Middle East Weather Can you think what type of weather you can experience in the Middle East? If you were to live in the Middle East, where in the Middle East would you want to live? Why?
Geography of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia means “the land between the rivers.” Mesopotamia is a geographic name for the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys where the 1st civilization was formed 5,000 years ago The area is known to have fertile soil that was great for farming.
Geography of Mesopotamia Continued Ancient peoples were able to farm in Mesopotamia because the soil was very fertile and water was plentiful. People were able to formed small farming communities in the area. As time went by, these small farming communities grew to large cities
Geography of Mesopotamia Continued As these cities grew the people were able to assign different tasks to others. This lead to people creating a specialized jobs within their communities. As time pass by the communities were able to create a common culture (art, religion, language, etc…)
Geography of Mesopotamia Continued Over time the cities went to war with each other and they were able to formed an empire. The first Mesopotamian empire is called Sumer. “Fertile Crescent” and the “Cradle of Civilization” are two different names for Mesopotamia.
The 10 Characteristics of Civilization In order for a group of people to be called a “civilizations” they first must have 10 characteristics. Every civilization, in the history of mankind, have these characteristics. A civilization, must have all 10 characteristics. The 10 Characteristics of Civilization are…..
#1. Urban Communities The people must live together in communities. This does not mean that everybody must live in a community (people like farmers, do not live in cities, towns, or villages) but there must be some part of the population living in some kind of community.
#2 Religion The society must have beliefs that try to answer “unanswerable” questions (such as, “why am I here?,” “what will happen to me after I die?,” etc…).
#3 Literacy The society must have the ability to read and write.
#4 Government The society must have a set of rules, have leaders, or a way to organized their society.
#5 Specialization The society must have specialization (or having people with a specific set of skills) that benefits all.
#6 Tool-Making The society must be able to make tools, that will benefit all, and be able to problem solve.
#7 Social Classes The society must be divided into different groups with common characteristics.
#8 Concept of Time A society must understand patterns like seasons, sunrise and sunsets, high and low tides, etc… which can be used to benefit the society.
#9 Leisure The society recognizes the value of arts, games, and other forms of entertainment.
# 10 Education/Criticism There must be a need to improve the individual or society.
The Fertile Crescent
The Cradle of Civilization Mesopotamia is also known as “The Cradle of Civilization.” Many of the everyday things we associate with civilization was first created/formed in Mesopotamia. The first civilization, known as Summer, was located in Mesopotamia (or the Fertile Crescent).
The Major Ancient Mesopotamian Empires Sumer Babylon Assyria Persia
Achievements That Were Created/Invented inMesopotamia Cuneiform, (first written language) Religion: Polytheism, Ziggurats The Code of Hammurabi: 1st written law code Math/Science: multiplication/division, 360 degree circle, astronomy/calendar The wheel