Argument and persuasion

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Argument and persuasion

  1. 1. ARGUMENT ANDPERSUASIONHow can I convince my reader?
  2. 2. WHAT IS PERSUASIVE WRITING? Persuasive writing, also known as the argument essay, utilizes logic and reason to show that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action. The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting experts.
  3. 3. WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?In writing, an argument is a claim supported by reasons and evidence.A claim is a writer’s position on a problem or issue. Example: Crunchy Puffs are an important part of a nutritious breakfast.
  4. 4. WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?An argument or claim is an opinion rather than a fact. For Example: Crunchy Puffs is a breakfast cereal. (Fact that cannot be argued) Crunchy Puffs are an important part of a nutritious breakfast. (Opinion that can be argued)
  5. 5. PROVIDING REASONSThe strength of an argument depends not on the claim but on the reasons that are used to support the claim. Support is what persuades the reader to accept the writer’s claim.
  6. 6. FOR EXAMPLE CLAIM All students in the United States should learn a foreign language. Reason 2 Reason 3 Reason 1 Studying a Knowing otherStudents in other language helps languages is countries learn students excel in important in theforeign language. other subjects. business world.
  7. 7. EVIDENCE Each of your reasons need evidence to help prove your claim and support the reason(s). Statistics- Facts, numbers, and information can be very convincing. Expert opinions- Important people or experts can make your argument seem more convincing. Personal Observations (anecdote)- Personally observing evidence or situations that would support your argument. Charged language and striking images- Getting people to feel happy, sad, or angry can help your argument.
  8. 8. EVIDENCE Statistics- In a study of 20 countries, 17 countries required all students to learn at least one foreign language. Expert opinions- Dr. Seuss found that students who took foreign languages had higher grade point averages than those who didn’t. Personal Observations (anecdote)- Companies are often International; employees must be able to communicate with customers and with each other. Charged language and striking images- If students don’t learn a foreign language, they will increase America’s poverty rate. Do you want your children to struggle to put food on the table?
  9. 9. WHAT IS A COUNTER ARGUMENT?A counter-argument is an argument opposed to your claim, or part of your claim. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position.
  10. 10. WHY SHOULD I ADDRESS ACOUNTERARGUMENT? Why would you include a counter-argument in your essay? Doesn’t that weaken your argument? Actually, no. Done well, it makes the argument stronger.  This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your reader’s objections before they have finished reading. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the debate. Both of these make an essay more persuasive.
  11. 11. HOW SHOULD I ADDRESS THECOUNTER ARGUMENT? A counter-argument should be expressed thoroughly, fairly and objectively. Do not just write a quick sentence and then immediately rebut it. Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view. A few sentences or even a whole paragraph is not an unreasonable amount of space to give to the counter-argument. Again, the point is to show your reader that you have considered all sides of the question, and to make it easier to answer the counter-argument. It’s easier to respond to a point you have already spelled out—and it’s easier for your reader to follow you.
  12. 12. EXAMPLE OF ADDRESSING ACOUNTER ARGUMENTPeople should think carefully before buying unusualpets. (1) Some people would say that owning an exotic pet is a wonderful experience. (2) They might say that exotic pets make the owner stand out in a crowd. (3) They also might say that owning an exotic pet is a unique and rewarding experience. (4) However, these unique animals also come with unique challenges especially when they mature.
  13. 13. HOW DO I FORMAT A PERSUASIVE ESSAY? Introduction: Introduce your topic along with stating your claim Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3 Discuss the 1st reason Discuss the 2nd reason Discuss the 3rd reason you have that supports you have that supports you have that supportsyour claim- along with at your claim- along with at your claim- along with at least one piece of least one piece of least one piece of evidence. evidence. evidence. Paragraph addressing the counterargument. Conclusion: Restate your claim and remind your reader of your evidence. NO new information should be introduced!
  14. 14. CLOSING STATEMENTSIn five sentences or less, summarize the most important details about today’s notes.Turn to your shoulder partner and read your summary.Compare and contrast the information you both included in your summary.

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