From the present looking back


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A History of Philippine NGOs
-Karina Constantino-David-

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From the present looking back

  1. 1. A History of Philippine NGOs -Karina Constantino-David-
  2. 2. <ul><li>NGO- used as a catchhall phrase for all entities that do not nearly fall into traditionally accepted categories in the society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUALS- Academics, religious leaders, and various professionals whose works intersects with the civil society issues but who participate outside an organizational structure are generally considered by government and media as NGO spokesperson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMBERSHIP-BASED ORGS- voluntary membership of free people to form an org.that is outside the state. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ideological and organizational frameworks define not only alternative visions, but also differing response to issues. A significant number of Pos and institutions are directly or indirectly influenced by these ideological forces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Communism, national democracy, popular democracy, democratic socialism, social democracy and liberal democracy. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Development, justice and advocacy NGOs (DJANGOs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly called as Development NGOs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs a mixture of direct and support service function with and for GUAPOs (genuine, autonomous people’s organization.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary form of intervention is community and sectoral organizing, developments in recent years have spawned organizations that provide support services (legal, medical, research, atc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. CODE-NGO, MINCODE, VISNET, WAND, NPC... </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Traditional NGOs (TANGOs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charitable, welfare, and relief organization, TANGOs perform valuable services for the poor. While they intersect with the Pos and DJANGOs their primary focus remains on marginalized individuals and families. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Funding agency NGOs (FUNDANGOs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These foundations and grant-giving are linked to grassroots organizations primarily through providing financial and other forms of support. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Mutant NGOs (MUNGOs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensions of the state (because they are GRINGOs government-run NGOs) or personal interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BONGOs, business organized NGOs. Refer to those that are created primarily as tax dodges, vehicles for quelling labor unrest, or means to project a benevolent company image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COME N’GOs, NGO entrepreneurs, relate to fly-by-night organizations that package proposals and promptly disappear with the funds and/or work the funding game by hiring themesleves out to large donor organizations. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>1960’s- proto-NGOs existed from the period of Spanish colonization through, cooperatives, local reactions to colonialism, and the trade union movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1900’s-American Colonial Government introduced a few welfare agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>After the devastation of WWII the need for relief, welfare, and reconstruction activities. Religious and civic organizations pionered in these efforts. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Against communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuit-based Institute of Social Order (ISO)- 1947 tried to counter the communist inspired peasant and labor movements through the Federation of Free Farmers (FFF), the Federation of Free workers (FFW). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Dependency theory ad perspectives of “another development” challenged traditional modernization paradigms. </li></ul><ul><li>KP revived because of the rise of student activism (the new Communist party of the Philippines). </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim South, Moro nationalism, engendered by years of neglect and discrimination, was also on the rise. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Structural determinants of poverty were no longer ignored. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community organizing (CO) challenged community development (CD). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine Ecumenical Committee for Community Organization (PECCO) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone One Tondo Organization (ZOTO) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of the urban poor as a vital structure. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>The student movements sprung. There was a revival of interest in cooperatives especially in Visayas and Mindanao. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Organizations, ideological perspectives were also gaining ground. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Secretariat for Social Action, Justice, and Peace (NASSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Actions Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Christian Community (BBC) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The Marcos state, besieged by besieged by all these developments, declared martial law in September 1972. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>PECCO expanded its rural and urban organizing efforts, enriching its initial Saul Alinsky framework with snatches of Paulo Freire, liberation theology, Marxism and structural analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Although ideological differences soon led to the split of PECCO in 1977, various groups continued to develop community organizong into what is today. </li></ul><ul><li>Martial Law period gave birth to new issues and concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on human rights violations (Task Force Detainees of the Phil. TFDP) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Dramatic reversal of the anti-communist role of the church in 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>1960s and 1970s- term NGO is already being used in international circles. </li></ul><ul><li>Community based. </li></ul><ul><li>Student movement hibernation was revived again when sever typhoons and floods unfolded. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-martial law days, relief work, the demolition of squatter shanties, and growing labor unrest paved the way for the exposure programs that provided the human resource base for the growing NGO community. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Ideological division continues </li></ul><ul><li>New arenas of struggle opened. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordillera people’s struggle against the Chico Dam Project, Muslim-Christian Dialogues, indigenous people’s right, environmental activism, the women’s movement, consumer protection, cultural work, children’s concerns, and even participation in the 1978 Batasan elections made for a vibrant NGO community despite disunty. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The need for networking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Council of Welfare Agencies and Foundations of the Philippines, Inc. (CWAFPI) was the forerunner of National Council of Social Development Foundations (NCSD). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PBSP, 1970s, was a network of business corporations as well as a network of those NGOs it supported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of Foundations (AF), traditional business and family foundations among its members, was also established during the early 1970s. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>As the Marcos regime became more and more isolated on the international front and civil society started to flex its muscles, greater international support flowed into the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The dictatorship responded with various forms of repressions-threats, raids, arrests, salvaging- but the growth in the NGO community could no longer be aborted. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Death of Ninoy Aquino galvanized a nationwide protest movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The participation of the middle class. </li></ul><ul><li>The “parliament of the streets” forced erstwhile enemies to coalesce. </li></ul><ul><li>During this period the ideological forces could be broadly categorized into the national democrats, social democrats, liberal democrats, and independent democrats. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>The temper of the times provided fertile ground for mobilization, but it also short-circuited the process of organizing. </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of “cause-oriented” organizations. – all anti-Marcos organizations collide. </li></ul><ul><li>The Justice for Aquino, Justice for All (JAJA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadest aggrupation, and it included all ideological forces as well as the traditional political parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-lived... </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>The spirit of volunteerism is in the air... </li></ul><ul><li>Massive cheating and election-related violence led to civil disobedience campaign that merged with the RAM-Ramos-Enrile attempted coup to bring about EDSA revolt, the pupolar uprising of February 1986 on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue that toppled the Marcos dictatorship. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Aquino government veered sharply to the right, unable to effect crucial reforms, especially in the areas of agrarian reforms and foreign debt. </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs proliferated , including many MUNGOs, largely because of an avalanche of foreign support as well as the decision of government to link up with the NGOs in the implementation of projects and programs. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>NGOs and Pos now seriously faced the challenges of coalition building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council for people’s Development (CPD), Partnership of the Philippine Support Service Agencies (PhilSSA), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines-Canada Human Resource Development Program (PCHRD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ten national NGO networks, covering the entire spectrum, cautiously worked on confidence-building measures, exorcising the ghosts of the past, learning to build a unity based on a recognition of differences and consciously developing personal bonds of friendship. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Although some of the coalitions eventually dissolved, a significant number continue to expand. </li></ul><ul><li>The national networks will continue to service their respective members, based on their original mandates. </li></ul>