Post Minimalism and Gender
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    Post Minimalism and Gender Post Minimalism and Gender Presentation Transcript

    • Post  Minimalism  and  Gender  Art  109A:    Art  since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
    • Post  Minimalism  and  Gender  As  Anna  Chave  and  others  have  argued,  Minimalism  was  in  many  ways  the  apotheosis  of  the  macho  ideal  of  the  arHst  “The  minimal  arHsts  of  the  sixHes  were  like  industrial  fronHersman  exploring  the  factories  and  the  steel  mills.  The  artwork  must  carry  the  stamp  of  work-­‐-­‐that  is  to  say,  mens  work,  the  only  possible  serious  work,  brought  back  sHll  glowing  from  the  foundries  and  mills  without  a  drop  of  irony  to  put  a  sag  in  its  erect  heroism.  And  this  mens  work  is  big,  foursquare,  no  nonsense,  a  priori.”   Richard  Serra,  Splashing,  Leo  Castelli  Warehouse,  New  York,  1968  Julia  Bryan-­‐Wilson,  “Hard  hats  and  Art  Strikes:  Robert  Morris  in  1970,”  Art  BulleHn  (June  2007)  h]p://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-­‐30961677_ITM  
    • Post  Minimalism  and  Gender  Significantly,  many  of  the  leading  pioneers  of  the  new  Post  minimalist  aestheHc  were  women   Eva  Hesse  in  her  studio  134  Bowery  Street  ,  New  York  1969   ©The  Eva  Hesse  Estate,  Courtesy  Galerie  Hauser  &  Wirth,  Zürich   ArHst  Lynda  Benglis  painHng  a  floor  w.  40  gallons  of  bright   latex  and  pigments  at  the  University  of  Rhode  Island,  1969   Henry  Groskinsky,  LIFE  Magazine  
    • Lynda  Benglis  In  1969-­‐70  Lynda  Benglis  began  working  with  poured  latex,  translaHng  the  drip  and  pour  methods  of  Jackson  Pollock,  Morris  Louis  and  Helen  Frankenthaler  into  sculpture   ArHst  Lynda  Benglis  painHng  a  floor  w.  40  gallons  of  bright   latex  and  pigments  at  the  University  of  Rhode  Island,  1969   Henry  Groskinsky,  LIFE  Magazine  
    • Lynda  Benglis  The  poured  pieces  used  industrial  materials  and  grand  gestural  methods  coded  as  “masculine”   ArHst  Lynda  Benglis  painHng  a  floor  w.  40  gallons  of  bright   latex  and  pigments  at  the  University  of  Rhode  Island,  1969   Henry  Groskinsky,  LIFE  Magazine  
    • Henry  Groskinsky,  LIFE  Magazine  
    • Lynda  Benglis  But  the  resulHng  pieces  are  candy-­‐colored  blobs  that  melt  and  ooze,  rather  than  assert  an  authoritarian  presence   Donald  Judd,  Un9tled,  1972   Tate   Lynda  Benglis,  Night  Sherbet  A,  1968  
    • Lynda  Benglis  The  sculptural  pieces  were  presented  without  pedestal  or  frame  -­‐-­‐  like  Minimalist  “specific  objects”   Lynda  Benglis,  Installa9on  at  Cheim  Read,  2004  
    • Lynda  Benglis  But  the  squishy  material  was  a  deliberate  deflaHon  of  the  Minimalist  “heavy  metal”  aestheHc  Carl  Andre,  Fall,  1968  Guggenheim   Lynda  Benglis,  For  Carl  Andre,  1970   Polyurethane  foam  
    • Lynda  Benglis  In  other  pieces  Benglis  deflated  the  macho  associaHons  of  lead  by  foregrounding  its  fluid  properHes   Lynda  Benglis,  Quartered  Meteor,  1969   Lead   Brooklyn  Museum  
    • Lynda  Benglis,  Eat  Meat,  1969/1975  Lead  
    • Lynda  Benglis  Like  Louise  Bourgeois,  Benglis  invited  explicitly  sexual  associaHons  in  her  work   Lynda  Benglis,  Come,  1974   Linda  Benglis  and  Louise  Bourgeois,     Bronze   Circa  70  at  Cheim  &  Read  Gallery,  2007  
    • Lynda  Benglis  While  sexual  self  expression  and  an  “ejaculatory”  approach  was  admired  in  men,  it  was  shocking  for  a  woman  to  assert  her  sexual  idenHty   Hans  Namuth,  Elaine  and  Willem  de  Kooning,  1953  
    • Lynda  Benglis   But  Benglis’  art  was  informed  by  an   emerging  Feminist  consciousness,  and   we  will  meet  her  again  as  a  leading   figure  in  the  Feminist  art  movement  Lynda  Benglis,  ArIorum  adverHsement  1974   Lynda  Benglis,  Smile,  1974   Bronze  
    • Eva  Hesse  Eva  Hesse  was  born  in  Germany  and  immigrated  to  the  Unites  States  in  1939  to  escape  Nazi  persecuHon   Eva  Hesse  circa  1959  (Photo  by  Stephen  Korbet)   Image  source:    h]p://www.gwarlingo.com/2011/sol-­‐lewi]s-­‐advice-­‐to-­‐eva-­‐hesse/  
    • Eva  Hesse  She  studied  at  Cooper  Union  and  at  the  Yale  School  of  Art,  and  aoer  a  brief  life  marked  by  tragedy  she  died  of  a  brain  tumor  at  the  age  of  34.   Josef  Albers  and  Eva  Hesse  at  Yale,  c.  1958  
    • Eva  Hesse  Coming  of  age  when  the  Feminist  movement  was  gepng  underway,  Hesse’s  work  has  ooen  been  interpreted  as  a  Feminist  criHque  of  Minimalism  “Using  materials  then  new  to  sculpture,  like  latex  and  fiberglass,  she  made  work  that  hung,  draped,  dangled,  looped,  drooped,  slumped,  webbed,  protruded  breast-­‐  and  penislike,  imitated  skin,  suggested  bodily  orifices,  spilled  or  just  lay  on  the  floor.”  Grace  Glueck,  “Bringing  the  Soul  into  Minimalism:    Eva  Hesse,”  Time  Magazine  May  2006   Eva  Hesse  holding  Ingeminate,  1965.   SFMOMA  
    • Eva  Hesse  While  Hesse  conHnued  to  work  abstractly,  and  conHnued  to  employ  many  of  the  strategies  used  by  Minimalist  sculptors,  her  work  “humanized”  Minimalism  by  reintroducing  bodily  associaHons,  and  allowing  for  qualiHes  of  fragility  and  vulnerability  absent  from  the  Minimalist  “heavy  metal”  aestheHc.   Eva  Hesse’s  studio   Image  source:    h]p://nogoodforme.filmsHlls.org/blog/archives/2008/03/18/style_icon_eva.html  
    • Eva  Hesse  Rejected  cool  impersonality  of  Minimalism  “Humanized”  Minimalism  by  reintroducing  bodily  associaHons,  and  allowing  for  qualiHes  of  fragility  and  vulnerability  absent  from  the  Minimalist  “heavy  metal”  aestheHc   Eva  Hesse  in  her  Bowery  Studio,  New  York,  ca.  1965,  courtesy  of  Hauser  &  Wirth  Zurich,   Switzerland.  (c)  The  Estate  of  Eva  Hesse   h]p://www.evahesse.com/work_detail.php? media_id=2217&sequence_id=2576&sequence_posiHon=4&kat=4  
    • Eva  Hesse   Hesse  strove  to  create  works  that  were   without  “preconcepHon”     Working  without  preconcepHon   allowed  for  creaHve  exploraHon   beyond  what  could  be  imagined  “I  would  like  the  work  to  be  non-­‐work.    This  means  that  it  would  find  its  way  beyond  my  preconcepHons  .  .  .  What  I  want  of  my  art  I  can  eventually  find.    The  work  must  go  beyond  this.    It  is  my  main  concern  to  go  beyond  what  I  know  and  what  I  can  know.    The  formal  principles  are  understandable  and  understood.    It  is  the  unknown  quanHty  from  which  and  where  I  want  to  go.”  Eva  Hesse,  Statement,  1968;  cited  in  SHles  &  Selz,  p.  594   Eva  Hesse,  Hang  Up,  1966   Acrylic  paint  on  cloth  over  wood;  acrylic  paint  on  cord  over  steel  tube   Art  InsHtute  of  Chicago   http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/71396
    • Eva  Hesse  In  Accession  II  Hesse  directly  engaged  the  Minimalist  cube   Donald  Judd,  Un9tled,  1972   Tate   Eva  Hesse,  Accession  Il,  1967-­‐9   Aluminum  mesh,  rubber  tubes  
    • Eva  Hesse   Accession  II  -­‐-­‐  galvanized  steel  cube   woven  with  thousands  of  rubber  tubes  “Hesses  technique  of  weaving  brings  to  mind  a  stereotype  of  female  domesHcity  that  clashes  with  the  hard-­‐edged  masculinity  of  the  mass-­‐produced  steel.  The  sculpture  -­‐-­‐  weirdly  seducHve  on  the  inside,  forbidding  on  the  outside  -­‐-­‐  can  be  linked  with  the  work  of  other  arHsts  of  the  Hme,  like  Donald  Judd  .  .  .”  Michael  Kimmelman,  “Eva  Hesse  and  the  Lure  Of  Absurd  Opposites,”  New  York  Times,  Jan  14  2009  h]p://query.nyHmes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE7D61330F933A25756C0A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all   Eva  Hesse,  Accession  Il,  1967-­‐9   Aluminum  mesh,  rubber  tubes  
    • Eva  Hesse   “You  cant  not  see  it  as  organic:  sea   anemone,  vagina  .  .  .  its  obvious   predecessor  is  that  icon  of  oral  sex  in  the   Museum  of  Modern  Art,  Meret   Oppenheims  fur-­‐lined  cup  and  spoon.”   Robert  Hughes,  “ Telling  An  Inner  Life,”  Time  Dec  28,  1992  Meret  Oppenheim,  Object  (Fur-­‐lined  teacup)  1936.     h]p://www.Hme.com/Hme/magazine/arHcle/0,9171,977372,00.html  MOMA   Eva  Hesse,  Accession  Il,  1967-­‐9   Aluminum  mesh,  rubber  tubes  
    • Eva  Hesse   Minimalism  privileged  hardness,  order,   logic,  and  certainty   Hesse’s  works  are  ooen  soo  rather   than  hard;  irregular  rather  than   precise;  perverse  rather  than  serious;   and  sensual  rather  than  austere  “absurdity  is  the  key  word”  Eva  Hesse   Eva  Hesse,  Un9tled,  1970  
    • Eva  Hesse  Like  the  Minimalists,  she  also  worked  with  grids,  seriality,  and  repeHHon   Eva  Hesse,  Sans  II  (one  unit),  1968  
    • Eva  Hesse  But  the  pieces  assert  a  defiant  irregularity  that  refuses  to  “snap-­‐to-­‐grid”   Eva  Hesse,  Repe99on  Nineteen  III.  1968   Fiberglass  and  polyester  resin,  nineteen  units,  Each  19  to  20  1/4”   MOMA  
    • Eva  Hesse  Rather  than  imposing  order  and  regularity,  Hesse  embraced  chance,  disorder,  and  chaos  as  a  fact  of  life  “Her  goal,  she  explained,  was  to  portray  the  essenHal  absurdity  of  life.  In  formal  terms,  this  theme  was  realized  through  a  wedding  of  contradicHons:  “order  versus  chaos,  stringy  versus  mass,  huge  versus  small,”  in  the  arHst’s  words.”    Nancy  Spector  h]p://www.guggenheimcollecHon.org/site/arHst_work_md_63_1.html   Eva  Hesse,  Metronomic  Irregularity,  1966-­‐67   Image  source:     h]p://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/feminist_art_base/gallery/ eva_hesse.php?i=1701  
    • Eva  Hesse  The  pieces  are  notoriously  fragile,  made  from  materials  the  arHst  knew  would  decay  over  Hme  “Hesse  was  aware  that  latex  is  an  unstable  material,  disposed  to  oxidize  and  turn  bri]le  .  .  .  .  She  was  very  aware  that  it  was  temporary.  She  was  not  defensive  about  it;  she  was  offensive  about  it.  She  would  say  that  it  was  an  a]ribute.  Everything  was  for  the  process-­‐-­‐a  moment  in  Hme,  not  meant  to  last.”  Arthur  Danto,  “All  About  Eva,”  Na9on    June  28,  2006  h]p://www.thenaHon.com/doc/20060717/danto   Eva  Hesse,  Con9ngent,  1969   NaHonal  Gallery  of  Australia  
    • Eva  Hesse,  Expanded  Expansion,    1969   Reinforced  fiberglass  poles  and  rubberized  cheesecloth,  Overall:  122  x  300  inches   Guggenheim  Museum  "At  this  point,"  Hesse  wrote,  "I  feel  a  li]le  guilty  when  people  want  to  buy  it.  I  think  they  know  but  I  want  to  write  them  a  le]er  and  say  its  not  going  to  last.  I  am  not  sure  what  my  stand  on  lasHng  really  is.  Part  of  me  feels  that  its  superfluous,  and  if  I  need  to  use  rubber  that  is  more  important.  Life  doesnt  last;  art  doesnt  last.”  Arthur  Danto,  “All  About  Eva,”  Na9on    June  28,  2006  h]p://www.thenaHon.com/doc/20060717/danto  
    • Eva  Hesse  Towards  the  end  of  her  life  Hesse  worked  on  a  series  of  rope  pieces  that  hang  from  the  ceiling  like  delicate  clouds   Eva  Hesse  in  her  studio  134  Bowery  Street  ,  New  York  1969   ©The  Eva  Hesse  Estate,  Courtesy  Galerie  Hauser  &  Wirth,  Zürich  
    • “This  piece  is  very  unordered.  .  .  .  When  it’s  completed  its  order  could  be  chaos,  which  is  an  order  in  itself.  Chaos  can  be  as  structured  as  non-­‐chaos.”  h]p://www.thejewishmuseum.org/exhibiHons/EvaHesse/gallery   Henry Groskinsky, Eva Hesse’s Studio with rope pieces, 1969 © Life Magazine
    • "Eva  Hesse  took  sculpture,  which  had  supposedly  been  empHed  of  its   associaHve  qualiHes  by  Minimalism,  and  showed  that  repeHHon,  the   grid,  scale,  did  in  fact  have  evocaHve  powers  that  echoed  our  experience   of  the  world  and  of  our  bodies.”   Elizabeth  Frank;  cited  in  Michael  Kimmelman,  “Eva  Hesse  and  the  Lure  Of  Absurd  Opposites,”  New  York  Times,  Jan  14  2009   h]p://query.nyHmes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE7D61330F933A25756C0A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all  Eva  Hesse,  Right  ASer  1969  Milwauke  Art  Museum  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  In  the  1960s  Louise  Bourgeois  abandoned  the  verHcal  format  and  rigid  materials  of  her  early  personages   Louise  Bourgois   Image  source:     h]p://www.centrepompidou.fr/educaHon/ressources//ENS-­‐bourgeois-­‐EN//ENS-­‐ bourgeois-­‐EN.html  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  She  began  working  with  malleable  materials  like  plaster  and  latex,  and  organic  forms  that  suggest  natural  processes   Louise  Bourgeois,  Clutching,  1962   Plaster  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  While  Minimalist  sculpture  looked  prisHne  and  machine-­‐made,  Bourgeois’  “eccentric  abstracHons”  seemed  artless,  unformed,  and  debased     Louise  Bourgeois,  Amoeba,  1962   Bronze  painted  white  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  One  of  her  most  famous  pieces  from  this  period  is  FilleVe  “Her  most  famous  and  most  photographed  “eroHc”  work  is  her  latex  sculpture  FilleVe  (1968),  which  playfully  confuses  genders.  While  it  is  obviously  a  2o-­‐long  phallus,  it  is  comic  and  diminishing  rather  than  commanding.  Bourgeois  emphasised  her  jokey  French  name  for  the  object  –  a  li]le  girl  –  by  calling  it  “a  li]le  Louise”.    Elaine  Showalter,  Tate  Gallery  h]p://www.tate.org.uk/tateetc/issue11/lumpsbumps.htm   Louise  Bourgeois,  FilleVe,  1968   Latex  on  plaster  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  “In  one  photograph,  suspended,  it  resembles  a  toy  clown  in  a  hat  and  overcoat  with  big  round  boots.  In  a  celebrated  photograph  by  Robert  Mapplethorpe,  she  holds  it  tucked  casually  under  her  arm  like  a  bague]e.”  Elaine  Showalter,  Tate  Gallery  h]p://www.tate.org.uk/tateetc/issue11/lumpsbumps.htm   Robert  Mapplethorpe,  Louise  Bougeois  with  FilleVe,  1968  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  Like  the  Surrealists,  Bourgeois  was  interested  in  forms  that  speak  directly  to  us  in  a  visceral  way  (rather  than  appealing  to  the  raHonal  mind)   Louise  Bourgeois,  Sleep  II,  1967  Louise  Bourgeois,  Le  Regard,  1966   Marble  Latex  on  plaster  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  She  was  especially  interested  in  forms  that  confound  our  preconceived  noHons  and  seem  to  be  in  a  constant  state  of  metamorphosis   Louise  Bourgeois,  Janus  Fleuri,  1968   Bronze,  gold  paHna  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  Her  engagement  with  ambiguous  sexual  references  was  personal  She  was  brought  up  by  an  abusive  father,  and  saw  her  art  as  a  means  of  working  through  psychic  trauma   Louise  Bourgeois,  Janus  in  Leather  Jacket,  1968   Bronze  
    • Louise  Bourgeois  One  of  her  most  famous  pieces  is  Htled  the  Destruc9on  of  the  Father,  one  of  her  first  installaHon  pieces  In  this  work  the  arHst  indulges  in  a  fantasy  of  a  family  banquet  in  which  her  father’s  flesh  is  consumed   Louise  Bourgeois,  Destruc9on  of  the  Father,  1974  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  Yayoi  Kusama  was  born  in  Japan  and  came  to  New  York  in  1957   Kusama  in  front  of  Infinity  Net  painHng,  New  York.  c.ハ1961   MOMA  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  She  began  painHng  large  scale  canvases  that  used  repeHHve  pa]erns  of  nets  and  dots   Kusama  in  her  New  York  studio,  c.1958–59.    Image  source:     h]p://interacHve.qag.qld.gov.au/looknowseeforever/Hmeline/  
    • Yayoi  Kusama,  Pacific  Ocean  detail  Yayoi  Kusama,  Pacific  Ocean,  1960  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  In  the  early  1960s  Kusama  began  covering  common  household  objects  with  soo  protruding  forms  suggesHng  phalluses  (Claes  Oldenberg’s  soo  sculptures  were  influenced  by  her  work)   Yayoi  Kusama,  Accumula9on  Chair,  1963  
    • Yayoi  Kusama,  Oven-­‐Pan,  1963.    Walker  Art  Center  Yayoi  Kusama,  The  Man,  1963  Image  source:    h]p://arrestedmoHon.com/2012/02/previews-­‐yayoi-­‐kusama-­‐tate-­‐modern/  
    • InstallaHon  of  Kusama’s  AccumulaHon  sculptures  at  the  Tate  Modern  Image  source:    h]p://arrestedmoHon.com/2012/02/previews-­‐yayoi-­‐kusama-­‐tate-­‐modern/  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  These  then  became  props  for  installaHons,  as  Kusama  began  to  explore  the  creaHon  of  total  environments   Yayoi  Kusama,  Accumula9on  2,  1968   Image  source:     h]p://metaphysicalpepper.tumblr.com/post/446311293/yayoi-­‐kusama-­‐accumulaHon-­‐no-­‐2-­‐1968  
    • Yayoi  Kusama   In  1967  Kusama  began  staging   performances  that  linked  the   Happenings  of  the  1950s  to  the  1960s   sexual  revoluHon  and  peace   movement  Body  FesHval  Poster,  1967  h]p://www.yayoi-­‐kusama.jp/e/happening/index.html   Yayoi  Kusama,  Alice  in  Wonderland  performance,  Central  Park,  New  York,  11  August,  1968.   Image  source:    h]p://www.flickr.com/photos/sco]_waterman/6782823389/  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  In  Infinity  Mirror  -­‐  Phalli’s  Field  Kusama  created  a  total  environment  that  immersed  the  viewer  in  a  disorienHng  field  of  endless  repeHHon   Yayoi  Kusama,  Infinity  Mirror  Room  -­‐  Phalli’s  Field,  1965  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  In  the  following  year  she  completed  an  installaHon  Htled  Love  Forever  -­‐-­‐  a  mirror  lined  environment  with  flashing  electric  lights   Yayoi  Kusama,  InstallaHon  view  of  Infinity  Mirrored  Room  -­‐  Love  Forever  (1966;  remade  1994)  at  Le   ConsorHum,  Dijon  in  2000   Tate  
    • Yayoi  Kusama  One  of  Kusama’s  more  recent  mirror  rooms  was  exhibited  at  the  Whitney  biennial  in  2004   Yayoi  Kusama  ,  Fireflies  on  the  Water,  2002.   Mirror,  plexiglass,  150  lights,  and  water   Whitney  Museum