Monsalve And Layba


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Monsalve And Layba

  1. 1. NEXT Developing the Reading Comprehension Of First Year High School Students MICAH ELA A. MONSALVE APRIL M. LAYBA (AUTHORS) MRS. VICTORIA I. CABILDO (CONSULTANT) MR. FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL (ADVISER)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li> Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of BSEd program </li></ul><ul><li>Foreword (authors) </li></ul><ul><li>Foreword (recommendation) </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>General objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Tips and guidelines for effective reading </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter I: Factors affecting reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson I: Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson II: Figurative language </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson III: Text structure and genres </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson IV: Reasoning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson V: Reading purposes </li></ul>next back
  3. 3. <ul><li>Chapter II: Different Reading Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson VI: Before-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson VII: During-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson VIII: After-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson IX: PQ4R strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson X: SQ3R strategies </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>About the authors </li></ul>next back
  4. 4. <ul><li>A premier university in CALABARZON, offering academic programs and related services designed to respond to the requirements of the Philippines and the global economy, particularly in Asian Countries. </li></ul>VISION next back content
  5. 5. <ul><li>The University shall primarily provide advanced education, professional, technological and vocational instruction in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, science, engineering, industrial technologies, teacher education, medicine, law, arts and sciences, information technologies and other related fields. It shall also undertake research and extension services and provide progressive leadership in its areas of specialization. </li></ul>MISSION next back content
  6. 6. <ul><li>In pursuit of the college vision/mission the College of Education is committed to develop the full potentials of the individuals and equip them with knowledge, skills and attitudes in Teacher Education allied fields to effectively respond to the increasing demands, challenges and opportunities of changing time for global competitiveness . </li></ul>GOALS next back content
  7. 7. <ul><li>Produce graduate who can demonstrate and practice the professional and ethical requirement for the Bachelor of Secondary Education such as: </li></ul><ul><li>To serve as positive and powerful role models in the pursuit of the learning thereby maintaining high regards to professional growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the significance of providing wholesome and desirable learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate learning process in diverse type of learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Used varied learning approaches and activities, instructional materials and learning resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Used assessment data, plan and revise teaching – learning plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and strengthen the links between school and community activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct research and develo pment in Teacher Education and other related activities. </li></ul>OBJECTIVES OF BSEd PROGRAM next back content
  8. 8. This Teacher’s “ Developing the Reading Comprehension of First Year High School students” is part of the requirements in Educational Technology 2 under the revised Education curriculum based on CHED Memorandum Order (CMO)-30, Series of 2004. Educational Technology 2 is a three (3)-unit course designed to introduce both traditional and innovative technologies to facilitate and foster meaningful and effective learning where students are expected to demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature, application and production of the various types of educational technologies. The students are provided with guidance and assistance of selected faculty members of the College on the selection, production and utilization of appropriate technology tools in developing technology-based teacher support materials. Through the role and functions of computers especially the Internet, the student researchers and the advisers are able to design and develop various types of alternative delivery systems. These kinds of activities offer a remarkable learning experience for the education students as future mentors especially in the preparation and utilization of instructional materials. FOREWORD next back content
  9. 9. The output of the group’s effort on this enterprise may serve as a contribution to the existing body of instructional materials that the institution may utilize in order to provide effective and quality education. The lessons and evaluations presented in this module may also function as a supplementary reference for secondary teachers and students. MICAH ELA A. MONSALVE Module Developer APRIL M. LAYBA Module Developer next back content
  10. 10. FOREWORD next back content This Teacher’s “ Developing the Reading Comprehension of First Year High School students” is part of the requirements in Educational Technology 2 under the revised Education curriculum based on CHED Memorandum Order (CMO)-30, Series of 2004. Educational Technology 2 is a three (3)-unit course designed to introduce both traditional and innovative technologies to facilitate and foster meaningful and effective learning where students are expected to demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature, application and production of the various types of educational technologies. The students are provided with guidance and assistance of selected faculty members of the College on the selection, production and utilization of appropriate technology tools in developing technology-based teacher support materials. Through the role and functions of computers especially the Internet, the student researchers and the advisers are able to design and develop various types of alternative delivery systems. These kinds of activities offer a remarkable learning experience for the education students as future mentors especially in the preparation and utilization of instructional materials.
  11. 11. next back content The output of the group’s effort on this enterprise may serve as a contribution to the existing body of instructional materials that the institution may utilize in order to provide effective and quality education. The lessons and evaluations presented in this module may also function as a supplementary reference for secondary teachers and students. FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL Computer Instructor / Adviser Educational Technology 2 MRS. VICTORIA I. CABILDO Module Consultant LYDIA R. CHAVEZ Dean College of Education
  12. 12. <ul><li>First of all, we would like to thank our Almighty God for the guidance while we are doing this, for the knowledge and wisdom because we know that this modular workbook will not be possible without Him. </li></ul><ul><li>We wish to thank the following persons: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Corazon San Agustin, for challenging us from the very first start of our Educational Technology 1; </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Victoria I. Cabildo, our consultant, for the undying support and for the pieces of advice for the betterment of this workbook; </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Lydia R. Chavez, Dean of the College of Education, for the approval of this work; </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. For-Ian V. Sandoval, our adviser, for giving us the opportunity to explore the world of technology and for bringing out fresh ideas; </li></ul><ul><li>Our friends for the happy moments and for the encouragement; and </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Franz Arjon E. Flores and Mr Anthony Rayosa for the pieces of advice and encouragement in times of distress </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, our parents, for the financial and moral support; </li></ul><ul><li>THE AUTHORS </li></ul>ACKNOWLEDGEMENT next back content
  13. 13. <ul><li>Reading comprehension is the process of constructing meaning from text. The goal of all reading instruction is ultimately targeted at helping a reader comprehend text. Reading comprehension involves at least two people: the reader and the writer. The process of comprehending involves decoding the writer's words and then using background knowledge to construct an approximate understanding of the writer's message. </li></ul><ul><li>Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the students have their difficulties in comprehending reading texts; this workbook aims to help the students solve their problems and develop their reading comprehension in easy way by giving those different strategies and useful tips that will surely help them to have proficient reading. </li></ul>INTRODUCTION next back content
  14. 14. <ul><li>This modular workbook intends to develop the reading comprehension of the secondary students in Easy way. It contains information about the factors affecting their comprehension, strategies that can help them to read effectively and some tips and guidelines that is useful in reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of reading and understanding the contents, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. distinguish what are the factors affecting their reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>2. acquire knowledge from the written information </li></ul><ul><li>3. increase proficiency in reading </li></ul><ul><li>4. positively respond to the tips and guidelines given </li></ul><ul><li>5. give importance to reading </li></ul><ul><li>6. explore the world of texts </li></ul>GENERAL OBJECTIVES next back content
  15. 15. Tips and guidelines for effective reading 1. Distinguish between total understanding and overall impression In some cases it will be essential to have total understanding about the topic in the material you have to read. For example, if you are in the finance team and there is a change of accounting regulations, a detailed level of understanding will be important. On the other hand, if it is about production processes and you are in finance, an overall impression might be all that is required. Each time you have to read something, make sure you get clear on whether you need total understanding or an overall impression. 2 . Set a time limit Most people can only read for short periods of time without a break, and this usually about forty-five minutes. Make a habit of setting a time limit for how long you will allocate to each reading session to maximize your overall effectiveness. next back content
  16. 16. 3 . Ask yourself what you already know Sometimes the topic you are reading about will be completely new. Most of the time, the topic will be at least familiar to you. Chances are you will have read sometimes similar or complimentary about the topic. To help inform your reading, ask yourself what you already know about the subject matter. 4 . Read with a purpose It is easy to fall into the trap of reading something just because it is in front of you. The alternative is to ask your self what the purpose or goal is from reading the item. Is it: • to gain information? • to get a different perspective? • to inform a decision? When you are clear on your outcome it is much easier to focus your attention on what matters. 5. Skim through first A useful technique is to skim through the document first, focusing on the headings, sub-headings, and conclusion to get a general feel about the content of the document. next back content
  17. 17. 6. Read summaries first Most reports or long publications have a one-page summary. In printed articles in professional magazines, a summary of the key themes is often given In a small box. Start with these summaries first. 7. Make notes as you go Capturing notes as you go is an extremely effective way of keeping focus. Mind maps or checklists are particularly useful ways of capturing what you might need to refer to in future. Reading can became a very time consuming task but by making a few simple changes you can significantly improve your overall effectiveness. next back content
  18. 18. <ul><li>In this chapter, the students must be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify the factors affecting their reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>give importance to reading </li></ul><ul><li>select the factors that must be focused </li></ul>CHAPTER I: next back content FActors affecting reading comprehension
  19. 19. Vocabulary <ul><li>At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>define what vocabulary is </li></ul><ul><li>give importance to vocabulary in comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>enhance their vocabulary through context clues </li></ul>LESSON 1: next back content
  20. 20. Vocabulary is a set of words one must be with in a language. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Examples: Entity- something that has a separate existence liant- easily bent or influenced Wince- to shrink back Frugal- economical; thrifty Canopy- a tent-like covering over a bed next back content
  21. 21. Name:_________________________________ Date:___________________ Year/Section:__________________________ Score:__________________ Activity 1 A. Read the following sentences and identify the meaning of the underlined words through context clues. Encircle the correct answer. 1. I took the tome off the shelf and opened it to page 94. Then I began to read. What does tome probably mean? A) some food B) a bad dream C) a cigarette D) a book next back content
  22. 22. 2. Hurricanes and tornadoes are treacherous . Only a very foolish person would go out during that kind of weather. What does treacherous probably mean? A)exciting B) dangerous C) delirious D) safe 3. Many ships have vanished during hurricanes. No survivors from the lost ships have ever been found. What does vanished probably mean? A) arrived B) departed C) returned D) disappeared 4. The tiger's roar could be heard in villages far away. What does roar probably mean? A) a food tiger eats B) a tiger's dream C) a tiger's ear D) a sound a tiger makes next back content
  23. 23. 5. The thought of eating a rat is abhorrent to most people. What does abhorrent probably mean? A) fun, lively B) horrible, repugnant C) delicious, tasty D) sweet, sugary 6. My absent-minded teacher loses his keys, his book and his chalk almost every day! What does it mean to be absent-minded ? A) be hateful B) not pay attention C) be intelligent D) not like someone 7. You can trust the salesmen at that store because they always conduct business in an aboveboard manner. What does aboveboard probably mean? A) honestly, openly B) sneaky, dishonest C) horrible, r epugnant D) strange, unusual  next back content
  24. 24. 8. Petra has so many friends because she is a gregarious person. What does gregarious probably mean? A) introverted, self-contained B) shy, quiet C) friendly, outgoing D) rude, hostile 9. The lovely egret is in danger of extinction because clothing manufacturers use their long, beautiful tail feathers to make ladies' hats. What is an egret ? A) a small child  B) a type of food C) a sound a tiger makes  D) a type of bird 10. I can't believe it! Right in the middle of our conversation, Peter turned around abruptly and walked out of the room!  What does abruptly probably mean? A) formally  B) slowly, in no hurry C) suddenly, without notice  D) quietly, in an unusual manner next back content
  25. 25. A) a shortage  B) not enough   C) very red  D) plentiful  12. When Sara was sick, her voice was almost inaudible . We couldn't hear what she was trying to say clearly. What does inaudible probably mean? A) very loud, easy to hear  B) very soft, hard to hear C) very strange, uncommon  D) very shy, introverted 13. The hill was too arduous for us to climb. We had to walk our bicycles up the hill. What does arduous probably mean? A) tall, sharp  B) fun, exciting  C) easy, not challenging  D) difficult, steep 11. After the harvest, we had an abundant amount of apples. We made apple pie, apple sauce, and apple juice because we had so many apples! What does abundant probably mean? next back content
  26. 26. 14. I'm really hungry! That apple didn't appease my hunger. I want a sandwich now. What does appease probably mean? A) frustrate B) increase C) satisfy D) confuse 15.The dispute about marijuana in California will probably never be resolved. What is a dispute ? A) theory, rule B) argument, debate C) agreement D) a type of medicine next back content
  27. 27. Name:_________________________________ Date:___________________ Year/Section:__________________________ Score:__________________ Activity 2 Direction: Look for the meaning of the following words and formulate a sentence using it. 1. perils _____________________________________________________________ 2. Relentless _____________________________________________________________ 3. Adversity _____________________________________________________________ 4. Adulate _____________________________________________________________ 5. Vicissitudes _____________________________________________________________ next back content
  28. 28. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE At the end of this lesson, the student must be able to: 1. define the commonly used figurative language 2. differentiate the figurative language to its literal meaning 3. draw an idea about the figurative languages LESSON 2: next back content
  29. 29. Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. It is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The following are various types of figurative language: Idiom It is a saying that carries meaning based on its use in the language. Example: 1. Greenhorn - an inexperienced person; an immigrant who has arrived just recently 2. Hit below the belt - to take advantage; to be unsportsmanlike 3. Sharp tongue - a sarcastic or nagging manner of speaking next back content
  30. 30. Simile It is a figure of speech comparing two unlike things, often introduced with the word “like” or “as”. Example: 1. Her skin is as white as snow. 2. The very mist on the Essex marshes was like a gauzy and radiant fabric. 3. Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus. Metaphor It is a figure of speech which directly compares without using “like” or “as”. Examples: 1. She is a tiger when she is mad. 2. Death is dreamless sleep. 3. He was a knight in shining armor. Personification It is a figure of speech in which we make a thing, idea or an animal to do something that only human can do. Examples: 1. The wind roaring through the trees keep them me awake. 2. Wind yells while blowing. 3. The trees dance with the wind. next back content
  31. 31. Hyperbole It is a figure of speech in which statements are exaggerated. It maybe used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be taken literally. Examples: 1. I can sleep for a year.(really tired) 2. I can eat a cow.(very hungry) 3. When she smiles her cheeks fall off.(really happy) Synecdoche It is a figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole, the whole for a part, the specific for the general, the general, the general for specific, or the material for the thing made from it. Examples: 1. His father gave him a new set of wheels . (car) 2. The teacher said to her students, “Lend me your ears!” (listen) 3. The man asks for the hand of his fiancée. (Take her to be his wife) next back content
  32. 32. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:_____________________________ Score:_______________ Activity 3 <ul><li>Direction: Read the following sentences and identify the meaning of the underlined idiomatic expressions. Encircle the correct answer based on the context clues. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary always makes decisions after her own heart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>according to her mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>according to her desires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>according to her experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is not a good deed to add fuel to the fire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provoke further quarrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase heat intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve wrong desire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fame arranged my things in an apple pie order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in disastrous manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in proper order of arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in improper order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agnes gets mad with the rumors about her and she barked up the wrong tree. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cut the wrong tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attack the wrong person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made a mistake </li></ul></ul>next back content
  33. 33. <ul><li>5. Jena wants to lay on a bed of roses at least once in her lifetime. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a bed full of roses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a garden of roses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condition of ease and luxury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Arjon is a kind of person who is beyond compare. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>without equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comparable with someone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Hazel is a big bag of wind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boastful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talkative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8. The contract must be in a black and white. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good and evil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>colored with black and white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9. I don’t want to receive a left-handed compliment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negative feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrong information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>false praise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10. August 7 is a red-letter day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hateful day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lucky day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important occasion or memorable day </li></ul></ul>next back content
  34. 34. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:______________________________Score:_______________ Activity 4 Direction: Identify the following figurative languages. Write your answer on the space provided. ____________1. Her skin is as white as snow. ____________2 Curley was flopping like a fish on a line. ____________3.He was a knight in shining armor. ____________4 Life is a long journey. ____________5&quot;Take thy face hence.&quot; ____________6.When she smiles her cheeks fall off. ____________7.The books weigh a ton. ____________8.Wind yells while blowing. ____________9.The trees dance with the wind. ____________10.The rain falls like the sun rising upon the mountains. ____________11.The water is like the sun. ____________12.Time is money. ____________13.The birds sing with the breeze. ____________14.Use your head to figure it out. ____________15.Michael is a man of his word. ____________16 .”Make yourself at home ”, Jenny said when Jane visited her. ____________17.Her parents gave her a new set of wheels. ____________18.”I can eat a cow” ____________19. Curley was flopping like a fish on a line. ____________20. She is an angel. next back content
  35. 35. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:______________________________ Score:_______________ Activity 5 <ul><li>5.1 Direction: Define the following in your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>hyperbole- </li></ul><ul><li>metaphor- </li></ul><ul><li>simile- </li></ul><ul><li>personification- </li></ul><ul><li>idioms- </li></ul><ul><li>synecdoche- </li></ul>next back content
  36. 36. <ul><li>5.2 Direction: Use the following figurative languages to formulate a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a sentence using the following idiomatic expressions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. hit the nail in your head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. A little bird told me </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. crocodile tears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. left-hand compliment </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5. red letter day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  37. 37. B. Compare the following things to something. Write on the space provided weather it is a metaphor or simile. __________1. Road _________________________________________ __________2. Politicians _________________________________________ __________3. World _________________________________________ __________4. Roses _________________________________________ __________5. River _________________________________________ next back content
  38. 38. text structure and genres At the end of this lesson, the student must be able to: 1. determine the different kinds of text 2. recognize the text structure used in a sentence 3. draw an idea about the text structure LESSON 3: next back content
  39. 39. <ul><li>Text structure is the arrangement or organization of the actual words of the author. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are kinds of text structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Example: &quot;The crocodile is the master of deception in the water. It stalks its prey and then swiftly closes in for the kill.“ </li></ul><ul><li>2. Problem/Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Example: &quot;One problem to resolve in crocodile watching is transportation. How can an observer get close enough to watch without scaring it away or being attacked?&quot; </li></ul>next back content
  40. 40. 3. Time/Order Example: &quot;Archaeologists have helped us to understand that the evolution of the crocodile began with ...&quot; 4. Comparison/Contrast Example: &quot;The power of the crocodile is like that of a monstrous machine. With one lunge it can destroy its prey and protect the kill from other predators.&quot; 5. Cause/Effect Example: &quot;We observed the crocodile as it stalked a raccoon moving through the moonlight toward the edge of the water. As a result of a noise we made, the raccoon bolted...&quot; 6. Directions Example: &quot;When observing a crocodile, first you must...&quot; next back content
  41. 41. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:_____________________________ Score:________________ Activity 6 Direction: identify the following text structures. Write your answers on the apace provided. ____________1.Historians discovered that Philippines was first inhabited by the aetas and followed by the Malays. ____________2.I won the first place on a math competition because I study hard. ____________3.He was caught by the policeman because he robbed the bank. ____________4.She fell on the canal because she didn’t look on the street. ____________5.Mark is tall but Carl is taller than him. ____________6.In order to cook spaghetti, you should first soften the pasta. ____________7.Your house is farther than my house. ____________8.She has the longest hair in town. ____________9.You are the smartest among the group. ____________10.She failed in her class examination because she didn’t review her lessons. ____________11.Mary is much wiser than John in their class. ____________12.Rice is a popular food. It is the principal food of the Filipinos. It is a very important part of the meal. It is rich in carbohydrates. ____________13.Global warming is the major problem of our world. How can we help to resolve this problem? ____________14.She was late in her class because she didn’t wake up early. ____________15.To Enhance our knowledge, we should always read. next back content
  42. 42. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:_____________________________ Score:________________ Activity 7 <ul><li>Direction: Formulate three (3) sentences using the different kinds of sentence structure. </li></ul><ul><li>1. description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. problem/solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. time/order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. comparison/contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. cause/effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6.directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b)_______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul>next back content
  43. 43. reasoning ability At the end of this lesson, the student must be able to: 1. determine their style to understand the story easy 2. discuss their ways of reasoning 3. improve their reading comprehension ability LESSON 4: next back content
  44. 44. Reasoning ability is the ability to produce an idea based from the written on express words. It may be the act of one alone, as it is simply the orderly setting forth of reason. These are the following things that must be considered in order to easily understand the reading materials: 1. Context Readers use context to predict word meaning or select missing words. The context may actually define words, relate words to prior knowledge, or to provide information to build concepts. next back content
  45. 45. 2. Facts As people read, they must attend to factual details. Exercises that whether students acquire the key information from the selection are worthwhile. Text discussions, however, are often too focused on facts. Questions should also target inference and analysis, which are higher-level comprehension skills. 3. Main Idea It is important for readers to be able to identify the main idea of each paragraph since this enables them to find supporting details. These abilities lead to summary and synthesis to what has been read. 4. Sequence It is the process or fact of following in space, time, or thought; succession or order. If the readers grasp the entirety of what they are reading, they can sequence the events. next back content
  46. 46. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:_____________________________ Score:_______________ Activity 8 Direction: Read the poem and answer the following questions. “ O Captain, My Captain!” By: Walt Whitman O captain! My captain! Our fearful trip is done, The ship has weathered every rack; the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel and daring; But O heart! Heart! Heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O captain! My captain! Rise up and heart the bells; Rise up for you the flag is flung- for you the bugle trills, For you bouquets and ribbon wreaths, for you the shores a crowding, For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here captain! Dear father! This arm beneath your head! It is some dream that on the deck, You’ve fallen cold and dead. My captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still, My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will, The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed and done From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; Exult O shores, and ring O bells! But I with mournful tread, Walk the deck my captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. next back content
  47. 47. Comprehension check: 1. Why was Abraham Lincoln called as a “Father” and a “Captain”? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What does the ship represent? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content This poem was dedicated to America’s former president Abraham Lincoln. He was a first black American who became the president. During his presidency, the Civil War happened.
  48. 48. 3. What is the prize referred to in the 1 st stanza? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What the bells represent for? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What is the representation of the flag in the poem? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  49. 49. Name:____________________________________ Date:________________ Year/Section:_____________________________ Score:_______________ Activity 9 Direction: Read the poem and interpret using the guide questions. “ TINY FEET” By: Gabriela Mistral A child’s tiny feet, Blue, blue with cold, How can they see and not protect you? Oh, my God! Tiny wounded feet, Bruised all over by pebbles, Abused by snow and soil! Man being blind, ignores That where you step, you leave A blossom of bright light, That where you have placed your bleeding little soles A redolent tuberose grows. Since, however, you walk Through the streets so straight, You are courageous, without fault. Child’s tiny feet, Two suffering little gems, How can the people pass, unseeing. next back content
  50. 50. <ul><li>COMREHENSION CHECK: </li></ul><ul><li>On the first stanza, how did the author describe the child’s tiny feet? </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. What the pebbles stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. To what do the snow and soil represent? </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  51. 51. 4. What does the author want to figure out on the third stanza? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did the author use “child’s tiny feet” as a subject of her poem instead of using other parts of the body? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.What is the main idea of the poem? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  52. 52. reading purposes At the end of this lesson, the student must be able to: 1. identify their reading purposes 2. give the importance of purpose in comprehension 3. increase knowledge in reading different reading materials LESSON 5: next back content
  53. 53. <ul><li>Reading is an activity with a purpose . A person may read in order to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose/s for reading guide the reader's selection of texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading research shows that good readers </li></ul><ul><li>Read extensively </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate information in the text with existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Have a flexible reading style, depending on what they are reading </li></ul><ul><li>Are motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on different skills interacting: perceptual processing, phonemic processing, recall </li></ul><ul><li>Read for a purpose; reading serves a function </li></ul>next back content
  54. 54. The purpose for reading also determines the appropriate approach to reading comprehension because the purpose for reading and the type of text determine the specific knowledge, skills, and strategies that reader’s need to apply to achieve comprehension. Here are the examples of reading purposes: 1. reading to be informed 2. reading to perform a task 3. reading for literary experience next back content
  55. 55. ATTENTION ! On Monday, Nov. 10, 1997, we will have a very important visitor - Mr. Ric Magsaysay. He is going to talk to us about the Ramon Magsaysay International Awards. All of you including your parents will see him in the school auditorium at 2:00 o’ clock in the afternoon. Name:_____________________________________ ________________ Date:__________________________ Year/Section:______________________________ _________ _______Score:_________________________ Activity 10 Direction: Read the following and identify the information given by the author. <ul><li>Comprehension Check: </li></ul><ul><li>What is going to happen? </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2.Where will it happen? </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. When will it happen? </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. Who is going to be involved in the event? </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Main idea: </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  56. 56. Name:___________________________________________________________ Date:_____________________ Year/Section:____________________________________________________ Score:____________________ Activity 11 Direction: Read the following passages and get the important information given by the author. To the TOYF Awardees TOYF is the acronym for Ten Outstanding Young Filipinos, an annual search for ten outstanding young Filipinos- models for young men and women of the future. Then President Fidel V. Ramos referred to them as a “long and illustrious” line of exemplary young Filipinos, who date back one revolutionary past and, perhaps, even earlier, when to be outstanding was to court danger to one’s self and to one’s family. Common to the awards in present times is their contribution to defining the model of the new global Filipino- talented, young Filipinos are connected to the vast and complex networks of world. Rightly so, he says, for no nation can possibly prosper in the coming century entirely on its own. “ Achievement and success without values and without sharing are hollow and self-serving. The culture of selflessness, be it in times of crisis or normalcy, is the core value that unifies a nation.” He asked the awardees to keep the interests of the people- the poor, the weak, and the powerless- foremost in all their undertakings. The awards, he said, are also for the unsung young Filipino achievers who have managed to give their best within the humbleness of their birth and social status. Main Idea: ______________________________________________________________ next back content
  57. 57. Name:_____________________________________ _____________________________ Date:______________ Year/Section:______________________________ _____________________________ Score:_____________ Activity 12 Direction: Read the following passage and identify the main idea. To the Filipino Youth From a voice in the past- that of a truly great Filipino woman, Gregoria de Jesus Bonifacio- as she addressed the young Filipinos of her day. “ Remember the sacred teachings of our heroes who sacrificed their lives for love of country. Do not waste time so as not to serve as a bad example for others. Acquire knowledge diligently in the field of work for which you are best fitted so that you can be useful to our country. Remember that goodness is wealth. Respect your teachers who help you to see and understand, for you owe them your education as to owe your parents your life.” Main Idea: _______________________________________________________________ next back content
  58. 58. Name:_____________________________________ _________________________ Date:_____________________ Year/Section:________________________________________________________ Score:____________________ Activity 13 Direction: Here is a poem, read and understand to be able to answer the corresponding questions below. TO THE YOUTH Wake up young man and rise There’s much to do for the wise Do not forego the precious chance The gift of life comes only once. Why do you waver, why don’t you stand? Everything around you is at your command. You are strong, articulate and bright Defend , protect , exercise your right. Our country waits for you to create, Sculptures and paintings that are great The best songs, poems, dramas to portray Scientific inventions to display. Wakeup young man and rise Who are you waiting for? Your beloved countries cries, Serve her forever more! next back content
  59. 59. <ul><li>Comprehension Check: </li></ul><ul><li>Who is addressed by the author? </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. What does he want the youth to do? </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. What qualities does the youth possess? </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does the country ask from the youth? </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>5. How can young people like you serve the country? </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  60. 60. Chapter test 1 Name:___________________________________________________________ Date:____________________ Year/Section:____________________________________________________ Score:___________________ Direction: Explain how the following factors affect your reading comprehension. 1. vocabulary _______________________________________________________________ 2. figurative language ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. text structure _______________________________________________________________ 4. reasoning ability _______________________________________________________________ 5. reading purposes ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  61. 61. <ul><li>In this chapter, the students must be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify different strategies in reading comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select the strategy/ies for effective reading comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give importance to reading comprehension </li></ul></ul>CHAPTER II: next back content different reading strategies
  62. 62. before reading strategies <ul><li>At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify the different strategies to use in reading effectively </li></ul><ul><li>determine what the author wants to interpret some information. </li></ul><ul><li>create their idea base on the information that store in their mind </li></ul>LESSON 6: next back content
  63. 63. Before Reading Strategies consist of those strategies that a student learns to use to get ready to read a text selection. These strategies help the student get an idea of what the author might be trying to say, how the information might be useful, and to create a mental set that might be useful for taking in and storing information. These strategies could include previewing headings, surveying pictures, reading introductions and summaries, creating a pre-reading outline, creating questions that might need to be answered, making predictions that need to be confirmed, etc. next back content
  64. 64. Here are the before reading strategies: 1. Before reading Self questioning Self-Questioning is the ongoing process of asking questions before, during, and after reading that are used by a reader to understand text. The questions posed are based on clues that are found in the text and are generated to spark curiosity that focuses the reader's attention on investigating, understanding, and connecting to the text. A self-questioning strategy is a set of steps that a student follows to generate, think about, predict, investigate, and answer questions that satisfies curiosity about what is being read. next back content
  65. 65. You may ask questions such as: &quot;What clues does the title give me about the story?“ &quot;Is this a real or imaginary story?&quot; &quot;Why am I reading this?“ &quot;What do I already know about___?“ “ What predictions can I make?&quot; next back content
  66. 66. <ul><li>2. Making a connection </li></ul><ul><li>Making a connection is when a student can relate a passage to an experience, another book, or other facts about the world. You can use connections with any fiction or non-fiction text that you read. </li></ul><ul><li>Students make personal connections with the text by using their schema (background knowledge).  There are three main types of connections we make while reading text. </li></ul><ul><li>Text-to-Self (T-S) refers to connections made between the text and the reader's personal experience.  </li></ul><ul><li>Text-to-Text (T-T) refers to connections made between a text being read to a text that was previously read. </li></ul><ul><li>Text-to-World (T-W) refers to connections made between a text being read and something that occurs in the world. </li></ul>next back content
  67. 67. <ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning is a reading skill by good readers to find specific information quickly. Students may scan to find facts and to answer questions. The rapid search for specific information or for an appropriate answer to a particular question is scanning. It is a useful strategy for data gathering and for note taking. In scanning, the reader is concerned only with facts and information or facts underlies the scanning strategy. It is another way of browsing a book for the sole purpose of nibbling the pages for some topics necessary for understanding any preparation for a research work. </li></ul><ul><li>` The reader’s eyes practically “fly” over the page looking for just one number in telephone directory. The reader is aware of the graphic form the answer is like to take capitalized word, numeral, short phrase containing key words . </li></ul>next back content
  68. 68. <ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of reading technique means going quickly over the material in order to get the idea of its subject matter without having to pay close attention to details. This is what you generally use when you go over light articles, newspaper items, features, entertainment, literature and similar material in order to get their main ideas. For study purposes, this technique is especially useful when in doing research or home study; you are faced with a large amount of unfamiliar literature from which you have to select material for close and more intensive consideration. You may have no time to go over each text slowly and carefully. By skimming or quickly running through the materials or parts of it, you can preview or survey the text, select what is relevant and set these aside for further study. </li></ul>next back content
  69. 69. Steps in skimming: A. Previewing It is a thinking process which precedes reading. It is based on certain questions you may raise about the selection. Previewing should help you form several opinions about the material to be read, including an estimate of your interest and background in the subject, the level of comprehension needed to satisfy your purpose for reading, the kinds of skills that will help you to accomplish your purpose, and the rate at which you can read the material effectively. You may, in fact, find that a preview will give all the information you need from a particular articles or it may show just what part of an article contains the ideas for which you are looking. Titles may reveal their subject matter right away. Examples: “ Three Centuries of Christian Literature” “ Japan Yesterday and Today” Subtitles may function in the same manner: The Edge of Impossibility Tragic forms of Literature next back content
  70. 70. <ul><li>Surveying and over viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Surveying means skimming through the different parts of a book in order to determine whether it is relevant and should be studied more intensively. The parts of the book are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The publisher’s description of the contents of the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>books, usually found in the book jacket. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Some notes about the author. This could show </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whether she is authoritative enough and can be used as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reference or source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. The reviewer’s comments. These are also found in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the jacket. Remember. However, the critics or reviewer’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comments included in the book are generally favorable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. The foreword or preface or introduction. This </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explains the purpose, organization, method of presentation, special presentation, and special features of the book. Sometimes there is special page entitled “To student”. Skim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thought that too. </li></ul></ul>next back content
  71. 71. <ul><ul><li>5. The table of contents. This gives you an overview of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>material in the book. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. The index at the end of the books. From the index you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can determine whether the topics you are interested in are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussed lengthily or are merely mentioned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. The printing history. This is usually found at the back of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the title page, and will give you the first publication data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the book, and the dates of new editions, if any. This </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will show you whether your reference may be out dated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and your data obsolete. These are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>considerations especially in science and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subjects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. The general layout of the book. This may include not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only units and chapters but also sub-sections with titles in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bold type, abstracts and summaries at the end of units or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chapters, guide questions, maps, charts, tables, diagrams, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photographs and photograph captions. </li></ul></ul>next back content
  72. 72. Name:________________________________________________________________ Date:_________________ Year/Section:__________________________________________________________ Score:________________ Activity 14 14.1 Direction: Skim through the information below and get the main idea. We need the concept of purpose in order to explain the phenomena of living things. This concept is not something we can isolate in a test tube or view under a microscope. It is no less real on that account. Science has always invented concepts and even structures to conform to the behavior of matter. This is a thoroughly respectable device. No one, for example, has even seen an electron, but electrons are as real to the physicists as though they had been seen. They have to exist; else matter would not behave as it does. Living things have to purpose in order for us to account for their behavior. An illustration may prove helpful. We have said that the phenomenon of perception, which is the organism’ link to his externality, and therefore the most fundamental factor in human life, is based on experience and purpose. That is, we see that we have experience to see, and what we purpose to see. next back content
  73. 73. It is not enough to say merely that we see what we have experience to see, because experience alone is not enough to account for what happens. Let us suppose that two persons are standing together viewing a casual scene. It might be a pastoral scene, with field, wood, streams, and animals. Both have had experience with virtually everything in the scene. They are confronted with thousands of coincidences in the scene. Each will see something different, and will choose a very few of the many coincidences to observe. Why do they not select the same ones? Or why do they not select all for which they have experiential background? The only answer that seems adequate is that from an experiential point of view they might have but they had different purposes. Purpose, then, becomes an essential in the transaction of perception itself, the key to social living. Many other phenomena require the existence of purpose to make them comprehensible. Main Idea: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  74. 74. during reading strategies <ul><li>At the end of this chapter, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>define their understanding on the text </li></ul><ul><li>describe in detail what is happening on the story </li></ul><ul><li>appreciate the meaning and keep in their mind </li></ul>LESSON 7: next back content
  75. 75. During Reading Strategies are strategies that help the student focus on how to determine what the author is actually trying to say and to match the information with what the student already knows. The During Reading Strategies that help a student understand during reading include questioning, predicting, visualizing, paraphrasing, elaborating (i.e., comparing what is read to what is known), changing reading rate, rereading, etc. next back content
  76. 76. <ul><li>Here are during reading strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization is when a student can create a picture or movie in their mind while reading text. Use terms like “mental image” and asking sensory questions will help students become better visualizers. Another way of looking at visualization is to think about bringing words to life. </li></ul><ul><li>The following types of questions can help develop your visualizing technique. Keep them in mind while reading a text and answer them by creating mental images based on the text’s information. This will keep you engaged with the text and improve your reading comprehension. </li></ul>next back content
  77. 77. Suggested questions to ask for fiction: Suggested questions to ask for non-fiction: next back content How did your picture change as you read further into the text? 4. Based on what you have read so far and the pictures you have created, what do you predict might happen next? 3. What do the characters look like in your picture? Are they tall/short/blond/dark? 2. What is the setting? What does it look like? 1. How did your picture change as you read further into the text? 4. What do you imagine this writer saying back to you? 3. Where do you &quot;see&quot; yourself in relation to this writing? 2. What do you want to say back to this writer? 1.
  78. 78. 2. Predicting Predicting is using the author’s clues to make a hypothesis, or educated guess, about what is going happen in the story. The clues the author provides to the readers are the title, the illustrations, and the text that they have already read. Teachers instruct the students how to look for the author’s clues before they read and to use the clues to make a prediction. Students are asked to explain the reasoning behind their predictions and to revise their predictions as they gain new information in the story. next back content
  79. 79. Examples: 2.1 There has too much hazing going on among the fraternity members in the college. In a month’s time, twenty students have been admitted by the university clinic for initial treatment. One has reported dead. 2.2 The university president who just recently arrived for a two-month seminar abroad was brief on the current fraternity incidents and college unrest. next back content
  80. 80. 3. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is a rewording of another writer's text, explanation, argument, or narrative.  It is about the same length as the original, but is substantially different in wording and sentence structure. Examples In Africa, the African Neanderthals’ hunting strategies varied depending on the kind of game available on the killing and processing techniques. The hunting strategies in Africa depend on the kind of game. next back content
  81. 81. 4. During-reading self questioning Questioning during reading should help the reader to: Clarify and review what has happened so far Confirm or create new predictions Evaluate the story critically and make personal connections Compare with other experiences or books Monitor reading for meaning and accuracy next back content
  82. 82. Direction: Read the short story and draw the scene on the box according to your visualization. A BIG CATCH The day I was waiting for came. I went to the garden and looked for some worms. I put them in a little can and I got my fishing line. I went to the river and sat on a big stone. I dropped my line and waited. I waited a long time before I got something. I pulled up my line and there was my big catch. It was a big rotten shoe. Name:___________________________________________________________ Date:_____________________ Year/Section:____________________________________________________ Score:____________________ Activity 15 next back content
  83. 83. Minds that are both sane and insane entertain, as we know, all manner of fleeting sensations, dreams, memories, feelings, speculations, intuitions, and so on. The method by which the facts of one’s private mental life are observe is called introspection. Fortunately, its possibilities have been thoroughly explored by pioneer psychologists, so that its limitations are now generally recognized. Indeed, almost anyone can grasp the reasons for essential awkwardness of subjective observation. For if I attempt to watch my own fugitive mental processes with a view to analyzing them, I find that I must , as it were, stand aside sufficiently to avoid obstructing and distorting them by self consciousness. I6.1 Direction: Read the passage and paraphrase it. Name:________________________________________________________________ Date:_________________ Year/Section:__________________________________________________________ Score:________________ Activity 16 next back content
  84. 84. To do this I must let them run their natural course, then pause and view them retrospectively, example in memory. Since any mental state lingers on vividly in memory for only a few seconds at most, it is next to impossible for me to make any accurate observations of inner processes that extend over longer periods. Introspection, therefore, while it can deal with simple sensations such as after-images and the like, and can reveal with our minds the presence of a great many kinds of complex mental operations, is unable with the latter with any Paraphrase: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  85. 85. When two forces act at the same time on an object, the resultant of their action can be represented in direction and magnitude by the diagonal of a parallelogram whose sides are line segment. I6.2 Direction: Read the passage and paraphrase it. Paraphrase: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  86. 86. after reading strategies <ul><li>At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>determine the overall ideas and the message on the text </li></ul><ul><li>respond on personal level </li></ul><ul><li>build their awareness on the theme and structure while reading </li></ul>LESSON 8: next back content
  87. 87. After-Reading Strategies consist of those strategies that students learn to use when they have completed reading a text selection. These strategies are used to help the student &quot;look back&quot; and think about the message of the text and determine the intended or possible meanings that might be important. These strategies are used to follow up and confirm what was learned (e.g., answer questions or confirm predictions) from the use of before and during reading strategies. However, After-Reading Strategies also help the reader to focus on determining what the big, critical, or overall idea of the author's message was and how it might be used before moving on to performance tasks or other learning tasks. next back content
  88. 88. <ul><li>Here are the examples of after reading strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>1. After-Reading Self questioning </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of post-reading strategies is to extend the reading experience by helping the reader to: </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the concept that reading is for understanding the meaning of the text and making connections </li></ul><ul><li>Model ways of thinking through and organizing the information taken in from reading a text </li></ul><ul><li>Think critically about the text </li></ul><ul><li>Respond on a personal level </li></ul><ul><li>Build awareness of common themes and structures in literature </li></ul>next back content
  89. 89. 2. Summarizing Summarizing is how we take larger selections of text and reduce them to their bare essentials: the gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering. Webster's calls a summary the &quot;general idea in brief form&quot;; it's the distillation, condensation, or reduction of a larger work into its primary notions. It is a comprehension strategy that also needs to be taught. Summarizing is telling what is important about the text. A summary might include the answers to who, what, where, when, why, and how. next back content
  90. 90. Direction: Summarize the following story in 5 sentences. THE S TORY OF THE LION Once upon a time small lion cub wanted to hunt with his older friends, but his father said, “You are too young, you will be hurt during the hunt or get lost in the high grass, I think you should stay at home.” The cub begged his father, “Please Father, let me go hunting. I am old enough for that.” After a while, the father felt sorry for the cub and said, “All right, you may go, but keep on company with your friends or you will get hurt.” Walking out in the world, the cub stopped often and looked at everything and soon fell behind his comrades. Suddenly he was alone and did not know where to go. He was lost. He became frightened. Remembering his father’s warning, he started running. He came to a place where many elephants were eating. Suddenly a large elephant stepped and on the little cub and killed it. Name:___________________________________________________________ Date:_____________________ Year/Section:____________________________________________________ Score:____________________ Activity 17 next back content
  91. 91. The other lions soon realized the cub was missing and they started looking for him. They were very worried and before long they found his body. “ This is terrible,” they agreed and went home to tell the father. “ Your son is dead,” they said to the father. The old lion began to cry. “Who killed my son? Who?”, he shouted. Then he roared, “I will punish the killer.” The other lions told him, “The elephants have killed your son. He got lost at their eating place and a large elephant stepped on him.” The old lion stood quietly, thinking for a while, then suddenly said, “The elephants did not kill my son. The goats killed him!” “ No sir, that is not so,” the other lions cried to no avail. The old lion roared, “Don’t interrupt me! I know the goats did it! The goats did this terrible thing to me!” And off he stalked in fury. When the lion located a herd of goats, he killed many of them as a punishment. Very often when a man is hurt by someone powerful, he punishes someone who is weaker them himself. next back content
  92. 92. Summary: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  93. 93. Direction: Try to summarize the short story below in 5 sentences. NOT-SO-SILENT NIGHT (Agnes Newton Keith, author of the best-selling Land Below the wind, a book about life in North Borneo. Lived in the Philippines when her husband. Henry Keith was a technical adviser to the Philippine government during the Magsaysay era. She liked the interesting contrasts in Philippine society and recorded them in her second book, Bare feet in the Palace, the title referring to president Magsaysay’s welcoming the poor into Malacanang, The Keith’s rented house in a walked-in compound in Pasay City. The following selection tells about their Christmas Eve in the Philippines. George was one of the Keith’s boys.) Name:________________________________________________________________ Date:_________________ Year/Section:__________________________________________________________ Score:________________ Activity 18 next back content
  94. 94. There is a slight shuffling sound on the path and the strains of “Silent Night”, “Holy night” sound again on the doorstep. Harry gathers himself to do something drastic, but George gets to the door, and the music breaks off. “ Shall I give them fifty centavos, Ma?” “ I suppose to.” “ Why do you have to pay them if we don’t want to listen to them?” Harry asks. “ We have to pay them to stop their playing, I guess.” Tea comes, and with it the telltale, shuffling sound outside, the silence of poise lungs; then “silent night, holy night” fills the air again. “ For God’s sake!” Harry jumps up. “ Let Luz go, dear. Luz, get rid of them.” “ Shall I shoo them away, Ma’am, or give them some coins?” “ Give them something” “ We were told this compound didn’t permit anybody to come in excepts residents, weren’t we?” Harry froths. “ Yes, but it’s Christmas. Some people don’t mind anyway. Look over at the Cryster’s house, they’ve invited them to come inside.” -Bare Feet in the Palace (Boston: Little, brown &Co. 1955), pp.160-161 (Adapted) next back content
  95. 95. Summary: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  96. 96. Activity 19 Direction: Read the following passages and try to summarize it in 3 sentences. Life Science Because of its location and other geographical characteristics, the Philippines is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. It is vulnerable to typhoons, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tropical cyclones, and tidal waves. Million of people have been directly affected by natural calamities in recent years. Summary: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Name:________________________________________________________________ Date:_________________ Year/Section:__________________________________________________________ Score:________________ next back content
  97. 97. B. Science Pauling and Corey have proposed a model for the structure of DNA. Their model consist of three inter-twined chains, with the phosphates near the fibre axis and the bases on the outside. The problem is that their model fails to identify the forces which could hold the structure together. We have attempted to solve this problem by proposing a different structure. Summary: ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ next back content
  98. 98. pq4r strategy <ul><li>At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>discuss what PQ4R is </li></ul><ul><li>improve proficiency in reading using PQ4R strategy </li></ul><ul><li>recite and write the information read from the topic </li></ul>LESSON 9: next back content
  99. 99. This strategy will improve the student's understanding of text. It also improves recall of facts by as much as 70%. PQ4R is an acronym for Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, and Review. Here are the steps: 1.Preview Look through the pages of your reading passage and read the headings of the chapter and any sections dividing the chapter. Read the first and last paragraph in each section. View the illustrations in each section. Read the captions under the pictures and take a few minutes to look at charts, graphs, or maps. next back content
  100. 100. <ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the information you learned in the Preview. Ask yourself questions about it. Think about what do you already know about ideas you saw during your Preview. What do you think are main points that will be raised in the chapter? What do you expect to learn from reading this material? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Read </li></ul><ul><li>Read the passage. If there are ideas seem important, make a note of them on paper. If the book belongs to you, consider making notes in the margins and highlight important parts in the book. If you just can't imagine writing in your book, make notes on paper . </li></ul>next back content
  101. 101. <ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Take time to reflect on what you have read. How are the passages or chapters inter-related? How does the information fit into things you have already learned? What new information did you learn? Did the passage include the information you expected it to cover? Was there information that surprised you? </li></ul>next back content
  102. 102. <ul><li>Recite: </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the material. Discuss it with someone else or write down the main points you learned. Generally, writing information down by hand will improve memory of the material. If writing is a problem for you, consider brief notes or discuss the material with other students. It is important to summarize the material in writing using your own words. Explain it aloud to someone else or recite your notes aloud to yourself. Consider using a graphic organizer to increase your understanding of how concepts in the reading relate to each other. </li></ul>next back content
  103. 103. 6. Review Consider the main points of the material. Were your questions answered? Do you feel that the writer's points are fully understood? next back content
  104. 104. Name:___________________________________ ____________________ Date:____________________ Year/Section:_________________________________________________ Score:____________________ Activity 20 Direction: Read the following passage and answer the questions using the PQ4R strategy. Prayer is Power (An Excerpt) By Alexis Carell Prayer is not only worship; it is also an invisible emanation of man’s worshipping spirit- the most powerful form of energy that one can generate. The influence of prayer in human mind and body is as demonstrable as that of secreting glands. Its results can be measured in terms of increased physical buoyancy, greater intellectual vigor, moral stamina and a deeper understanding of the realities underlying human relationship. next back content
  105. 105. If you make a habit of sincere prayer, your life will be very noticeably and profoundly altered. Prayer stamps with its indelible mark our actions and demeanor. A tranquility of bearing, a facial and bodily repose are observed in those whose inner lives are thus enriched. Within the depths of consciousness a flame kindles. And man sees himself. He discovers his selfishness, his silly pride, his fears, his greed, his blunders. He develops a sense of moral obligation, intellectual humility. Thus, begins a journey of the soul on the realm of grace. Prayer is a force as real as terrestrial gravity. As a physician, I have seen men; after all other therapy has failed, lifted out of disease and melancholy by the serene effort of prayer. next back content
  106. 106. It is the only power in this world that seems to overcome the so-called “laws of nature”; the occasions, in which prayer has dramatically done this have been termed “miracles”. But a constant, ‘quieter miracle takes place hourly in the hearts of men and women who have discovered that prayer supplies them with a steady flow of sustaining power in their daily lives. Prayer is a mature activity indispensable to the fullest development of personality- the ultimate integration of man’s highest faculties. Only in prayer do we achieve that complete and harmonious assembly of body, mind, and spirit which gives the frail human reed its unshakeable strength. next back content
  107. 107. How can prayer be defined? Prayer is the effort of man to reach God, to commune with an invisible being, creator of all things, supreme wisdom, truth, beauty, and strength, father and redeemer of each man. The goal of prayer remains hidden to intelligence, for both language and thought fail when we attempt to describe God. Today, as never before, prayer is a binding necessity in the lives of men and nations. The lack of emphasis on the religious sense has brought the world to the edge of destruction. Our deepest source of power and perfection has been left miserably undeveloped. next back content
  108. 108. Prayer, the basic exercise of the spirit, must be actively practiced in our private lives. The neglected soul of man must be made strong enough to assert itself once more. If the power of prayer is again released and used in the lives of common men and women, if the spirit declares its aims clearly and boldly, there is yet hope that our prayers for a better world will be answered. <ul><li>Answer the following using the PQ4R strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a person who manifests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical buoyancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________________________________________ _________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. moral stamina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>_________________________________________ _________________________________________ </li></ul></ul>next back content
  109. 109. <ul><ul><li>intellectual vigor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tranquility of bearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facial and bodily repose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual humility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul>next back content
  110. 110. <ul><li>Reflect to the following questions. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Does the author in any way suggest that prayer lead to attitudes of passivity, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resignation or to a preoccupation with superstition? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. React to an assertion attributed to Emerson that “No man ever prayed without learning something.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  111. 111. <ul><ul><li>c. From your perspective, when does it become meaningless to pray? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d. What is your own definition of prayer? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  112. 112. sq3r strategy <ul><li>At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>interpret the important information on what they read </li></ul><ul><li>actively search for the right answer while having a discussion </li></ul><ul><li>summarize a paragraph through gathering important details </li></ul>LESSON 10: next back content
  113. 113. SQ3R Method is designed to help you read faster and retain more. SQ3R stands for the steps in reading: survey, question, read, recite, review. It might seem like it takes more time to use the SQ3R method, but you'll find that you retain more and have to reread less often. Let's take a look at the steps: <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Before reading, survey the material. Glance through the topic headings and try to get an overview of the reading. Skim the sections and read the final summary paragraph to get an idea of where the chapter is going. Only spend a few minutes surveying the reading to get a background knowledge, an initial orientation that will help you to organize the material as you read it. It eases you into the reading assignment </li></ul>next back content
  114. 114. 2 . Question Look at the first heading in the chapter. Turn it into a question. Ask questions to be answered in your reading. This step requires conscious effort, but is worth it as it leads to active reading, the best way to retain written material. Asking questions focuses your concentration on what you need to learn or get out of your reading. 3. Read Read the first section of your reading assignment to answer your question. Actively search for the answer to your question. If you finish the section and haven't answered the question, reread it. Read reflectively. Consider what the author is trying to say, and think about how you can use that information. next back content
  115. 115. 4. Recite Once you've read an initial section, look away and try to recite the answer to your question, using your own words and examples. If you can do this, it means that you understand the material. If you can't, glance over the section again. Once you have the answers to your questions, write them down. <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>After reading the entire assignment, test your memory by asking yourself the questions that you've identified. Review your notes for an overview the chapter. Consider how it fits with what you know from the course, experience, and other classes. What is the material's significance? What are the implications or applications of this material? What questions are you left with? </li></ul>next back content
  116. 116. Activity 21 Direction: Read the following and answer the questions using the SQ3R strategy. WILMA’S HAPPY PLACE Wilma Ming manages Wilma’s Happy Place restaurant. She has noticed that some senior citizens have become not just regular patrons but patrons who come for breakfast and stay on until 3:00 p.m. Many of these old costumers were attracted initially by a monthly breakfast special for people aged 55 and older. They sit for hours with a cup of coffee, chatting with friends. On most days, as many as 100 will stay from one to five hours. Name:___________________________________ __________________ Date:_________________________ Year/Section:_______________________________________________ Score:________________________ next back content
  117. 117. About a year ago, as a “goodwill” gesture, Wilma brought in a team from the Red Cross to check her regular costumers’ blood pressure free of charge. Wilma’s employees have been very friendly to the seniors. In fact, Wilma’s restaurant is a “happy place.” Wilma says,” I really care about these people.” They are all “friends”, and being friendly with the costumers is a part of Wilma’s Happy Place corporate philosophy. These older costumers are an orderly group and very friendly to anyone who comes in. Further, they are neater than most costumers and carefully clean up their tables before they leave. Nevertheless, Wilma is beginning to consider if anything should be done about her growing “nonfast-food” clientele. There’s no crowding problem yet during the time when the seniors like to come. But if the size of the senior citizens’ group continues to grow, crowding could become a problem. next back content
  118. 118. Further, Wilma is concerned that her restaurant might come to be known as “old peoples’ restaurant” which might discourage some younger costumers. And if the costumers feel the restaurant is crowded, some might think that they wouldn’t get fast service. On the other hand, a place seems busy might be seen as “a good place to go” and a “friendly place.” Wilma also worries about the image she’s projecting. Wilma’s Happy Place is a “fast-food restaurant,” and normally costumers are expected to “eat and run”. Will encouraging—or not discouraging people to stay and visit change the whole concept? In the extreme, Wilma’s Happy Place might become more very comfortable lingering over coffee for an hour or two! Wilma knows that the amount her senior costumers spend is slightly higher than the average costumer’s purchase but the seniors do use the facilities for a much longer time. However, most of the older costumers leave Wilma’s Happy Place by 3:00 o’cloc before the “after school” crowd comes in. --Adapted next back content
  119. 119. <ul><li>Improving critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Studying the language used by the author </li></ul><ul><li>Did you find the use of examples, direct discourse, and the comparison and contrast helpful in making the text readable and appealing? </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>2. Did you find the level of difficulty of the language used appropriate? Did you find it necessary to consult the dictionary for the meaning of certain words? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  120. 120. Reacting to the content and message 1. What do you think prompted Wilma to devise a special offer for senior citizens? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Aside from being friendly with the costumers, what are the other implied elements of Wilma’s Happy Place corporate philosophy? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  121. 121. 3. Why is Wilma worried about the image she is projecting? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the author’s purpose? What devices were used to achieve his purpose? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ next back content
  122. 122. Chapter test 2 Name:_____________________________________________________ Date:___________________________ Year/Section:______________________________________________ Score:__________________________ <ul><li>Direction: Define the following in your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>skimming </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>scanning </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>previewing </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>predicting </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  123. 123. II. Encircle the following words in the puzzle. Skim Scan Preview Review Summarize Predict Survey Over viewing Reading Questioning Recite Visualize Strategies Connect next back content
  124. 124. next back content C A G N I N O I T S E U Q I S E I G E T A R T S E R M T C E N N O C M C M F E N O J R E M A F M I G N Z M E T I C E R C C D N E I E Z I R A M M U S E I I L E M N O J R A K I R D V A Y E V R U S I F R P A E U J E E C A M W E I V E R S E S A R H P A R A P R P I G N I W E I V R E V O R V
  125. 125. <ul><li>What strategy do you like most? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>next back content
  126. 126. REFERENCES BOOKS Bernabez, Edisteo B. Developmental Reading I. Intramuros, Manila: Mindshapers Co., Inc., 2007 Dadufalza, Concepcion D. Reading into Writing I, English for academic purposes. Makati City, Philippines: Bookmark, Inc., 1992 Kock, Carl; Luzares, Casilda; Rotor, Nilda; and Carreon, Edwina. Communication skills for college students. Mandaluyong City: national books Romero, Angelita D. and Rene C. Developmental Reading. A skill text for college student. Manila, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, 1985 Senatin, Ruby B. and Centenera, Fe G. Essentials of English, English (101). Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore, 2005 next back content
  127. 127. URL 20,2009 20, 2009 29,2009 29, 2009;_ylt=A0oGkznnJD9LLx0AJJRXNyoA?p=making+a+connection+%28reading+strategy%29&fr2=sb-top&fr=yfp-t-701&sao=1.december 30, 2009 30,2009 30,2009 30,2009, 2009 next back content
  128. 128. IMAGE 01-Image http:/ sortingall/pages/scissors.htm next back content
  129. 129. About the Authors Micah Ela A. Monsalve is the youngest daughter of Mr. Narciso U. Monsalve and Mrs. Leonila A. Monsalve. She was born on August 30, 1989 at Brgy. Banadero Polillo, Quezon. She had finished her basic education at Polillo Adventist Institute in 2002 and her secondary education in the same school in 2006. She finished her tertiary level in 2012 at Laguna State Polytechnic University with the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in English. next back content
  130. 130. April M. Layba is the eldest daughter of Mr. Marlon R. Layba and Mrs. Elizabeth M. Layba. She was born on April10, 1990 at Binangonan, Rizal. She had finished her basic education at Cornelio Celis Dalena Elementary School in 2002 and her Secondary Education in Balian National High School in 2006. She finished her tertiary level in 2012 at Laguna State Polytechnic University with the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in English. next back content
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