Definition: altmetrics is the creation and study of new metrics based on the Social Web for analyzing, and informing scholarship.
Bottom line is opening a discussion on citations vs. impact. Traditionally, hiring, tenure and promotion and general scholarly value has been enumerated and based on metrics surrounding citations.
Bibliometrics is the information science that has been built around these measurements. Traditional – based on print journals and factors developed in the 50s-60s. Measurements of quality based on patterns of use.
Discipline-dependent, slow, dependent on indexing in JCR.Created in 1961, Institute for Scientific Information, acquired by Reuters.
Invented in 2005. Few publications with many citations due to publishing in a prestigious journal, or many publications with few citations each.A scholar with an index of H has published H papers each of which has been cited in other papers at least H times. The h-index represents both the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. Problems – doesn’t account for co-authors, is bounded by total # of publications, manipulated through self-citations.
Getting closer to altmetrics because the value of the thing (the article) is being weighed as itself. Again though citations can be inflated… bad research gets cited lots as people rip it to shreds. PLoS ALM started in 2009.
Citations do not have to be the only measure of impact.
Editorial published yesterday in Nature Materials.
altmetrics is the creation and study of new metrics based on the Social Web for analyzing, and informing scholarship.
The web has revolutionized everything except scholarly communication.
Altmetric.combookmarkletCurrently only works with PubMed, arXiv and/or a page with a DOI.
Altmetrics offers a depth and breadth of data about research products that we can and should be paying attention to.
Altmetrics provides rich metadata (public tags for the item) not just a number. Altmetrics offers a fairer evaluation, a faster evaluation, and utilizes the web for not just sharing research, but tracking it. Possible to have a “living CV” with your impact being measured constantly and reflected in real time.
Achieve broader impact, including greater citations, by sharing work more widely, in more formats. Maximize impact through open access. Academia.edu,FigShare, ResearchGate.
altmetricsMicah Vandegrift + Scholarly Communication Librarianmvandegrift@fsu.edu
Citations vs. Impact Σ Impact > Σ CitationsThe sum of “impact” is greater than the sum of citations.
Bibliometricstechniques for measuring scholarship by citationCitation analysis – determining scholarly value based on number of citations Applies to journals (impact factor) individuals (h-index) and articles (citation impact).
Citations vs. ImpactImpact Factor Reuters Journal Citation Report (JCR) − the average number of times articles from ✕ the journal published in the past two years have been cited in the JCR year. calculated by dividing the number of citations in ÷ the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the two previous years.Ex. $1980.00 Journal of Human Evolution (Academic Press/Elsevier Science) Impact factor = 3.638
Citations vs. ImpactH-index aka “Hirsch Number” Attempts to measure both the + productivity and the impact of the published work of a scholar. Compensating for disadvantages in other citation − analyses. Shows quantity and quality of scholarly output relative to the scholars own work.Ex. h-index tools Dean Falk, Anthropology – Research area(s): Paleoneurology Web of Science h-index = 28 Google Scholar h-index = 30 Scopus h-index = 12
Citations vs. ImpactCitation Impact The number of times an article is cited.[Related, but different from] Article Level Metrics (ALM)Ex. Tools for calculating Citation ImpactA Genetically Encoded Tag for Correlated Light…Multiple authors + Ericka Ramko, Michael Davidson (FSU MagLab)PLoS Biol 9(4): e1001041, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001041 Web of Science Scholarometer Google Scholar CiteSeer Microsoft Academic Search
Citations vs.altmetrics bibliometrics vs. Impact In an evolving, digitally connected research environment citations ≠impact The sum of citations is not necessarily the entirety of impact.Spotting emerging Heart of scholarly “… there areresearch fronts will communication is undoubtedly highlyrequire tracking “visits, personal useful journals that are“formal and informal contacts, and letters.” not cited frequently.”communication.” - Bernal, 1944 - Garfield, 1972- Kuhn, 1977
Nature Materials 12, 89 (2013) doi:10.1038/nmat3566Published online 23 January 2013“Impact factors should have no place in grant-giving, tenure or appointment committees.”
Bibliometrics measures citation audience Scholarly Public Recommendedengagement type Cited Traditional Citation Discussed Saved Scholarly
altmetrics measures impact audience Scholarly Public Recommended F1000, listservs Popular pressengagement type Cited Traditional Citation Wikipedia Discussed Scholarly Blogs Blogs, Twitter Mendeley, Saved Delicious CiteULike Scholarly PDF views HTML views
Altmetricstechniques for measuring scholarship by impactDefinition: “altmetrics is the creation and study of new metrics based on thesocial web for analyzing, and informing scholarship.”Impact analysis – determining scholarly value based on engagement orimpressionsaltmetrics proposes that citations are not the only, or even the best, techniquefor measuring impact, relative to the new ways scholarly works move, grow andare shared.
“These new forms reflect and transmit scholarly impact: that dog-eared (but uncited) article that used to live on a shelf now lives in Mendeley, CiteULike, or Zotero–where we can see and count it. That hallway conversation about a recent finding has moved to blogs and social networks–now, we can listen in. The local genomics dataset has moved to an online repository–now, we can track it. This diverse group of activities forms a composite trace of impact far richer than any available before. We call the elements of this trace altmetrics.”Image from ‘Altmetrics: An App Review’ – Stacy Konkiel altmetrics: A ManifestoURI: http://hdl.handle.net/2022/14714
Why? Today’s journals are the best scholarly communication system possible utilizing 17th century technology. Citation metrics are slow, neglect impact outside of academia, and neglect influential but uncited work. Journal Impact Factors are easily manipulatable, a trade secret and controlled by commercial interests. Research outputs are no longer just articles. data grey literature reports software web projects
Citations vs. Impact Dean Falk, Frederick E. Lepore, and Adrianne Noe The cerebral cortex of Albert Einstein: a description and preliminary analysis of unpublished photographs. First published online November 16, 2012 doi:10.1093/brain/aws295Scholarometer – 0 CitationsGoogle Scholar – 0 CitationsCiteSeer – 0 CitationsMicrosoft Academic Search – 0 CitationsWeb of Science – 0 Citations Citations = Ø
Citations vs. Impact Dean Falk, Frederick E. Lepore, and Adrianne NoeThe cerebral cortex of Albert Einstein: a description and preliminary analysis of unpublished photographs. First published online November 16, 2012 doi:10.1093/brain/aws295 Impact Factor = 9.457
Scholarship > articles data grey literature reports software web projects
Σ Impact > Σ CitationsThe sum of “impact” is greater than the sum of citations.
altmetricsMicah Vandegrift + Scholarly Communication Librarianmvandegrift@fsu.edu
ReferencesResources:http://altmetrics.org/about/http://altmetric.com/blog/Jason Priem Altmetrics presentation -https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1fV8iFINfjdy7FAOk1qenrGmblQ70hJ3tki09W14Wk4k/edit?pli=1#slide=id.i133U of FL Citation Analysis LibGuide – http://guides.uflib.ufl.edu/content.php?pid=320458&sid=2622481http://www.slideshare.net/rcave/overview-of-the-altmetrics-landscapehttp://www.mendeley.com/groups/586171/altmetrics/https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/14714Articles:http://crln.acrl.org/content/73/10/596.fullhttp://elife.elifesciences.org/content/2/e00452http://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/12/12/gaming-google-scholar-citations-made-simple-and-easy/http://openuct.uct.ac.za/article/academics-online-presence-guidelineshttp://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2011/07/27/how-to-use-harzings-publish-or-perish-software-to-assess-citations-a-step-by-step-guide/http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v493/n7431/full/493159a.htmlhttp://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0053374 * Significant portions of this presentation based on Jason Priem’s “altmetrics: beyond the article, beyond the impact factor,” and Stacy Konkiel’s “altmetrics: An App Overview.”