Basic Radiation Safety


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Basic Radiation Safety

  1. 1. Basic Radiation Safety Office of Environmental Health and Safety
  2. 2. 5425 Woodward Ste 300 Detroit, MI 48202 Office: 313.577.1200 Fax:313.993.4079
  3. 3. What is OEHS? The Office of Environmental Health and Safety serves to protect the health and safety of the students, faculty and staff of Wayne State University. The Office operates as the University’s extension of the regulatory agencies that monitor use of hazardous materials and ensures that a safe and compliant workplace is maintained. Please call our office any time you have a question or concern about the acquisition, use, storage or disposal of any hazardous substance at the University.
  4. 4. Health Physics / Radiation Safety The Health Physics staff are specialists in radiological health and safety, and are ready to provide assistance so you may work safely with radioactive material. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about radioactive materials on campus. Lance Franklin Radiation Safety Officer 577-1200 [email_address] Wendy Barrows Health Physics Specialist 577-0019 Michael Huberts Health Physics Specialist 577-9505 [email_address] Ryan Boyd Health Physics Assistant 577-9518 [email_address]
  5. 5. Hazardous Waste <ul><li>Hazardous Materials Staff are specialists in the treatment, management, and disposal </li></ul><ul><li>of hazardous wastes. They are available to provide guidance and services to the </li></ul><ul><li>university regarding any waste produced on campus. Please fell free to contact them </li></ul><ul><li>with questions or comments regarding all types of waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Lance Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation Safety Officer 577-1200 [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Pociask </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Materials Manager 577-0019 </li></ul><ul><li>Nawana Peete </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Materials Specialist 577-9505 [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Harper </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Materials Technician 577-9518 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission – Type A Broad Scope Radioactive Materials license. Allows researchers to use a wide range of radioisotopes , but requires strict compliance with Federal Laws. NRC regulates reactor produced radioactive materials ie P-32, H-3, C-14, etc Michigan Department of Community Health – Radiation Generating Machine license. Allows researchers to use x-ray producing machines. State of Michigan regulates machines ie XRD, EM, Diagnotsic X-Ray, etc Regulatory Control and Responsibility Governmental
  7. 7. Regulatory Control and Responsibility <ul><li>Radiation Safety Committee – Group of university faculty and staff providing oversight to OEHS and research community. Review all protocols involving ionizing radiation to ensure safety and regulatory compliance </li></ul><ul><li>OEHS Radiation Safety Staff – Act on behalf RSC to safety and compliance issues are being properly addressed in university research labs. Will happily assist with problems or answer questions concerning work with ionizing radiation </li></ul>University
  8. 8. Regulatory Control and Responsibility Laboratory <ul><li>Who is responsible: </li></ul><ul><li>for safe practices in the lab? </li></ul><ul><li>for the radioactive material in your lab? </li></ul><ul><li>for providing lab specific training? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is ultimately responsible for compliance? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for reporting unsafe conditions when seen? </li></ul>The Approval Holder / PI ! You are!
  9. 9. Radiation Worker Rights View the university’s licenses, inspection reports, and copies of the regulations You may contact the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission without fear of retaliation by your Approval Holder or anyone at Wayne State University. Receive adequate training and have • • questions answered satisfactorily •
  10. 10. Worker Training Basic Radiation Safety Training must be taken annually First time - in class Annually - online Radiation Generating Machine Training – Online Special Training by request Lab-specific training is provided by your PI • • •
  11. 11. Basic Radiation Safety Part 1 Radiation Theory
  12. 12. What is Radiation? <ul><li>The transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles </li></ul>Ionizing Non-ionizing
  13. 13. The Importance of Energy Ionizing radiation has enough energy to remove electrons from atoms E (hv) > E B Non-ionizing radiation may only excite electrons into excited states E (hv) < E B
  14. 14. Sources of Radiation X-Ray - Electron transition from one level to a lower level, or from slowing of a moving electron (bremsstrahlung) Gamma - Radioactive decay emission originating from the nucleus. Alpha – Helium nucleus from decay from massive atom Beta – particle emitted during n p or p n decay Neutron – neutral particle emitted during fission
  15. 15. Gamma and X-ray Radiation Tissue <ul><li>Very penetrating – no charge </li></ul><ul><li>dense material for shielding (Lead) </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the energy, the thicker the shielding </li></ul><ul><li>125 I (35KeV) – thin lead plating </li></ul><ul><li>51 Cr (320KeV) – thick lead bricks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Alpha Particle Radiation (a) Tissue <ul><li>Doubly charged (2 protons, 2 Neutrons) </li></ul><ul><li>Very Massive </li></ul><ul><li>No additional shielding is required </li></ul><ul><li>241 Am is used in smoke detectors </li></ul>Alphas are internally highly toxic
  17. 17. Beta Particle Radiation (  Tissue <ul><li>Electron or Positron emitted from atomic nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic betas require Plexiglas shielding (E > 500 KeV) </li></ul><ul><li>32 P (1.7 MeV) max beta range in tissue = 7.6 mm </li></ul><ul><li>3 H (10 KeV) max beta range in tissue = 6 um </li></ul>Lead shielding causes Bremsstrahlung x-ray production
  18. 18. Neutron (n) <ul><li>Emitted in fission reactions </li></ul><ul><li>No EM interactions, so neutrons are very penetrating </li></ul><ul><li>Causes activation </li></ul><ul><li>Requires hydrogenous materials to shield </li></ul>Tissue
  19. 19. Radioactive Decay <ul><li>Transition from one atom to another, due to nuclear imbalance (p/n ratio) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass energy released as ionizing radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of decay is unique to isotope, given by decay constant λ </li></ul>Radioisotopes are chemically indistinguishable from stable isotopes of the same element.
  20. 20. Half-Life <ul><li>The time required for a radioisotope to decay to one-half of its original amount. </li></ul><ul><li>P-32 14.3 Days </li></ul><ul><li>I-125 60 Days </li></ul><ul><li>S-35 87.4 Days </li></ul><ul><li>H-3 12.4 Years </li></ul><ul><li>C-14 5730 Years </li></ul>A(t)=A o e – λ t ½ = e – λ t 1/2 ln(2)/ λ = t ½ After n half-lives A = A o 2- n Half –Life Calculation Example: You order 200 uCi of I-125 in January. In June of the same year you decide that you want to use the material. Will you have enough to use? T 1/2 = 60 days t = 6 months ~ 180 days = 3 T 1/2 A = A o 2 -n = A = 200 * 2 -3 = 25 uCi A = Ao *1/2 *1/2 *1/2 = 25 uCi Or λ = ln(2)/ T 1/2 A = Ao e – λ t = 25 uCi
  21. 21. Units of Activity Historical unit defined as the activity of 1 gram of Radium-226. Still used today due to more convenient values Bequerel (Bq) Curie (Ci) SI unit defined as 1 disintegration per second (dps). More useful unit, but very unwieldy values. Designated as official unit . 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq (dps) i.e. 250 microCuries (uCi) = 925 MegaBequerels (MBq)
  22. 22. Units of Exposure Roentgen (R) - The amount of ionization produced in a volume of air by gamma or x-rays Corresponds air at standard temperature and pressure (273K and 760 mm Hg). The usefulness of the Roentgen in the practice of radiation safety is limited, because it is only defined for x-rays and gamma radiation in air.
  23. 23. Units of Dose and Dose Equivalent SI: Gray (Gy) = J/kg rad = 100 erg/g SI: Sievert (Sv) rem Dose (D) is a measure of the absorbed energy per unit mass of material 1 Gy = 100 rad Dose Equivalent (H) is the product of the absorbed dose and the biological efficacy in tissue 1 Sv = 100 rem
  24. 24. Quality Factor / W R <ul><li>Different types of radiation interact with matter uniquely, causing varying amounts of biological damage to tissue or having different radiobiological effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Beta, gamma, x-ray: Q=1 </li></ul><ul><li>Neutron: Q=10 </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha: Q=20 </li></ul><ul><li>The product of this Quality Factor of the given type of radiation and the dose absorbed results in the dose equivalent . </li></ul>H = D x Q i.e. 1 Gy dose delivered with neutron radiation; what is dose equivalent? D x Q = 1 Gy x 10 = H = 10 Sv = 1000 rem
  25. 25. Acute High-Dose Effects <ul><li>Hemopoietic Syndrome (80-200 Rads) – Reversible blood cell damage </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal Syndrome (100-400 Rads) – Irreversible damage to Villi. Death in Weeks in 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System Syndrome (>500 Rads) – Coma and death in hours </li></ul>It is nearly impossible for you to receive these acute doses at Wayne State
  26. 26. Chronic Low-Level Exposure <ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>• No evidence of risk below 10 Rem lifetime exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Risk increases 1% for a worker with 10 Rem lifetime exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts </li></ul><ul><li>• Exposure exceeding the limit (15 Rem) increases risk </li></ul><ul><li>Risk to embryo / fetus </li></ul><ul><li>• May be more sensitive to radiation. Women may notify Health Physics for hazard evaluation </li></ul>
  27. 27. Background Radiation Background in Michigan is 360 mRem/year
  28. 28. Basic Radiation Safety Part 2 Radiation Protection
  29. 29. A s L ow A s R easonably A chievable <ul><li>Making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical </li></ul>A L A R A • Time • Distance • Shielding • Contamination Control
  30. 30. Protective Measures Time <ul><li>The less time spent in the vicinity of radioactive materials, the less dose you will receive. Thus, keep your exposure time as short as possible . </li></ul><ul><li>Dose = Dose rate x Time </li></ul>i.e. A worker performing an experiment in a 300 mrem/hour gamma radiation field completes the work in 20 minutes. What is the dose received by the worker? 300 mrem/hr x 0.33 hr = 100 mrem
  31. 31. Protective Measures Distance Intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance – inverse square law I  1/d 2 I 2 = I 1 x (d 1 /d 2 ) 2 i.e. A worker is 1 meter from a 200 mrem point source. What is the dose at 2 m? 3m? I 1 x (d 1 /d 2 ) 2 = 200 x (1/2) 2 = I 2 = 50 mrem 200 x (1/3) 2 = I 2 = 22.2 mrem I 2 *d 2 2 = I 1 *d 1 2
  32. 32. Protective Measures Shielding Alpha – no shielding Beta – none or Plexiglas, No Pb X, Gamma – Lead, thick or thin Neutron – Concrete, parafin
  33. 33. Protective Measures Contamination Control <ul><li>Good housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Proper labeling </li></ul><ul><li>Proper ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Proper protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Change gloves and wash your hands </li></ul>Protective equipment, like lab coats, gloves and goggles, provide a contamination barrier between you and the radioactive material
  34. 34. Occupational worker limits <ul><li>Whole body: Neck to waist 5 Rem/ yr . </li></ul><ul><li>Skin: Radiation resistant 50 Rem/yr. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes: Cataract susceptible 15 Rem/yr. </li></ul><ul><li>Organs: Selective uptake 50 Rem/yr. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremities: No Organs 50 Rem/yr. </li></ul>The NRC utilizes the Linear, No-Threshold Theory, which assumes all exposure to radiation above natural background will have some detrimental health effect . Risk for radiation workers is equivalent to risk associated with any other hazardous material worker
  35. 35. Pregnant Workers Declared Decision is up to woman May be temporarily assigned non-radiation duties until end of gestation May un-declare her pregnancy at any time Limits: Employer may not limit occupational exposure below worker • • • Undeclared 500 mRem over gestation <50 mRem per month • •
  36. 36. Personal Dosimeters TLD <ul><li>Are not used for </li></ul><ul><li>Shielding protection </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring outside of work </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing among workers </li></ul><ul><li>Are used for </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring dose </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring one person </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring occupational exposure </li></ul>Dosimetry records (Form 5) are available for review at the Office of Environmental Health and Safety.
  37. 37. Dosimetry for users of beta emitting isotopes <ul><li>High energy emitters (energies > 0.5 MeV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremity (ring) badge for persons handling less than 10 mCi per container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body and extremity (ring) badges for persons handling 10 mCi or more per container </li></ul></ul>Examples: 32 P, 36 Cl, 90 Sr
  38. 38. Dosimetry for users of beta emitting isotopes <ul><li>Low energy emitters (energies < 0.5 MeV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No dosimeter required </li></ul></ul>Examples: 35 S, 14 C, 3 H
  39. 39. Dosimetry for users of gamma emitting isotopes <ul><li>Low energy emitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body badge for persons handling more than 100uCi per container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No dosimeter for persons handling less than 100uCi per container </li></ul></ul>Example: 125 I
  40. 40. Dosimetry for users of gamma emitting isotopes <ul><li>High energy emitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body and ring badges required </li></ul></ul>Examples: 111 In, 51 Cr, 22 Na
  41. 41. Proper use of Dosimeters <ul><li>Must be worn at all times when working with or near radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Store away from radiation sources such as heat, light, or radioisotopes </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take home </li></ul><ul><li>Wear badge between the collar and waist outside clothes, lab coat, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear ring on assigned hand inside glove facing the palm </li></ul><ul><li>Return TLD’s in timely manner. Your lab will be restricted if your badges are not returned </li></ul>
  42. 42. Internal Hazards <ul><li>Sources of inhalation hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Protein labeling techniques ( 125 I, and 35 S) </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of aerosols </li></ul><ul><li>Heating of reagents </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of gases </li></ul><ul><li>Sources absorption or injection hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts in skin – double glove if a cut is present </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed through skin or mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Injection with syringe or other delivery device </li></ul>Use fume hood Be cautious with sharps
  43. 43. Ingestion WSU Food Policy <ul><li>No consumption in areas where hazardous materials are used, stored or disposed </li></ul><ul><li>No food storage or disposal </li></ul><ul><li>No cosmetics ie lotion </li></ul><ul><li>No mouth pipetting </li></ul>Floor to ceiling enclosures must separate food areas from hazardous materials areas
  44. 44. Bioassays <ul><li>Bioassays are required when using: </li></ul><ul><li>100 mCi or more of 3 H </li></ul><ul><li>1 mCi or more of free 125 I </li></ul><ul><li>10 mCi or more of 32 P </li></ul><ul><li>10 mCi or more of 35 S </li></ul>Because many radioisotopes are only internal radiation hazards, external dosimetry is not an effective method for monitoring occupational exposure. For this reason, you may be asked to provide a urine sample for bioassay. Individuals working with unbound 125 I, must come between six and seventy-two hours after each radioiodonation for a thyroid bioassay. • •
  45. 45. Basic Radiation Safety Part 3 Radiation Detection Equipment
  46. 46. Radiation Detection <ul><li>Two common instruments for radiation detection </li></ul>You cannot detect ionizing radiation • Survey Meters • Liquid Scintillation Counters
  47. 47. Survey Meters Ludlum Model 3 Geiger Counter with pancake and LEG probes Required in most labs ( 32 P 125 I) Detects contamination quickly Indicates the effectiveness of shielding Must be calibrated annually Geiger-Mueller (GM) Crystal Scintillation (LEG) Ion Chamber (QT Pie) • • • • Not for 3 H or 35 S
  48. 48. Pancake and End Window Probes Ion chamber - Volume of gas with biased electrodes. Radiation creates ion which induces “current” to show up as an event Survey Meters
  49. 49. Gamma and X ray Survey Probes (LEG) Low energy gamma 1x1 gamma probe Low energy gamma (LEG) scintillation detectors - Sodium iodide (NaI) crystal encased in a metal cylinder, mounted on a photomultiplier tube. These are more sensitive and will have a higher background than other probes Recommended for detection of 125 I. http:// Survey Meters
  50. 50. Ion Chamber Survey Meter <ul><li>Measuring radiation fields </li></ul><ul><li>Measures exposure in mR/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Not sensitive enough for detecting contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few areas on campus where they are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Highly used in Nuclear Medicine </li></ul>Survey Meters
  51. 51. Using a Meter: BCBS <ul><li>Check </li></ul><ul><li>B atteries C alibration B ackground S ource </li></ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul>Survey Meters
  52. 52. Reading Your Meter <ul><li>Use proper scale ie 0.1x, 1x, 10x </li></ul><ul><li>Read only in CPM not mR/hr </li></ul>Meters are calibrated by Health Physics staff annually. If your meter is out of date call us at 577-1200 Survey Meters
  53. 53. Other Settings <ul><li>Aud On/Off – toggle the audible counting </li></ul><ul><li>The audible counting should be left “On” </li></ul><ul><li>F/S – Fast or Slow Response </li></ul><ul><li>Should be left to “F” until contamination is found, when it </li></ul><ul><li>should be switched to “S” for more accurate determination of the amount of contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Reset – push after each </li></ul>scale setting change Survey Meters
  54. 54. Performing a Survey <ul><li>Follow BCBS being sure to test background away from any possible contamination or sources. ie the hallway </li></ul><ul><li>Use the correct probe for the given isotope </li></ul><ul><li>Remove cap or cover </li></ul><ul><li>Begin survey on lowest scale (0.1x) </li></ul><ul><li>Move probe slowly (20 cm/s) and close to the surface (1-2 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately decontaminate any contaminated surfaces </li></ul>Survey Meters
  55. 55. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) <ul><li>Large and heavy equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Wipe test required </li></ul><ul><li>Very sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of low energy beta from 3 H, 14 C, 35 S, 33 P and 45 Ca as well as higher energy beta </li></ul><ul><li>Can count large numbers of samples </li></ul>
  56. 56. Radiation Safety Video <ul><li>Will contribute questions on Exam </li></ul>
  57. 57. Basic Radiation Safety Part 4 Laboratory Application
  58. 58. Performing a Wipe Test Wipe Test – Wipe surface with filter paper, fold wipe-side in, and insert into scintillation vial. Add ~10mL of scintillation cocktail and count the sample in the LSC. Record all results including nil results
  59. 59. Contamination Surveys <ul><li>For P-32, I-125, Cr-51 use a survey meter or LSC </li></ul><ul><li>For H-3, C-14, S-35 use an LSC </li></ul>A survey is an evaluation of dose potential in a work area based on all aspects of radiation use, not just monitoring for radiation contamination Surveying = Monitoring
  60. 60. <ul><li>Surveyor must follow a room drawing </li></ul><ul><li>All benches, hoods, sinks, freezers, etc must be identified </li></ul>Contamination Surveys A blank copy of this form is available as Appendix M in the Radiation Safety Manual and Lab Guide
  61. 61. Use Log and After-Use Surveys <ul><li>Must perform wipe test on vial upon receipt </li></ul><ul><li>Must record each use of material </li></ul><ul><li>Must perform survey of work area when completed </li></ul><ul><li>Must record all results – including those when no contamination is found </li></ul><ul><li>Must record results in DPM or CPM with Efficiency </li></ul>H-3 0906B 09/02/06 500 09/08/06 Thymidine 09/02/06 J. Schmoe 500 22 09/04/06 J. Schmoe 250 250 21 30 22 28 H F1 fl 09/04/06 J. Schmoe 250 0 26 20 39 40 H F1 fl A blank copy of this form is available as Appendix O in the Radiation Safety Manual and Lab Guide
  62. 62. Survey Record If a lab has radioactive material, a monthly survey must be completed in at least the storage location Any survey location must be accompanied by a survey of the adjacent floor See form instructions 10/10/06 Science 123 Dr Franklin Schmoe, Joe Grad Asst X 500 uCi 2 mCi IIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIII H-3 P-32 Ludlum 3 / 123 Science Beckman 8600 / 123 Science 25 44 52 106 107 115 12 99 249 100 B1 fl F2 H B1 fl F2 H H-3 contamination in Hood – cleaned, repeat survey performed 56 H Re-wipe Joe Schmoe 44 115 fl fl 55 110 fl fl A blank copy of this form is available as Appendix N in the Radiation Safety Manual and Lab Guide
  63. 63. Calculation of Activity CPM - BKG NRC requires surveys to be written in units of DPM or uCi. CPM is a function of instrument efficiency Instrument efficiency DPM DPM = uCi = 2.22 x 10 6 DPM/uCi CPM CPM CPM CPM
  64. 64. Contamination <ul><li>If a survey results in found contamination follow the procedure for a minor spill </li></ul><ul><li>If the contamination is found to have spread throughout or outside of the lab, or on any persons or their clothing follow the procedure for a major spill </li></ul><ul><li>If unsure contact OEHS / RSO immediately for assistance 577-1200 </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination results must be recorded </li></ul>
  65. 65. Minor Incident <ul><li>Notify the PI and persons in the area that an incident has occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain the spill. Cover with absorbent paper or dike with absorbent. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate the area to prevent unnecessary spread and personnel exposures. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey in order to evaluate the presence of contamination on an individual's skin and clothing and on lab equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>If skin or clothing contamination is present, a major spill has occurred. Contact the OEHS immediately. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Using disposable gloves, carefully fold up the absorbent paper and pad and deposit in an appropriate radioactive waste container. If necessary wipe up the spill inward toward the center, not out. </li></ul><ul><li>Survey the area of the spill to determine the extent. </li></ul><ul><li>Decontaminate the spill using decontaminant detergent (available from Science Stores), and resurvey. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue previous step until the area is decontaminated completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Document spill in radiation survey log book. </li></ul>Minor Incident
  67. 67. Major Incident <ul><li>Notify all persons in the area that a major spill or incident has occurred and evacuate unnecessary personnel. Notify the principal investigator. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, prevent the spread of the radioactive material by using absorbent paper. Do not attempt to clean it up. Confine all potentially contaminated individuals in order to prevent the further spread of contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, shield the source, but only if it can be done without significantly increasing your radiation exposure. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Major Incident <ul><li>Leave the affected room and lock the doors in order to prevent entry. Attempt to prevent further contamination or spreading to unrestricted areas. (Hallways, non-radiation laboratories, etc., are unrestricted areas.) </li></ul><ul><li>Contact the Radiation Safety Officer if the spill occurs during normal work hours. Call the Department of Public Safety, (57)7-2222, after normal working hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all contaminated clothing and wait for instructions concerning cleanup from the Radiation Safety Officer. </li></ul><ul><li>If skin contamination has occurred, measure levels of contamination with a survey meter, record, and begin decontamination by gentle washing with warm water and soap, washing downwards towards extremities, not upwards. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Emergency Procedures <ul><li>Fire or Explosion – Evacuate immediately, pull fire alarm, and call 577-2222 and inform the dispatcher of the hazardous materials involved </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Emergency – Call for medical assistance immediately, providing all hazardous material information to dispatcher. Provide any appropriate assistance to the victim without regard to radioactive contamination . </li></ul>Radioactive material has been released, and one or more of the following has occurred: No University lab possesses enough radioactive material to cause immediate harm to a first responder
  70. 70. Radiation Lab Postings Warning Placard with radiation sticker – outside lab NRC-3 Form – visible in lab Radioactive materials sticker – on all storage, use and waste areas and containers ie Refrigerators, freezers, cabinets, sinks, benches, hoods, centrifuges, etc. • • Three postings must be clearly visible in or at the entrance to your lab If you cannot locate any of these call OEHS immediately for a replacement at 577-1200 * •
  71. 71. Changing RAM Location Use/Storage <ul><li>Labs may not post or de-post any labs, or storage locations. </li></ul><ul><li>If you need to begin using another storage location ie a freezer, you must contact Health Physics </li></ul><ul><li>If you are no longer using a storage unit you must contact Health Physics to remove the radioactive materials posting. </li></ul><ul><li>If you wish to begin use or storage in an unposted lab, you must contact Health Physics to obtain RSC approval for the use of the new space and posting for radioactive materials use. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Labeling and Identifying <ul><li>Stock solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Samples (tray, rack, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary waste containers </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated items </li></ul>Any radioactive material or waste must be labeled as such and identified. ie radionuclide, lot number, assay date etc. If there is radiation above background in or on something, it must be labeled or decontaminated. It is not acceptable to label items known to be free of contamination with a radioactive warning
  73. 73. Moving Radioactive Material <ul><li>All radioactive orders, transfers, or shipments must be pre-approved by OEHS </li></ul><ul><li>Ordered material is delivered to OEHS, where the box and pig are surveyed and will be delivered to your lab by the health physics staff. </li></ul><ul><li>You are responsible </li></ul><ul><li>for surveying the inner </li></ul><ul><li>vial for contamination </li></ul>
  74. 74. All radioactive material must be secured from tampering or removal by unauthorized persons. Material Security Lock the lab door in your absence Loss of material must be reported to the RSO immediately • •
  75. 75. Radioactive Waste <ul><li>Radioactive waste is defined as any type of radioactive material that is no longer useful or needed. </li></ul><ul><li>To disposed of decayed waste, we must store it for 10 half-lives, so minimize volume </li></ul><ul><li>Material that is not contaminated with radioactive material should be disposed of as conventional waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive waste must be completely labeled at all times , from the time it is deposited into a container until final disposal. Records of radioactive waste disposal must be maintained by the University for NRC review, so this labeling or “manifesting” is critical. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Radioactive Waste Tag <ul><li>Required Information </li></ul><ul><li>Principal investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Department </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory location </li></ul><ul><li>Phone number </li></ul><ul><li>Radionuclide and activity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical form </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical constituents </li></ul><ul><li>Signature </li></ul>
  77. 77. Radioactive Waste Pick-up <ul><li>• Do not fill more than ¾ full </li></ul><ul><li>• Ensure completion of required manifests </li></ul><ul><li>• You must wipe test the outside of the waste container </li></ul><ul><li>• Go to under Hazardous Materials to request waste pick-up and new containers or tags </li></ul>
  78. 78. Mixed Waste <ul><li>Both radioactive and chemically hazardous. This includes scintillation vial waste that contains flammable cocktail or liquids that contain more than 15% of a hazardous chemical waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have a green Hazardous Waste Disposal Tag in addition to the yellow Radioactive Waste Tag, and the proper name of the waste chemical (no chemical formulas, please) must appear on the green tag as soon as the first drop of waste is placed in the container. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Radioactive Waste Do’s <ul><li>Fill out waste tags immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Record isotope, activity and initials each time waste is added </li></ul><ul><li>One isotope per waste container </li></ul><ul><li>Separate solids and liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Use secondary containment for liquid waste </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure proper seal on all containers </li></ul><ul><li>Deactivate potential pathogens with bleach </li></ul><ul><li>Wipe containers for contamination before pick up </li></ul>
  80. 80. Radioactive waste Don’ts Do NOT mix potentially dangerous chemicals Do NOT discard sharps into regular waste Do NOT dispose of liquid waste into solid waste boxes Do NOT dump liquid waste down the drains Do NOT overfill waste containers (>¾) Do NOT mix incompatible chemicals Do NOT mix isotopes Do NOT remove radioactive waste without OEHS approval • • • • • • • •
  81. 81. Basic Radiation Safety Exam Monday 1:00 <ul><li>Have the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PI and Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bring a Calculator </li></ul><ul><li>50 Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True/False </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Answer </li></ul></ul>