Dynamic Ecosystem


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Dynamic Ecosystem

  1. 1. DYNAMIC<br />ECOSYSTEM<br />
  2. 2. The Abiotic and Biotic Components of the Environment<br />An ecosystem is a system formed by the interaction of living organisms with one another and with their environment.<br />Abiotic components are the non-living components in the ecosystem such as air, water, soil, temperature and light intensity.<br />Biotic components are the living components in the ecosystem such as plants and animals.<br />
  3. 3. Abiotic Components of an Ecosystem<br />
  4. 4. Abiotic Components of an Ecosystem<br />Abiotic components in an ecosystem include the physical factors such as the pH level, temperature, light intensity, humidity, topography, microclimate and the edaphic factor which refers to the physical or chemical composition of the soil.<br />
  5. 5. pH<br />Most organism live in natural and nearly neutral environmental (pH6 – pH7.5)<br />Some plants, like maize, grows well in an acidic condition while coconuts grow well in alkaline condition.<br />
  6. 6. Temperature <br />Effect on biochemical reaction in the organism<br />Organism can live within certain range of temperature<br />Poikilotherms- are animal that cannot control their body temperature.<br />Homoiotherms- are animal that able to maintain their body temperature.<br />
  7. 7. Light Intensity<br />Effect the rate of photosynthesis<br />The distribution of green plants will be more extensive in the area with higher light intensity<br />
  8. 8. Humidity<br />Organism that can control the rate of water loss have and extensive distribution<br />Organism such as frogs, snails, earthworm and moss cannot controlthe rate of water lossand more suited to live in damp places<br />
  9. 9. Topography<br />Altitude- There are less ogrganism at high altitude because of temperature, humidity and air pressure are low.<br />Gradient/Slope- <br />
  10. 10. Microclimate<br />Microclimate refers to the climate of specific region in an habitat<br />Microclimate includes light intensity, amount of rainfall, temperature changes and humidity of amicrohabitat<br />
  11. 11. Biotic Components of an Ecosystem<br />
  12. 12. Biotic Components of an Ecosystem<br />The biotic components are classified into three groups:<br /> a) producers<br /> b) consumers<br /> c) decomposers<br />Consumers are organisms that feed on plants or other organisms.<br /> (a) Primary consumers are herbivores that feed on plants directly.<br /> (b) Secondary condsumers are carnivores that feed on primary consumers directily<br /> (c ) Tertiary consumers are carnivores or omnivores that feed on secondary consumer<br />
  13. 13. Decomposers are the bacteria and fungi that break down dead plants and dead animals into simple substances.<br />A feeding relationship exists between the biotic components to form a food chain<br />Through the food chain, organisms obtain energy.<br />Each level in a food chain is referred to as trophic level<br />
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  17. 17. In an ecosystem, several food chains interact to form a network called a food web. <br />In a food chain, energy is transferred from one trophic level to another trophic level.<br />When energy is transferred from one trophic level to another trophic level as much as 90% of the chemical energy in the food consumed is used for its metabolic activities and lost as heat, excretory products and undigested matter.<br />only 10% of the energy in an organism is passed on to organism at the next trophic level.<br />
  18. 18.                                                                                             <br />Pond and Lake Life<br />Still water, in general much warmer than rivers and streams, can support many different kinds of plant and animal life. The silty bed of ponds and the shallower parts of lakes support rooted plants and burrowing larva, food for free-swimming animals such as fish and frogs. In deeper zones, where oxygen is less abundant, only animals adapted to the cold environment exist. Plankton develop at all levels.<br />© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.<br />Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.<br />
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  20. 20. The Pyramid of Energy<br />
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  22. 22. The Pyramid of Biomass<br />
  23. 23. The Pyramid of Numbers<br />
  24. 24. Interaction between Biotic Components in Relation to Feeding<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Interaction between Biotic Components in Relation to Feeding<br />Symbiosis is an interaction between two organisms of different species that live together.<br />Symbiosis is further classified into three types:<br /> (a) Commensalism<br /> (b) Parasitism<br /> (c) Mutualism<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. COMMENSALISM<br />
  29. 29. Commensalism<br />Commensalism is an interaction between two different organism where only one organism benefits from the relationship. The other organism neither benefits nor is harmed.<br />The organism that benefits is called the<br />commensal while the other organism<br /> is called the host.<br />Examples of commensal are epiphytes<br /> and epizoites.<br />Epiphytes are green plants which grow on other plants to obtain more sunlight and for support<br />Examples of epiphytes are:<br /> (a) pigeon orchid<br /> (b) staghorn fern<br /> (c) birds nest fern<br /> (e) money plant<br />
  30. 30. MUTUALISM<br />
  31. 31. Mutualism<br />Relationship between two species of organisms which both benefit<br />Example of mutualism <br />Lichen and algae<br />Sea anemone and clown fish<br />
  32. 32.                                                                                            <br />Clown Fish in Sea Anemone<br />Clown fish have a mutualism relationship with sea anemones. The fish chases away the anemone’s would-be predators with its territorial behavior; and the anemone protects the fish with its stinging cells. The fish is protected from the cells’ poison by a thick mucous coat it secretes.<br />
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  34. 34. PARASITISM<br />
  35. 35. Parasitism<br />Relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefit (parasite) and the other (the host) is harmed<br />Ectoparasite are parasite that live on the surface of host body. Eg: ticks and fleas<br />Endoparasite refer to internal parasites. Eg: tapeworm<br />
  36. 36. Sheep Tick<br />Ticks are members of the class Arachnida, which includes spiders, scorpions, daddy longlegs, and mites. All ticks are parasites, feeding on the blood of various species of birds, reptiles, and mammals, including human beings. Ticks use their mouthparts to anchor themselves to the skin, where they cut a small hole and suck the blood. A number of tick species transmit diseases infecting livestock, pets, and humans.<br />
  37. 37. Human Flea<br />Fleas are common bloodsucking parasites. Having no wings, a flea cannot fly, but its flat body slips through the strands of its host’s hair or fur quite easily on its powerful legs. Only about 3 mm (0.125 in) long, the human flea, Pulex irritans, can jump as far as 33 cm (13 in). This strength has been harnessed for flea “circuses,” in which fleas perform trained stunts such as pulling small wagons. Fleas can be quite dangerous, however, because they can carry disease from one host to the next.<br />
  38. 38. Tapeworm<br />Tapeworms are parasitic worms that infest the intestinal lining and other organs of vertebrates. Tapeworms, having no mouth or digestive tract, are able to absorb partially digested material through their body surface.<br />
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  40. 40. SAPROPHYTISM<br />
  41. 41. Saprophytism<br />Saprophytism is an interaction whereby an organism lives and feeds on decaying organic matter.<br />There are two types of organisms in this interaction and they are saprophytes and saprozoits.<br />Saprophytes refer to plants which obtain food from decayed organic matter. <br />Examples of saprophytes are the various types of fungi such as mushrooms, bread mould and bracket fungus .<br />Saprozotes are microscopic animals that feed on decayed organic matter.<br />Some examples are Paramecium sp. and Amoeba sp. which feed organic matter from dead organisms.<br />
  42. 42. PREY AND PREDATOR<br />
  43. 43. Prey-predator interaction<br />This is an interaction between two population of organisms t which one organism, called the predator, hunts, captures a kills the other organism, called the prey, for food.<br />The predator benefits because it obtains food.<br />This interaction is a natural method to regulate the population size of the prey.<br />The size of the prey is usually smaller than the predator but number of prey is always more than the predator.<br />
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  45. 45. The Interaction Between Biotic Components in Relation To Competition<br />
  46. 46. Interaction Between Biotic Components in Relation to Competition -<br />Competition is the interaction between two organisms or two populations to obtain the common basic needs of life that are limited.<br />In a competition, organisms which are strong will obtain their çommon basic needs to survive and hence win in the competition. The organisms which are weak will migrate to other areas or die.<br />There are two types of competition:<br /> (a) intraspecific competition<br /> (b) interspecific competition<br />
  47. 47. Interspesific competition<br />(a)<br />(b)<br />P. aurelia<br />P. aurelia<br />P. caudatum<br />P. caudatum<br />Day<br />day<br />
  48. 48. Colonisation and Succession in a Mangrove Swamp<br />Mangrove trees have adaptive characteristics to overcome the problems it faces in the environment.<br />A root system that spreads out widely to provide support for the mangrove trees in the soft muddy soil.<br />Breathing roots that protrude out of the soil and which are called pneumatophores. In waterlogged soil, which lacks oxygen the pneumatophores enable gaseous exchange to occur at the roots.<br />The leaves of mangrove trees have thick cuticle and sunkenstomata to reduce transpiration in a hot environment due t, the strong sunlight. The leaves are also thick and succulent A store water.<br />Many mangrove trees have viviparity seeds<br />
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  50. 50. Avicennia sp. and Sonneratja sp. Zojie<br />The Avicennia sp. grows in the Part of the mangrove swamp that faces the sea while Sonneratia sp. grows at the mouth of the river which is sheltered.<br />The adaptations of the pioneer species to the soft muddy soil and waterlogged area are as follows:<br /> (a) A root system that spreads out Widely to give support to the trees in the soft muddy soil<br /> (b) The Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp have asparagus-shaped pneumatophores that grow vertically upwards from the main roots through the mud into the air. The pneumatophores are very spongy and take in air for respiration of the root system.<br />
  51. 51. Rhizophora sp. zone<br />This zone is higher and less waterlogged<br />The adaptations of Rhizophora sp. for this zone are as follows:<br /> (a) The Rhizophora sp. has prop roots to support and anchor the tree in the soft muddy soil. <br /> (b) The Rhizophora sp. has viviparity seed to ensure that the seedlings can grow and are not carried out by the seawater.<br />
  52. 52. Bruguiera Sp. zone<br />Trees of Bruguiera sp. grow well in hard clay soil that subjects to flooding during high tide.<br />Trees of Bruguiera sp. have buttress roots for support and knee- shaped pneumatophores for gaseous exchange<br />more sedimentation of decayed substances occur, new mud banks are being built up seawards while the old banks move further inland, away from the sea. The soil becomes harder and dry land is formed.<br />Bruguiera sp. are replaced by other types of plants such as coconut trees, palm trees and Pandanus sp. These are later replaced by other land plants.<br />Finally, after a few hundred years, the process of succession stops<br />and a tropical rain forest, which is the climax community, is formed.<br />
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  54. 54. Sampling Technique<br />A sampling technique is used to study the population size of an organism.<br />A sampling technique involves collecting, counting, and making observations on the organism studied.<br />
  55. 55. POPULATION ECOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Ekologi populasi ialah kajian tentang pengukuran faktor2 yg mempengaruhi saiz populasi sesuatu spesis
  56. 56. Populasi biasanya diukur berdasarkan kepadatan sesuatu kawasan yang didiami.
  57. 57. Kepadatan ditakrifkan sebagai bilangan indivivu per unit luas
  58. 58. Faktor yang mempengaruhi kepadatan ialah </li></ul>Faktor biosis<br />Faktor abiotik <br />Kadar kelahiran <br />Kadar kematian <br />Imigrasi dan emigrasi<br />
  59. 59. PersampelanTeknik persampelan kuadrat<br />Kaudrat adalah rangka segiempat yang dibuat daripada kayu,lilitan tali atau logam<br />
  60. 60. Kaedah persampelan kuadrat<br />Persampelan sistematik - jarak antara satu kuadrat dengan kuadrat yang lain adalah seragam<br />Persampelan rawak – kuadrat dibaling secara rawak<br />
  61. 61. Peratus litupan<br />Kadar permukaan bumi yang diliputi oleh daun-daun sesuatu spesis yang tertentu<br />Jumlah luas litupan spesis itu <br />dalam semua kuadrat<br />X 100<br />Jumlah luas kuadrat<br />
  62. 62. Kekerapan spesis<br />Keberangkalian untuk mendapatkan individu sesuatu spesis dalam kuadrat yang dibalingkan ataupun diletakkan secara rawak.<br />Bilangan kuadrat yang <br />ada spesis A<br />X 100<br />Jumlah bilangan kuadrat yang <br />digunakan<br />
  63. 63. Ketumpatan spesies<br />Ditakrifkan sebagai bilangan individu per unit luas kawasan.<br />
  64. 64. KAEDAH TANGKAP-TANDA-LEPAS DAN TANGKAP SEMULA<br />Sesuai untuk menganggar populasi haiwan yang bebas bergerak<br />Kaedah<br />Tangkapan pertama mengandungi beberapa ekor haiwan yang dikaji <br />Haiwan tersebut ditanda dan dilepaskan semula<br />Selepas tiga hari tangkapan itu dibuat secara rawak di kawasan yang sama<br />Bilangan haiwan yang bertanda dan tidak bertanda dikira.<br />
  65. 65. Bil. Organisma x Bil. organisma<br />Populasi dlm tangkapan dlm tangkapan<br />Organisma = pertama kedua <br />(Anggaran) Bil. Organisma yang bertanda <br /> dalam tangkapan kedua<br />
  66. 66. Langkah berjaga-jaga<br />Pastikan dakwat yang digunakan tidak larut air<br />Pastikan dakwat tersebut tidak beracun<br />
  67. 67. Andaian <br />Organisma telah bergaul secara rawak dalam masa persampelan kedua<br />Tiada emigrasi dan imigrasi<br />
  68. 68. Seorang murid ingin menganggarkan populasi dalam sebuah kebun. Dia menangkap 60 ekor siput dan menandakan siput itu sebelum dilepaskan. Selepas tiga hari dia menangkap 45 ekor siput dan mendapati 6 ekor adalah bertanda. Apakah angggaran populasi siput dalam kebun itu.<br />JWP: 450<br />
  70. 70. NEED FOR CLASSIFICATON<br />1.5 million species of living organisms have been described, and it is estimated more than three million remain to be discovered.<br />The need for classification is to bring order out of chaos.<br />
  71. 71. Classification of organisms<br />Organisms with same basic features are grouped together into a kingdom<br />Kingdom is the largest unit of classification<br />All organisms are grouped into five kingdoms<br />
  72. 72. Kingdoms<br />Prokaryotae <br />Protista<br />Fungi <br />Plantae<br />Animalia <br />
  73. 73. Prokaryote<br />Absences of a nucleus membrane <br />Salmonella sp.<br />Cyanobacteria<br />
  74. 74. Protista<br />Most protists are unicellular<br />Protists have nucleus membrane<br />Some of them have simple structures<br />Dinoflagellate<br />Paramecium sp.<br />
  75. 75. Fungi<br />Consists mushrooms, molds, fungus and truffles<br />Absence of chlorophylls <br />Reproduction by spores<br />Sulfur mushroom<br />Giant puffball<br />mucor<br />Agric mushroom<br />
  76. 76. Plantae<br />Multicellular organisms<br />Most plants have chlorophyll<br />Picther plant<br />fern<br />
  77. 77. Animalia<br />Multicellular animals<br />mobile<br />Ground squirrel<br />Robin<br />Penguins<br />Snail<br />Fishes<br />
  79. 79. Taxonomic Hierarchy<br />The kingdom is split into smaller units called Phyla (singular : Phylum).<br /> Phyla are split into Classes, classes into Order, order into Families, families into Genera (singular : Genus)<br />Genera are split into the smallest units called Species<br />
  80. 80. Taxonomic <br />group<br />Plant example<br />Animal example<br />Kingdom<br />Plant<br />Animal<br />Animal<br />Phylum<br />Tracheophyta<br />Annelida<br />Chordate<br />Class<br />Angiospermae<br />Oligocheata<br />Mammalia<br />Ranales<br />Terricolae<br />Primates<br />Order<br />Family<br />Ranunculaceae<br />Lumbricidae<br />hominidae<br />Genus<br />Ranunculus<br />Lumbricus<br />Homo <br />Species<br />acris<br />terrestris<br />sapiens<br />earthworm<br />human<br />Common<br />name<br />Meadow buttercup<br />
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  82. 82. The Importance of Biodiversity<br />Hence, biodiversity is important:<br /> (a) to maintain the balance in nature<br /> (b) to enable all organisms to survive as they are interdependent<br /> (c) to provide an important pool of plant and animal resources that are of potential use to mankind. For example, wild plants and herbs are being discovered as sources of new drugs and medicine<br /> (d) as the rich heritage of flora and fauna attracts tourists and so contributes to the economy of the country.<br />
  83. 83. The Impact of microorganisms<br />On Life<br />
  84. 84. Types of Microorganisms<br />Protozoa<br />aquatic unicellular animal<br />can be seen under a microscope at low power<br />has nucleus, cytoplasm and is surrounded by a plasma membrane<br />takes in food (feeding), removes excretory products and reproduces<br />reproduces sexually and asexaully<br />lives freely in the river, pond, fresh water, soil or on another organism. Some live as parasites<br />heterotrophs<br />examples: Amoeba sp., Paramecium sp., Plasmodium sp. (parasite)<br />kingdom; Protista<br />
  85. 85. Fungi<br />unicellular plant (yeast) or multicellular plant (mushroom and Mucor sp<br />can be seen under a microscope at low power or with a magnifying glass<br />a plants Without chlorophyI<br />Reproduces by budding (yeast) and formation of spores (mushroom and Mucor sp.)<br />lives as saprophytes and parasites<br />heterotrophs<br />examples: Yeast, Mucor sp. (bread mould), mushroom<br />Kingdom: Fungi<br />
  86. 86. Algae<br />exists as unicellular, in a colony and in filaments (multicellular)<br />lives in the sea, pond, river, paddy field, tree stem, damp soil<br />the most simple green plants<br />contains chlorophyll<br />autotrophs<br />carries out aerobic respiration<br />reproduces asexualIy and sexually<br />examples: Phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas sp.)pleurococcus sp. Spirogyra sp.<br />Kingdom: Protista<br />
  87. 87. Bacteria<br />unicellular microorganism<br />can be seen under a microscope at high power<br />has a cell wall<br />genetic material scattered in the cytoplasm because there is no nuclear membran<br />reproduces asexualy by binary fision<br />forms spores when conditions are not suitable<br />able<br />examples: Lactobacillus sp., StaphyIococcus sp.<br />Kingdom: Monera<br />
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  89. 89. Virus<br />microscopic microorganism<br />can only be seen under an electron microscope<br />consists of nucleic acid that is ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)<br />has a layer of protein for protection<br />has no cytoplasm, nucleus or plasma membrane<br />Exits as crystals outside host cells, no signs of life<br />can only reproduce when in living cells of hosts<br />exists in various forms<br />all are parasites<br />examples: Bacteriophage, tobacco mosaic virus influenza virus<br />Kingdom: Viruses cannot be placed in any kingdom because they have their own characteristics, without showing any characteristics of living things<br />
  90. 90. Method to control pathogens<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Appreciating Biodiversity<br />We should appreciate and take good care of the biodiversity that exists on Earth for the following reasons:<br /> (a) Biodiversity is a natural resource that is most importance to the economy of a country.<br /> (i) Plants and animals from various types of species provide a large variety of food source and uses to humans.<br /> (ii) Certain species of plants and animals have medicinal values to humans.<br /> (iii) Various insects and animals are pollinating agents that are<br /> needed to increase the yield of agriculture products.<br />
  93. 93. THANK YOU<br />