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Neurofinaldraft

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  • Everything we feel, think, do, remember. Every joy, sadness, pain, ecstacy are all different notes in the neuronal symphony we call a brain.
  • Central nervous system is the spinal cord and the brain, and the other nerves are the peripheral nervous system sensory neurons motor neurons interneurons
  • Let’s take a look at a single neuron. It is a complex dynamic structure that is built to transmit a signal. An action potential. When stimulation to the cell body and/or dendrites is sufficient, the nerve cell will open ion channels along the length of the neuron and axon. And this will create a charge that will travel down the axon to the terminal from which a chemical messenger will be released. This is called a neurotransmitter. There are over 60 neurotransmitters – a couple that you are probably familiar with are dopamine, serotonin, neurepinephirine, and histamine.
  • Everything we feel, think, do, remember. Every joy, sadness, pain, ecstacy are all different notes in the neuronal symphony we call a brain.
  • Everything we feel, think, do, remember. Every joy, sadness, pain, ecstacy are all different notes in the neuronal symphony we call a brain.
  • Everything we feel, think, do, remember. Every joy, sadness, pain, ecstacy are all different notes in the neuronal symphony we call a brain.
  • Both conditions showed increased occipital functioning in both compared with baseline
  • Insula, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleuus accumbens and right cingulate gyrus
  • Brain circuits are affected by drug abuse and addiction . The areas depicted contain the circuits that underlie feelings of reward, learning and memory, motivation and drive, and inhibitory control. Each of these brain areas and the behaviors they control must be considered when developing strategies to treat drug addiction. PFC – prefrontal cortex; ACG – anterior cingulate gyrus; OFC – orbitofrontal cortex; SCC – subcallosal cortex; NAcc – nucleus accumbens; VP – ventral pallidum; Hipp – hippocampus; Amyg – amygdala
  • 111507 Brain Injury Association of Michigan - Chapter 3
  • Addiction changes brain circuitry making it hard to “apply the brakes” to detrimental behaviors . In the non-addicted brain, control mechanisms constantly assess the value of stimuli and the appropriateness of the planned response, applying inhibitory control as needed. In the addicted brain, this control circuit becomes impaired through drug abuse, losing much of its inhibitory power over the circuits that drive response to stimuli deemed salient.
  • Addiction changes brain circuitry making it hard to “apply the brakes” to detrimental behaviors . In the non-addicted brain, control mechanisms constantly assess the value of stimuli and the appropriateness of the planned response, applying inhibitory control as needed. In the addicted brain, this control circuit becomes impaired through drug abuse, losing much of its inhibitory power over the circuits that drive response to stimuli deemed salient.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Neurobiology of self-regulation and the power of the mindful coach
    • 2. Learning objectives
      • At the end of the presentation the participants will be able to…
      • Describe some key anatomical structures that underlie self regulation, change, and empowerment
      • Discuss research supporting the efficacy of a mindful coach
    • 3.  
    • 4.
      • The nervous system is a network of specialized cells that communicate information about an organism and the organism’s environment
      • Processes the information and coordinates reactions in other parts of the organism
    • 5.
      • The brain is the central part of the nervous system for vertebrates and most invertebrates.
    • 6.
      • In vertebrates and most invertebrates the brain is the central part of the nervous system.
      • The brain consists of a collection of nerve cells that process information.
    • 7.
      • In vertebrates and most invertebrates the brain is the central part of the nervous system.
      • It is a collection of nerve cells that process information.
      • The most important function of the brain is to generate behaviors that promote the welfare of an organism.
    • 8.  
    • 9. How neurons communicate
    • 10.  
    • 11.  
    • 12.  
    • 13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sSFQy_cLvLU
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16. Wondrous evolving mechanisms to view the brain
      • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
        • Images blood flow to region of the brain
        • Current limit 2 mm
      • Positron Emission tomography (PET scan)
        • Measures emissions from radioactively labeled chemicals injected into the bloodstream
        • Can map neuro -transmitter activity
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20. EVALUATE INPUT, MAKE DECISIONS, INHIBIT RESPONSES Hypo/pit Autonomic control The Brain
    • 21. Brain & Behavior It all comes together here Frontal Lobe Initiation Problem solving Judgment Inhibition of behavior Planning/anticipation Self-monitoring Motor planning Personality/emotions Awareness of abilities/limits Organization Attention/concentration Mental flexibility Speaking Temporal Lobe Memory Hearing Expressive and receptive language Comprehension of language Musical awareness Organization &sequencing skills Parietal Lobe Sense of touch Differentiation of size, color, shape Spatial perception Visual perception Occipital Lobe Visual perception and input Reading (perception and recognition of printed words) Cerebellum Coordination Balance Skilled motor activity Brain Stem Breathing Heart rate Arousal/Consciousness Sleep/wake functions Attention/concentration
    • 22. Different areas have somewhat specific functions Brainstem Basic body functions
    • 23. Anatomy of Attentional Networks
      • James (1890) “Attention is the taking possession of the mind in clear and vivid form of one out of what seem several simultaneous objects or trains of thought”
    • 24.  
    • 25.  
    • 26.  
    • 27.
      • Raz (2006)
        • Alerting Network
        • Orienting Network
        • Conflict Network
    • 28.  
    • 29.
      • Arouses the body
      • ‘ fight or flight’
      • Purpose is to manage energy and resources to meet perceived demands and challenges that are an immediate threat
      Sympathetic Nervous system – get ready to rumble…
    • 30. There is a (much neglected) OFF system The Parasympathetic Nervous System
      • Calms the body
      • Promotes enjoyment, relaxation, digestion, sexual arousal
      • Purpose is to conserve resources and allow you to restore resources and energy.
    • 31. Balance and optimal performance
    • 32. P E R F O R M A N C E STRESS LEVEL Optimal performance Under performing Depleted Stress, energy, and arousal
    • 33. chronic stress overload
      • The Sympathetic nervous system is built to meet immediate and life threatening demands
      • Most of the demands we face today are not immediate
      • We get chronically stuck in the on position
    • 34. Health effects from chronic stress overload
      • Lowered immune response
      • Coronary artery disease
      • Insulin resistance
      • Type II Diabetes
      • Obesity
      • Insomnia
      • Chronic fatigue and chronic pain
      • …… ..
    • 35. Behavioral effects from chronic stress
      • Impatience
      • Anger
      • Depression
      • Substance abuse and addiction
      • Difficulty concentrating
      • Relationship difficulties
    • 36. Self Regulation
      • Many studies show that Self control is a function predominately of PRC and ACC
      • The energy to self-regulate has a common and depletable energy store
        • Emotional regulation
        • Attentional control
        • Impulse control
        • Performance organization
      • Review anatomy
      • Self regulation as a muscle or resource that can be depleted
      • Discuss resolving conflicts between willpower and physiological determinism
    • 37. Source: Adapted from Volkow et al., Neuropharmacology, 2004. Self regulation . Drive Saliency Memory Control Choose Healthy Behavior Addicted Brain Drive Memory Control GO Saliency
    • 38. Source: Adapted from Volkow et al., Neuropharmacology, 2004. Tired Brain Circuits Drive Saliency Memory Control Resist Impulsive Decision Addicted Brain Drive Memory Control Allow Impulsive Decisions Saliency
    • 39. Examples
      • Two groups assigned to drink less alcohol at a college alcohol party
        • One, beforehand taken through a thought suppression task
        • Group not having suppression task more able to drink less
      • Two groups being assigned to a frustration task
        • One asked to resist eating a sweet beforehand, - gave up more easily
    • 40.
      • Two groups given a taxing task, one require more attention
        • Second group more likely to sit through a boring movie rather than turn the channel.
      • Two groups asked to remember numbers
        • - group asked to remember 2 numbers more able to resist sweet more than group asked to remember 7 numbers
    • 41. Delay discounting and future reward imagery
      • Subjects evaluated for their specific delay discounting thresholds
      • Given choices of near rewards and latter rewards
      • Episodically asked to recall self selected (different) future rewards activated medial and lateral prefrontal cortex and reduced impulsivity
    • 42. Translating research to practice
      • Keep attuned to neuro-psych developments
      • Engage patients with growing knowledge
      • Use coaching skills to
        • elicit patient’s motivations and skills for positive change
        • future health imagery,
        • ways of resting and strengthening self regulation ‘muscles’
    • 43. References
      • Koob GF and Volkow ND. Neurocircuitry of Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology reviews. 35 (2010) 217-38.
      • Ferguson SG and Shiffman S. The relevance and treatment of cue-induced cravings in tobacco dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36 (2009) 235-43.
      • Gailliot MT, and Baumeister RF The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 11 (2007) 303-27.
      • Volkow et. Al. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers. NeuroImage 49 (2010) 2536-43.’
      • The Frontal Cortex http://scienceblogs.com/cortex/