Singapore and its Agricultural Hinterlands


Published on

Presentation for my Graduate Research Seminar on my Masters dissertation research proposal. Titled "Singapore and its Agricultural Hinterlands: urban demand impact on environmental behaviour of malaysian vegetable farmers"

Published in: Technology, Sports
  • Are you a business man or woman? Are you in any financial mess or do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need loan to settle your debt or pay off your bills or start a nice business? Do you need funds to finance your project? We Offers guaranteed loan services of any amount and to any part of the world for (individuals, companies, Realtor and corporate bodies) at our superb interest rate of 3%
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • pity singapore
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • the missing word on the diagram is 'state'
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Singapore and its Agricultural Hinterlands

    1. 1. Singapore and its Agricultural Hinterlands: Urban Demand Impact on the Environmental Behaviour of Malaysian Vegetable Farmers A Graduate Research Seminar presentation by November Tan Peng Ting
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline </li></ul>
    3. 3. Background <ul><li>Singapore imports 95% of its vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh vegetables are big part of Singaporean diet (Cheng, 1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Not as expensive but large in volume </li></ul>2006 Per Capita Fresh Food Consumption by Volume (Kg)
    4. 4. Background <ul><li>Large volume dictates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode of transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freshness limited by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postharvest technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold chain management </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Background <ul><li>Largest supplier of vegetables: Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore imports ~50% of vegetables from Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most highland vegetables from Malaysia are from Cameron Highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of Cameron Highlands vegetable produce exported to Singapore </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Background <ul><li>Singapore-Malaysia connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-geographical region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Map of Singapore and its immediate agricultural hinterlands for highland vegetable production: Cameron Highlands (Malaysia) and Brastagi (Indonesia) [source: Google Map, 2008]
    8. 8. Background <ul><li>Cameron Highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial hill station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed for tea plantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hill resort for European residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate suitable for temperate vegetables which is key European diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1930s, small Chinese family-owned market-gardening vegetable farms emerged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 70 years, evolved into export oriented business </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>From 1997-2006, there has been increasing vegetables consumption in Singapore </li></ul>Background
    10. 10. <ul><li>Does increased demand result in agriculture expansion in Cameron Highlands (CH)? </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia government encouraging vegetables as a export-oriented “higher value crop” (UN ESCAP, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation attributed to vegetable farming (New Scientist, 1989; Tew, 1998) </li></ul>Background
    11. 11. Map of Cameron Highlands reflecting settlements from 1968 (adapted from Clarkson, 1968) and approximate location of later development based on a 1995 map by the Department of Survey and Mapping, Malaysia.
    12. 12. <ul><li>Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Expansion in Cameron Highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1995, soil loss up to 125 kg/ha/yr attributed to upland farming in CH (Midmore et al, 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifespan of hydroelectric dam shortened by a third due to “extensive siltation” (UN ESCAP, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to extensive deforestation, under the “Cameron Highlands Structure Plan” (1995-2020), the total acreage of land areas permitted for agriculture has now been fixed at 6,000 hectares. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In response, new upland farms are developed near CH outside the Pahang state boundaries, within Kelantan, along a new highway to CH. </li></ul></ul>Background
    13. 13. Research Objectives 1 <ul><li>Examine the driving factors influencing farmer’s environmental behaviour and decision-making process that determines adoption of farming practices. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Research Objectives 2 <ul><li>Identify the hierarchy of influence that these driving factors have on vegetable farmers and in the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Research Objectives 3 <ul><li>Show the interrelationship between Singapore’s vegetable consumption trends and Malaysia’s supply of its vegetables by looking at specific aspects of environmental sustainable farming practices and the vegetable trading system. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Conceptual Framework Malaysia Farmer’s Behaviour Singapore Demand Malaysia Environment Singapore State Malaysia State Demand-side Market Forces Supply-side Market Forces Basic Assumption
    17. 17. Conceptual Framework: Decision-Making Model Vegetable Farmers in Cameron Highlands: Environmental Decision-Making Influences Malaysia Singapore State Economy State Economy Farmer Environment Consumer Supermarkets Price Competition Crop choice Inputs Markets Transport Climate change Landslides River sedimentation Experience Willingness to pay Ideology Training Land Tenure Certification Regulations Legislation Food Sourcing Collaborations Regulations
    18. 18. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Types of environmental decision-making investigated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of technology (farming method) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Literature Review <ul><li>There are 3 key concern in agro-food studies (Dixon, 2003): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the role of multilateral governance mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reflexive consumers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the interrelation and activities of actors within the food system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This study is concerned with the interaction of actors within the food system. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Literature Review <ul><li>Most of the literature focused on either intra-national rural-urban or globalization of food system </li></ul><ul><li>Studies are done on either peasants (Scott, 1979) or large-scale commercial monoculture ( Murphy and Trauger, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>They focus on either economic connections (Cheng, 1982) or environmental impacts (Midmore et al, 1996; Md. Ghazali et al, 1994 ) . </li></ul>
    21. 21. Literature Review <ul><li>Environmental Connections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ North-South” discourse Developed-developing (Freidberg, 2003; 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of State and Market on behaviour of farmers ( Flora and Bendini, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional versus Organic (Murphy and Trauger, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Agriculture vs “Buying Local” (Maye et al, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supermarkets “greening” of supply chains ( New and Westbrook, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Literature Review <ul><li>There is limited literature in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Rural-Urban nexus in Southeast Asia (Rigg, 1997; Savage, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer’s conservation behaviour (Lynne et al, 1988; Beedell and Rehman, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Neoliberal Environmentalism” (Davis, 2006; Lockie and Goodman, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Methodology <ul><li>In order to test these variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Methodology <ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 3000 farm families in CH with different size, farming method, crops, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview with farmers who export to Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified sampling – sample farms of different: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farming method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Export destination composition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Methodology <ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asked to rank priority of variables in decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers then given a standardized scenario and asked how they would respond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm Observation: rapid environmental assessment to verify farmer’s interview response </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Methodology <ul><li>Malaysia* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview with local and federal agricultural, environmental and health agency officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview with agricultural inputs and transport services businesses </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Methodology <ul><li>Singapore* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview with Agri-food Veterinary Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview with wholesalers, retailers and supermarket merchandisers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Survey </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Timeline <ul><li>Sep 2007 - Preliminary Study of Cameron Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>May 2008 - Pilot survey of Cameron Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Jun 2008 - Fieldwork in Cameron Highlands (2 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 2008 - Fieldtrip to Johor or Brastagi, Indonesia* </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 2008 - End of Consumer Survey in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 2008 - Conclusion of Interviews in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Apr 2009 - Completion of First Draft </li></ul><ul><li>Jul 2009 - Submission of Thesis </li></ul>
    29. 29. Any juicy questions?