2. WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY? GEOGRAPHY -is the study of the worlds environmentand mans interaction within the environment.Geography has two “strands” or parts:PHYSICAL: the study of the earths natural features,such as mountains, rivers, soil, vegetation, and weatherand;HUMAN: (Cultural) the study of human cultures andman made features.All kinds of resources are used to study geography, butthe most common are MAPS
3. MAPS A map is a 2 dimensional graphic of theearth or part of the earth.A person who makes maps is called acartographer.Maps are important as a tool for geographybecause we can show so much informationabout the earth on one document.
4. Geographic Information  Cartographers today use many sources of data collected for their maps. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is the most accurate to date: GIS is using computers to plot points and other information on maps. Air Photography and Satellite Images can help gather information to then be placed on maps. Cartographers can interpret what they see and plot it on a map. GPS (Global Positioning Systems) use satellites around the world to plot the exact point of location from an electronic receiver.
5. PARTS OF A MAP Key/ Legend: Shows information as symbolsScale: Used for measuring distance (like a ruler)Scale can also be shown in ratio for or by anequation (ex. 1 inch = 10 miles)Directional Arrow: All maps must have AT LEASTan arrow showing relative direction. This is calledorientationCompass Rose: Shows Cardinal & IntermediaryDirections WHICH ONE IS WHICH?? ?
6. TYPES OF MAPS1. Political Map -  this is a map that shows political boundaries,borders, area of political entities (countries, states, territories, districts,zones, counties, provinces, etc) These types of maps may also showcapitals/ other cities.2. Physical Map- this type of map uses colors to showelevation and other land/water features of the earth. This mapmay also show any physical feature such as mountains, oceans,rivers, valleys, etc.3. Thematic Map- this type of map shows “themes” or subjects ona map- basically any information. Anything can be shown on a mapusing symbols, colors, pictures, numbers, contour lines, etc.ALL THEMATIC MAPS MUST HAVE A KEY- this tells thereader what each picture/symbols/color/etc represents on the map i.e.+ represents a hospital
7. ATLAS Any collection of maps, graphs, and charts is called anatlas.We use atlases as a geographic resource for looking upall kinds of information=To population and economic informationTo topographic information about the surface of theearth.
8. Use the INDEX to help locate the location of cities, states, and countries around the world. Use the KEY on the maps to read informationUse the SCALE of the map to find distances Use the COMPASS ROSE to locate and pinpoint orientation or direction.
9. TYPES OFMAP PROJECTIONS 
10. MERCATOR Mercator Map Projection: Showsaccurate direction, but area &shapes are severely distorted atthe poles. Mercator projectionsare based on cylinders.***Sailors would use these fortrue direction
11. CONICAL Conical map Projection:-used for mapping a large piece ofEarths surface. It shows accuratedistance, direction, & shape for thelimited area mapped. Conicalprojections are based as cone-shape.
12. INTERRUPTEDInterrupted Map Projection:-Shows accurate area & shapeof continents, but oceans haveopen pie-shaped wedges areto adjust for distance.
13. AZIMUTH (aka POLAR) Polar Map Projection:-used for mapping hemispheres insteadof whole Earth. Shows accurate distance& direction but shape and size aredistorted at the edges. Polar view iscalled Azimuth.***Airline Pilots would use these mapsto follow Great Circle Routes (theshortest path between two points alongthe curve of the Earth)
14. ROBINSON Robinson Map Projection:Shows accurate shape & sizeof continents, but water areasare expanded to fill in area.Robinson projections arebased on ovals.***These maps are good fordata collections like in aclassroom or lab.
15. MAP PROJECTIONS -To find just the right map to use, ask yourself“What am I trying to show on my map?”-You don’t want to use a map that has too muchdistortion (being misshapen on a map)-Usually you ask the question for one of thefollowing four map topics: -AREA - DIRECTION - DISTANCE - SHAPE
16. MAP PERSPECTIVE with aMap Perspective is to look at a mapDIFFERENT point of view.Think, for example, how people from Africawould look at a map versus someone fromFar East Asia….or someone from Australiaversus someone from Europe.Everyone has a different point of view whenit comes to maps….it’s not that theyrewrong, it’s just different.
17. LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE Reading coordinates is veryimportant in findinglocation in geography. X- AXISRemember that you read the“x-axis” (latitude) first andthen read the “y-axis”(longitude) second. Y- AXIS(x,y)
18. THE GLOBAL GRID The Earth is divided by  #1 is the ARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o NORTH of the Equator latitude and longitude lines. #2 is the TROPIC OF CANCER found at There are several important 23 ½ o NORTH of the Equator lines to know on the earths #3 is the EQUATOR which splits the surface earth into two hemispheres at 0o Latitude #4 is the TROPIC OF CAPRICORN found 23 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator. #5 is the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator #6 is the PRIME MERIDIAN which runs north to south at 0o LONGITUDE
19. READING COORDINATES Read the coordinates forLATITUDE first…. 33o NORTHlatitudeRead LONGITUDE next….97oWEST longitudeWhich means that coordinates forDallas, Texas would look like this: 33oN, 97oW
20. GRID MAPS Cheddar, England is found in  grid square A-9Grid maps-are another way to lookat finding location.Instead of latitude andlongitude lines, use gridsquares to find a specificplace on a small area ofthe earth
21. 5 Themes of geography  study features onTools geographer’s use toearth. -Location -Place -Movement -Region -Human Environment Interaction
22. LocationTypes of Location:  ABSOLUTE: exact location on earth (fixed) Doesn’t change Latitude/Longitude Hemispheres Grid System Address RELATIVE: compared to other places (variable) Changes dependent upon where you’re comparing it to. Miles Distance Direction
23. Absolute LocationA specific place on the Earth’s surfaceUses a grid systemLatitude andlongitudeA global address
24. Relative Location  Where a place is inrelation to anotherplace-Uses directionalwords to describe-Cardinal andintermediatedirections
25. Place  A place is defined by it’s unique characteristics.-Physical characteristics-Human characteristics
26. Cultural CharacteristicsHuman  PhysicalCharacteristics Characteristi What are the main languages, cs customs, and Landforms beliefs. (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, How many vegetation, wildlife, people live, soil, etc. work, and visit a place.
27. MovementHuman Movement  • Trucks, Trains, PlanesInformation Movement • Phones, computer (email), mailIdea Movement • How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines
28. Region  Formal Regions -defined by governmental or administrative boundaries (States, Countries, Cities) -Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky Mountain region, Chinatown). Functional Region -Regions defined by a function (newspaper servicearea, cell phone coverage area). Perceptual Region -Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the south, etc.)