Beliefs of Islam

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Beliefs of Islam

  1. 1. The Beliefs of Islam The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs Sunni and Shi’a Islam Tawhid The One God A Belief in Angels The Books of Allah Rusul Akhira Predestination © Karen Devine 2008
  2. 2. The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs <ul><li>Muhammad’s death meant a successor had to be found to keep Islam alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Successors to Muhammad were called caliphs and were leaders of the Muslim world. </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr was elected as Muhammad’s successor, followed by Umar , thirdly Uthman and lastly was Muhammad’s cousin Ali. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, the Umayya family claimed succession instead of Ali and their armies met in battle. Ali was assassinated. </li></ul><ul><li>After Ali’s death the caliphate passed to Mu’awiya who founded the Ummayad Sunni dynasty of caliphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’a Muslims consider Ali to be the first Imam of Islam. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sunni and Shi’a Muslims <ul><li>Islam is essentially divided into 2 key groups: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Sunni </li></ul><ul><li>b) Shi’a </li></ul><ul><li>The reason for the division dates back to the question of succession to the caliphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni’s see that no one could succeed Muhammad and the Qur’an is the final form of God’s revelation. Therefore, the Caliph was a guardian of the faith. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sunni Muslims <ul><li>Sunni’s believe the first Caliphs were chosen via consensus because they had led an outstanding Muslim life. They were the best qualified Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni’s developed Shari’a Law which is based on the application of the Qur’an. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Shi’a Muslims <ul><li>The Shi’a’s are followers of Ali and they believe it is the caliph’s role to continue Muhammad’s revelation. </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’a’s see that all caliphs should be blood relatives of Muhammad. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, even though there is a difference between Sunni’s and Shi’a’s, Islam is essentially a faith with a united belief system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tawhid <ul><li>The first article of faith of Islam is that Allah is the one God ( Tawhid ). </li></ul><ul><li>This belief is uttered daily in the Shahada “there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.” </li></ul><ul><li>The first duty of a Muslim is to declare faith in Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>The worshipping of idols is forbidden. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe the only sin not to be forgiven by God is polytheism. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The One God <ul><li>Allah: </li></ul><ul><li>is unchanging </li></ul><ul><li>will pass sentence at judgement day </li></ul><ul><li>is eternal </li></ul><ul><li>has 99 beautiful names </li></ul><ul><li>is omnipotent </li></ul><ul><li>declared that worshipping idols is banned </li></ul><ul><li>has a oneness that is a unifying force </li></ul><ul><li>is compassionate </li></ul><ul><li>is merciful </li></ul><ul><li>is given a historical location at Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>was not created </li></ul><ul><li>is supreme </li></ul><ul><li>is the sustainer of the universe </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Belief in Angels <ul><li>Belief in angels is central to Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>In Islam there is a belief that the Qur’an was dictated to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel. </li></ul><ul><li>Angels are said to be created from light and are obedient spirits to God. </li></ul><ul><li>There are said to be 4 great angels: Jibrael,Mika’il, Israfil and Izra’il. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims also believe that each person has 2 guardian angels who record their good and bad deeds. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Books of Allah <ul><li>The Qur’an is a focal point of the Islamic faith. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims see that it is the word of God revealed to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel over a 22 year period. </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an contains: </li></ul><ul><li>teachings </li></ul><ul><li>stories of prophets </li></ul><ul><li>consequences of good and bad behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Details of the afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>114 chapters or suras. </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an is recited and chanted during prayers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rusul <ul><li>The Qur’an states that God revealed himself to 25 prophets who became God’s messengers. </li></ul><ul><li>6 of these prophets received special revelations. They are: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. </li></ul><ul><li>If the prophets deliver a holy book they are known as Rusul. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad is the last great prophet who brought Allah’s revelation to the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, Muslims see that the Hebrew and Christian scriptures are also holy books. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Akhira <ul><li>Muslims believe in an afterlife. Life on earth is preparation for it. </li></ul><ul><li>On the day of reckoning: </li></ul><ul><li>Izrail will sound the trumpet </li></ul><ul><li>All people will be raised from the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>The books of the recording angels will be opened. </li></ul><ul><li>Allah will weigh up all person’s good and evil deeds </li></ul><ul><li>The good will go to heaven and the evil will go to hell. </li></ul><ul><li>In Islam, God is described as compassionate and merciful, not vengeful. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims see that only those who believe in the revelation of the prophet will go to heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Death begins a person’s eternal life. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Predestination <ul><li>Muslims believe that nothing happens unless it is the will of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic scholars identify the mystery of faith as: </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are predestined to enter heaven or hell (divine control) yet, </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are also responsible for the choices they make. </li></ul><ul><li>With free will comes accountability to Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>If we choose evil, Allah will impose an appropriate punishment. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Question Time <ul><li>In what ways is Islam different in its belief structure to Judaism and Christianity? </li></ul>

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