2011 05-26 digtali surrey science of gamification-v03
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2011 05-26 digtali surrey science of gamification-v03

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Invited talk at Digital Surrey.
http://www.digitalsurrey.co.uk/blog/?p=212

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  • 1. The Science of Gamification Michael Wu PhD Principal Scientist of Analytics Lithium Technologies Digital Surrey May 26th, 2011 twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 2. agendaTerminology & basic conceptsFogg’s behavior model (FBM) Motivation Ability TriggerDesign process and few case studies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 3. some gamification terminologyGamification: The use of game mechanics/dynamics to drive game-liked engagement and actions in non-game environments (e.g. work, education, exercise, etc.) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 4. some gamification terminologyGame Mechanics Common examples: Principles, rules, and/or Status: ranks + reputation mechanisms that govern a simple Feedback: points behavior through a system of Set completion: collection rewards with predictable outcome. Customization: self expression If …[reward]… then …[action]… Exchange: sharing social with high probability cohesion + facilitation Building blocks Infinite Gamification.org compiled a list of known game mechanicsPeople adapt gamemechanics becomeineffective twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 5. some gamification terminologyGaming Dynamic Common examples: Temporal evolution and patterns of Progression vs. status: badge + both the game and the players that achievement / rank + reputation / make the game (or any gamified leveling up / unlocks + access activity) more enjoyable. Reinforcement schedule vs. points: Game play dynamics variable interval/ratio reinforcement Player state dynamics: Flow serendipity Created by combining + cascading Appointment + countdowns: game mechanics confused with IRL happy hour FarmVille game mechanics Communal discovery: Depend on gaming personality IRL voting digg + Facebook likes (Bartle): achiever, explorer, socializer, killer twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 6. some gamification terminologyGame Theory Has nothing to do with gamification! An established branch of mathematics that tries to describe the decision process in any strategic situations, including games. A BEAUTIFUL MIND twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 7. agendaTerminology & basic conceptsFogg’s behavior model (FBM) Motivation Ability TriggerDesign process and few case studies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 8. behavior modelFogg Behavior Model (FBM): 3 Factors underlying human behavior. Temporal convergence of 3 factors. MotivationAction Ability Trigger wants can told to twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 9. behavior modelFogg Behavior Model (FBM): 3 Factors underlying human behavior. Trigger Temporal convergence of 3 factors. activation Motivation threshold Action Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 10. what motivates people Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) Game mechanics / dynamicsbeing-needs(meta-needs) status, achievements, ranks, reputation, etc.deficiency social cohesion, virality &needs most communal/community dynamics security, money (gambling) food, water, etc twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 11. from Maslow’s need to Pink’s drive Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) Dan Pink’s intrinsic Game mechanics / dynamics being-needs motivators (2009) (meta-needs) autonomy ownership, blissful productivity,Maslow’s meta-motivators: serendipity, etc. Dan Pink’s intrinsic motivators mastery points, progression, level up, set completion, etc. purpose epic meaning, quest, discovery, justice, save the world peace, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 12. John Watson & BF Skinner: Learning & Conditioning Human behaviors are learned through conditioning Radical: disregard innate needs, only use external conditions & reinforcement The conditioned reinforcers (which are usually some kind of points) are learned and they become the motivator However, points themselves are not inherently rewarding Proper use of points depends on the reward schedule When, how many, and at what rate the points are given (or taken away) Progression and level up dynamics twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 13. John Watson & BF Skinner: Learning & Conditioning Fixed-interval (FI) schedule Drives activity near deadline Reward Schedules count down & appointment dynamic Fix-interval (FI) and fixed-ratio (FR) Learning new behaviors (e.g. training) Variable-interval (VI) Reinforcing established behaviors Variable-ratio (VR) Maintaining a behavior Game addiction Serendipity & surprise Lottery mechanic + anticipatory motivators twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 14. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: FlowFlow: an optimal state of intrinsicmotivation Forget about physical feelings (e.g. hunger, sleep), passage of time, and their egoSkill ~ Challenge FlowCertainty vs. Uncertainty People love the control state b/c it gives them a sense of security & safety People hate the boredom state People like arousal People dislike worry twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 15. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: FlowPeople acquire skills overtime move into therelaxation / boredom state We are motivated by challenges, surprises, and varieties, to avoid boredom New challenge arousal, anxiety IRL, matching challenge to people’s skills exactly is hard They are either too easy (boring) or too hard (frustrating) Good gamification must adapt & evolve with the player twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 16. agendaTerminology & basic conceptsFogg’s behavior model (FBM) Motivation Ability TriggerDesign process and few case studies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 17. ability: 2 perspectives User perspective: ability (reality) Task perspective: simplicity (perceptual)2 ways to push a user beyond his activation threshold Motivation activation threshold Hard way: Increase his real ability by motivating him to train & practice Easier way: Increase the task’s perceived simplicity (or user’s Ability perceived ability) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 18. what is simplicityTasks that are truly simple must not require any resourcesyou don’t haveSimplicity is a measure of your access to the following 3categories of resources at the time when you need toperform the task Effort resources: physical effort + mental effort. Scarce resources: time, money, authority/permission, attention etc. Adaptability resources: capacity to break norms, which may be personal (routines), social, behavioral, cultural, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 19. what is simplicitySimplicity dependencies Individual: different people have access to different resources Time & context: resource can be lost and become in accessible or gainResource trade off Time + money Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource at the time when you need to perform the taskMotivation + Ability can also trade off Usually happens at extreme the ends twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 20. perceived simplicityA task is perceived simple if you can complete it with fewerresources than you expect You expect the task to be harderSome game mechanics/dynamics designed to simplify Divide and conquer Cascading information theory Chaining reward schedules Behavioral momentum (follow personal norm) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 21. agendaTerminology & basic conceptsFogg’s behavior model (FBM) Motivation Ability TriggerDesign process and few case studies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 22. what is a trigger and why is it neededSomething that prompts or tells the users to carry out thetarget behavior now. User must aware of the trigger. Must understand what the trigger means.Why a trigger is necessary Unaware of his ability (e.g. unaware of options or simplicity of task) Hesitant (e.g. question his motivation) Distracted (e.g. engaged in another routine activity) twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 23. trigger depends on behavioral trajectoryHas ability but not motivated Spark built-in as part of the motivation mechanismMotivated, but lack ability (or perceived Motivationability) activation Facilitator threshold simplifies task by highlighting its simplicity often used with the progress bar dynamics to create anticipation as user improve towards his goalHas ability and motivated Signal should only serve as a reminder Ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 24. trigger depends on gaming personalityBartle type Characteristics Effective triggerKiller (<1%) highly competitive challenge themSocializer hate confrontation, followers, value show that their friends are~80% relationship doing itAchiever spark trigger associated driven by status (i.e. special access, etc.)~10% with an status increaseExplorer driven by discovery & uniqueness of their call upon their unique skill,~10% contributions, hate spatial & temporal limits no time pressure Trigger is all about timing! Poorly timed trigger: spam mails + pop ups ads twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 25. agendaTerminology & basic conceptsFogg’s behavior model (FBM) Motivation Ability TriggerDesign process and few case studies twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 26. gamification: design that drives actionsWhat do game mechanics/dynamics do? Positive feedbacks: progress, accumulation of point, badges, status, customization, serendipity, social facilitation, etc. Negative feedback: theoretically works, but not well in practice Increase the player’s true ability through training and practice (often used with motivation) Increase his perceived ability by simplifying the actions Place triggers in the behavioral trajectory of motivated players when they feel the greatest excess in their ability twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 27. gamification is an iterative design processWhat happens when a desired behavior is not performed? Easiest thing to check 1st: are they triggered? Are they aware of the trigger? Do they understand what the trigger meant? Do they have the ability (i.e. is the action simple enough)? Does it require efforts, scarce resources, or does it require the user to break norms and learn new routines? Reduce the feature complexity so it requires less resources (divide + conquer). Are they motivated? By positive feedbacks from game mechanics / gaming dynamics? i.e. accumulation of points, badges, status change, progress bar, leader board, customization, serendipity, social facilitation, etc. twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 28. beware of the moral hazard of game playRecall: Skinnerian operant conditioning Points can be learned and become the motivator instead of the desired behaviorGamify flossing: reward with points + perks What happens when the rewards are gone? They lose all motivation to perform the desired task twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 29. Gap gamify store check-inDesire action: Motivation FB Places check-in Trigger: appointment dynamic – time’s upSingle appointment No reward for repeating & Ability: not everyone uses maintaining the action FB Places. If target demographic use it, thenMoral hazard of OK. They can check-ingame play People want the reward (free jeans) much more than they want to check-inWhen 10,000th pair of jean is gone people stop checking in twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 30. speed camera lottery Motivation: win $ lottery Ability: the player is driving, and has the ability to slow down the car Trigger: lottery sign on camera fixture Spark trigger twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 31. gamification of work ≠ mixing games with workSales execs fail to assign leads regularlyCreate an ipad+iphone golf gamefor lead assignment. Motivation: new, fun, sales people love golf Ability: this actually reduces ability, more work, inefficient Trigger: leads notificationNo convergence of 3 factors bad idea! People may use it for a while due to novelty, but it won’t last longDon’t take it too literally, or you’re missing the whole point ofgamification twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 32. gamification summary It is all about driving the players above the activation threshold by:1. Motivating them by positive feedback2. Increasing their ability (or perceived ability)3. And then applying the proper trigger at the right time The temporal convergence of motivation, ability and trigger is why gamification is able to manipulate human behaviors. Beware of the moral hazard of game play Good games must adapt and evolve with their players to bring them into the state of flow twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 33. thank youQ&A + discussionResources: me: mich8elwu blog: http://lithosphere.lithium.com/t5/a/bg-p/MikeW twitter: mich8elwu linkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD
  • 34. twitter: mich8elwulinkedin.com/in/MichaelWuPhD