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Gender Mainstreaming Through Education
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Gender Mainstreaming Through Education



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  • 1. Gender Mainstreaming through Education REHMAT WALI KHAN Education Officer (Focal Person), SHRDC-Islamabad rehmatwalikhan@yahoo.com 00923442312524 00923335983705
  • 2. Curriculum Curriculum is a reflection of implicit and explicit knowledge that informs the development of textual materials, pedagogical processes and techniques of evaluation at different levels of education. It is a repository of ideology and policies formulated by the state and are subjected to changes taking place in the socio-economic and political scenario. It also weaves societal concerns that vary from country to country. Hence, it is not a static but a dynamic document. Societal concerns such as gender, environmental sensitivity, peace and conflict management strategies are also stated but they are prioritized differently by nations world over. Curriculum is totality of learning experiences provided to students so for their holistic development.
  • 3. • Curriculum is an applied branch of study that attempts to bring about change in text and context of school education. • It reflects the guiding philosophy that influences the content and process of education. • A National Curriculum sets out a clear, full entitlement to learning for al students. It determines the content of what will be taught and sets attainment targets for learning. It also determines how performance will be assessed and reported. • A National Curriculum framework must be both clear and flexible. It should define and defend the knowledge and cultural experience which is the right of every student, and at the same time be flexible enough to give teachers the possibility of building their teaching around it, in ways which promotes learning for their students.
  • 4. PARAMETERS FOR MAKING CURRICULUM GENDER SENSITIVE  Building a positive self-image and self-confidence;  Developing ability to think critically;  Building up group cohesion and fostering decision-making and action;  Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change;  Encouraging group action in order to bring about change in the society;  Providing the wherewithal for economic independence.
  • 5. Textual Materials from a Gender Lense Textbooks are the most popular teaching aid used in the teaching and learning process. They are storehouses of implicit knowledge centred on time, space and institution. Textbooks are also repository of values, beliefs and norms upheld by different nations of the world. Textbooks and teachers are together kernel of secondary agent of socialization that has a substantial influence on the overall personality development of children.
  • 6. Evaluation Tool from the Perspective of Gender Sensitivity A. IDENTIFICATION DATA 1. Title of the text book – 2. Class – 3. Subject – 4. Language – 5. Authors/writing team – No. of females No. of males 6. Editors – No. of females No. of males – 7. Month and Year of Publication –
  • 7. 8. Total no. of pages – 9. Total no. of lessons 10. Publisher’s Full Address – 11. Cover page/back page from the perspective of gender bias and stereotyping – a. Description of visuals (Masculinity/Feminity/Gender Neutral/Any other) b. Description of content 12. Inside of cover page/back page from the perspective of gender bias and stereotyping - a. Description of visuals b. Description of content 13. Any other information 14. Suggestions
  • 8. B. CONTENT AND VISUAL ANALYSIS 1. Lesson/chapter/unit – 2. Title/theme Total No. of Pages Content Visuals Comments Suggestions Exercises / Projects / Activities While analyzing the content and visuals, there is a need to look into the following parameters – (a) Content analysis should clearly reflect whether there is any form of gender bias, gender stereotyping or is it gender neutral or gender inclusive. I. Content allocation II. Adjectives used for boys and girls, men and women in the theme III. Diversity in men and women reflected in the text IV. Gender representation of occupations V. Roles assigned – boys/men/girls/women /both
  • 9. vi. Human values in relation to men/boys and women/girls vii. Reference to customary practices viii. Weight-age given to the contributions/achievements of boys/girls, men/women or both. ix. Are marginalized groups and their cultures and lifestyles represented? x. Are prejudices mentioned? xi. Does the narrative speak only of a particular caste and class? xii. How is power relations reflected? xiii. Who takes the decision in the area of food, education, all money matters, health, occupation and any other? xiv. Does the theme reflect diverse areas of contributions of women substantially or in a tokenistic manner?
  • 10. xv. How are women reflected in different domains of society in relation to – - Family - School - Workplace - Society xvi. Distribution of workload by gender in a framework of fairness. xvii.Who performs productive activities related to production of goods and services for income generation? xviii.Who performs activities related to collection of water, nursing, child care, fetching fuel wood and all activities related to household chores? xix. Who performs community activities – welfare related, organizing meetings, marriage, funeral, religious activities, neighbourhood meetings, any other? - Who takes the initiative in such activities – Men/Women/Both
  • 11. xx. Who are shown as agents of change : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. struggle dissent movements scientific attitude/temper scientific achievements (b) Visuals Representation of men and women Active Role – Passive RoleI. II. Depiction of men and women related to Roles – Occupations – Dress – Appearance – III. Positioning of men and women in visuals –
  • 12. IV. How have men and women, boys and girls portrayed in doing different activities? V. Who is active (the ‘protagonist’) in the visual? VI. Who is passive (the ‘receiver’) in the visual(s)? VII.Status of men and women reflected in the visual(s). VIII.What does the body language in visuals communicate? IX. What does the clothing communicate? C. TOTAL NUMBER OF CHARACTERS IN CONTENT AND VISUALS • Male • Female – • Both—(such as humans, they, them, people, us, you, we, he/she, etc.)
  • 13. D. EXERCISES/PROJECTS/ACTIVITIES Does the exercise explore issues related to gender, class, and caste? Do exercises attempt to question power relations? Do they help children to connect with their lived realities? Does it promote critical thinking and problem solving skills? Does it promote imagination and creativity among children? Does it encourage team spirit and cooperation among them?
  • 14. E. OVERALL EVALUATION OF THE TEXTBOOKS RELATED TO CONTENT AND VISUAL PORTRAYAL Perception of the book from the view point of –  Gender Bias  Gender Stereotyping  Gender Inclusive  Gender Neutral  Power Structure  Thematic consistency, coherence and contextualization  Reference to Technology and its use by men/women, boys/girls, both  Progression of the discipline and its positioning at various class levels (Thematic)
  • 15. Classroom and The Gender Question The destiny of a nation takes shape in the classrooms. The art of teaching has a deep imprint in crafting of personalities. Schooling and classroom processes helps in transacting learning to do, learning to be, learning to know and learning to live together.
  • 16. Classroom Processes Sl. No. Classroom Management 1. Sitting Arrangements 2. Teaching Learning Materials available 3. Bulleting Boards 4. Roles Assigned 5. Monitors 6. Assignment of Responsibility 7. Cleaning Classrooms, Blackboard, Bulleting Board, any other 8. Getting water, chalk, duster, copies, books, registers, any other 9. Leaders of different groups Academic groups such as – Debates and quiz, reading, writing, essay any other 10. Cultural Group 11. Any other activities 12. Participation in classrooms 13. Questioning 14. Answering 15. Providing Additional Information 16. Any Other Boys Girls Both
  • 17. Hidden Curriculum in Classrooms (for Teacher) Sl. No. Criteria Hidden Current 1. Eye Contact 2. Hand Gestures 3. Facial Expressions 4. Language used for communication •Pleasant •Derogatory •Harsh •Satisfactory •No comments 5. Posture •Sitting •Standing •Walking 6. Any Other Boys Girls Both
  • 18. Visible Human Values in Teaching and Learning Process Sl. No. Values 1. Sharing and carrying 2. Equality between saxes 3. Valuing each other’s contributions (men/women) 4. Dignity of labour 5. Tolerance 6. Bravery 7. Honesty 8. Patriotism 9. Non-violence 10. Any other Related to Content Specially imparted by mentioning role models and their contribution Through Activities Personal Any Examples other
  • 19. Details of Curriculum plus activities designed for boys and girls Sl. No. Criteria 1. Sewing 2. Knitting 3. Handicraft 4. Clay Modelling 5. Carpentry 6. Reading 7. Writing 8. Dancing 9. Debates 10. Vocal Music 11. Instrumental Music 12. Computers 13. Any Other Boys Girls Both
  • 20. Addressing behavioural issues concerning both gender Sl. No. Criteria 1. Counselling 2. Peer group interactions 3. Disciplinary measures 4. Discussing with parents 5. Punishments 6. Any other 7. None of the above Boys Girls Both
  • 21. Education • Is there a discrepancy in equal opportunity to education? • Is there a difference in access to education, higher, lower, urban, rural? • What is the education occupation segregation? Who does what? • Is the drop-out rate a gender issue? • What is the impact of the drop-out trends on gender relations in the future? • Is the enrollment rate at higher education differentiated? • Is there an impact on enrollment rates in higher education on gender relations in the future?
  • 22. • Studies have shown that the economic rate of return of investing in girls education is at least as high, and usually higher than the return on investing in boys education. • Social returns on girls education (improved health and education levels of children, lower population growth rates etc.)
  • 23. Thank YOU