The developing adult chapters 14 21

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The developing adult chapters 14 21

  1. 1. The Developing Adult Early – Late Adulthood Sourced from: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock Chapter 11: Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging
  2. 2. 11-2 Emerging Adulthood Emerging Adulthood = term for the transition from adolescence to adulthood (18 to 25 years of age) that is characterized by experimentation and exploration McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 11-3 Who Is an Adult?  Determining just when an individual becomes an adult is difficult  Some markers include: – marriage – full-time job – economic independence – self-responsibility McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Adjustment Strategies for Emerging Adulthood 11-4 1. Experiment and explore responsibility 2. Develop intellectual assets 3. Create psychological assets 4. Establish social assets McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 11-5 Lifespan and Life Expectancy  Lifespan - maximum number of years any member of the species has been documented to live – Our lifespan is about 120 years  Life expectancy - number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year – The life expectancy of individuals born today in the United States is 77 years (80 for women, 73 for men) McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 11-6 Adult Periods of Development  Early adulthood - begins in late teens/early 20s and lasts through the 30s  Early adulthood is a time of: – establishing personal and economic independence – developing a career – selecting a mate – learning to live with someone in an intimate way – starting a family – rearing children McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 11-7 Adult Periods of Development  Middle adulthood - period from 40 years of age to about 60  Middle adulthood is time of: – expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility – assisting next generation in becoming competent, mature individuals – reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 11-8 Adult Periods of Development  Late adulthood - period that begins in the 60s and lasts until death  Late adulthood is the time of: – adjusting to retirement – decreasing strength and health – new social roles – reviewing one’s life McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD: Early Adulthood 11-9  Most adults reach their peak physical development and are healthiest during their 20s  Young adults rarely recognize that bad eating habits, heavy drinking, and smoking in early adulthood can impair their health as they age McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD: Middle Adulthood 11-10  Physical changes in middle adulthood include changes in appearance – Individuals begin to lose height in middle age, and many gain weight  People become more concerned about their health in their 40s  For women, menopause occurs in late 40s or early 50s McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD: Late Adulthood 11-11  The fastest-growing segment of the population today is 85 years old and older McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Physical Changes and Health in Late Adulthood 11-12  Changes in physical appearance become more pronounced in older adults  Chronic diseases (arthritis, hypertension) become more common in late adulthood  Exercise slows the aging process and helps older adults function in society  A sense of control is important for health and survival McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 11-13 The Brain in Late Adulthood  Adults can grow new brain cells throughout their lives  Even in late adulthood, the brain has remarkable repair capability McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 11-14 Dementias & Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia = global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms involve deterioration of mental functioning  20% of individuals over 80 years of age have dementia – More than 70 types of dementia have been identified Alzheimer’s disease = progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, eventually, physical functioning  More than 50% of dementias involve Alzheimer’s disease  The deterioration of the brain is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 11-15 Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  Jean Piaget (1952) - in each stage of cognitive development, people think in a qualitatively different way  Piaget believed that the formal operational stage (ages 11 to 15) is the highest stage of thinking  Adults gain knowledge, but ways of thinking are the same as those of adolescents McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 11-16 Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  Some researchers disagree with Piaget and believe that thinking in early adulthood becomes more realistic and pragmatic  Post-formal thought - thought that is – reflective, relativistic, and contextual – provisional – realistic – open to emotions and subjective McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 11-17 Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood  John L. Horn argues that some intellectual abilities decline in middle age, but others increase – Crystallized intelligence (individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills) increases in middle adulthood – Fluid intelligence (one’s ability to reason abstractly) begins to decline in middle adulthood  K. Warner Schaie (1996) found that two intellectual abilities (numerical ability and perceptual speed) declined in middle age and four intellectual abilities (vocabulary, verbal memory, inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation) improved after early adulthood McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 11-18 Figure 11.8 Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities From Age 25 to Age 67 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood 11-19  During early adulthood, individuals enter Erikson's intimacy versus isolation stage (developmental task of forming intimate relationships with others or becoming socially isolated) McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. 11-20 Erikson's Eight Life-Span Stages McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Degree of Personal Life Investment at Different Points in Life McGraw-Hill 11-21 ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood 11-22  Generativity (the consciousness of being in the middle of one’s life) and questions about the meaning of life are themes of middle adulthood  Generativity versus stagnation - Erikson’s seventh stage, in which individuals leave a legacy of themselves to the next generation (generativity) or do nothing for the next generation (stagnation) McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. 11-23 Generativity  Middle-aged adults can develop generativity through: – biological generativity - giving birth to an infant – parental generativity - providing nurturance and guidance to children – work generativity - developing skills that are passed down to others – cultural generativity - creating or conserving an aspect of culture McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. 11-24 Midlife Crises  Levinson (1978) interviewed middle-aged men and identified four major conflicts: – being young versus being old – being destructive versus being constructive – being masculine versus being feminine – being attached to others versus being separated from them  Other research indicated only 10% of people experienced a midlife crisis McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood 11-25  Integrity versus despair - Erikson’s late adulthood stage in which individuals engage in a life review that is either positive (integrity) or negative (despair)  Life review - involves looking back on one’s life experiences and evaluating them  Older adults report experiencing more positive emotion and less negative emotion McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 11-26 Self-Regulation  As individuals get older, they face losses so they are likely to adjust best when they: – reduce performance in areas in which they are not competent (selectivity) – perform in areas in which they can still function effectively (optimization) – compensate in circumstances with high mental or physical demands (compensation) McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 11-27 Social Development of the Aged  Religion can provide important psychological needs in older adults: – help them face impending death – find and maintain sense of meaningfulness in life – accept inevitable losses of old age  Religion has been shown to be related to a sense of well-being and life satisfaction  The more active and involved older adults are, the more satisfied they are and the more likely they are to stay healthy McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. 11-28 Facing One’s Own Death  Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1969) - five stages of dying: – denial and isolation – anger – bargaining – depression – acceptance McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. 11-29 Adjustment Strategies for Communication With a Dying Person 1. Establish your presence 2. Eliminate distraction 3. Be sensitive to how long you should stay 4. Don’t insist the person feel acceptance of death 5. Encourage expression of feelings 6. Don’t be afraid to ask what the expected outcome for their illness is 7. Ask if there is anyone he or she would like to see 8. Encourage the dying person to reminisce 9. Talk when she or he wishes to 10. Express your regard for the dying person McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. 11-30 Grieving Grief = emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompanies loss of someone you love  For most individuals, grief becomes manageable over time  Many grieving spouses report that they have never gotten over their loss McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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