gamification: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly • What is Gamification, Really? • The Gaming Industry, Gamification, and Work • Gamification beyond Business and Future Challenges • Few more to come before I close this chapter, so follow me on twitter or g+ p g twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 21
  • 21. Thank youQ&A + Discussion twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD 20