9.4 contemp trends

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9.4 contemp trends

  1. 1. Postmodernism:    Contemporary  Trends  Art  109A:    Art  since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2011  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
  2. 2. Postmodernism  “The  last  generaEon  .  .  .  was  arguably  the  most  abnormal,  surprising,  chaoEc,  and  troubling  era  in  the  enEre  history  of  art.    All  tradiEons  in  the  realm  of  the  visual  came  tumbling  down  to  an  extent  never  demonstrated  before.    Inherited  ideas  about  the  relaEonship  between  visuality  and  reality  in  general  were  confounded  .  .  .  .  Around  1960,  the  idea  became  widespread  that  the  aestheEc  approach  was  not  really  the  only  available  way  to  make  and  appreciate  the  importance  of  art  .  .  .  .  Instead  of  pure  form  and  color,  the  values  of  criEcism,  analysis,  cogniEon,  social  commentary,  wit,  humor,  surprise  and  reversal  now  prevail.    These  values  have  become  the  generalized  underpinnings  of  a  broad  post-­‐Modern  approach  that  contains  many  styles  .  .  .  Yet  it  has  always  been  a  part  of  the  idea  of  democracy  that  it  must  have  built-­‐in  mechanisms  of  self-­‐criEcism,  of  which  the  arts  can  be  one  among  others.”      Arthur  Danto,  “Value  in  an  Age  of  Chaos,”  in  Linda  Weintraub,  Art  on  the  Edge  and  Over,  p.  254-­‐58.  
  3. 3. Pain-ng  Jenny  Savile  one  of  the  YBAs  (“Young  BriEsh  ArEsts”)  Sensa1on,  the  Brooklyn  Museum’s  exhibiEon  of  the  Saatchi  collecEon  Realist  painter  in  the  tradiEon  of  Francis  Bacon  and  Lucien  Freud   Jenny  Savile,    Self  Portrait,  1991   Seavest  CollecEon  
  4. 4. Jenny  Savile  Large-­‐scale  nude  self-­‐portraits  that  grotesquely  exaggerate  her  obesity  “What  is  this  thing,  the  body,  her  painEngs  ask,  when  it  is  stripped  bare,  denuded  of  personality  and  context,  this  thing  that  seems  so  much  a  part  of  us,  and  which  we  try  so  hard  to  look  aaer  and  yet  which  betrays  us,  decays  from  within,  and  which,  when  it  leaves  us,  takes  us  with  it?”  h_p://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2005/oct/22/art.friezearcair2005   Jenny  Savile,  Plan,  1993   Source:    h_p://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth200/Body/saville.html  
  5. 5. Jenny  Savile,  Torso  2,  2004   Jenny  Savile,  Branded,  1992  Saatchi  Gallery    
  6. 6. Jenny  Savile  Series  of  photographs  recall  Ana  Medieta’s  body  prints  and  Yves  Klein’s  anthropometries   Jenny  Savile  and  Glen  Luchford,  Closed  Contact,  1995-­‐1996   Source:    h_p://www.colecEva.tv/wordpress/?s=jenny+saville  
  7. 7. Lisa  Yuskavage  Grotesque  distorEons  of  female  fantasy  ideal   Lisa  Yuskavage,  Wrist  Corsage,  1996   Museum  of  Modern  Art    
  8. 8. Lisa  Yuskavage  Cross  between  fairytale,  children’s  toys,  and  pornography  Lisa  Yuskavage,  Nighty,  1994   Lisa  Yuskavage,  Day,  1994  h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art6/ h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art6/art6lecturepresentaEons/art6lecture13.html  art6lecturepresentaEons/art6lecture13.html  
  9. 9. John  Currin  Hybrid  of  Old  Master  technique,  Norman  Rockwell  folksiness,  and  modern  (oaen  pornographic)  subjects   John  Currin,  Nice  n’  Easy,  1999   Source:     hDp://www.artnet.com/magazineus/news/artmarketwatch/ artmarketwatch11-­‐12-­‐08_detail.asp?picnum=6  
  10. 10. Takashi  Murakami   Superflat  –  based  on  Japanese  anime   (animaEon)  and  manga  (comics)  “Mr  DOB,  a  hybrid  cartoon  figure,  which  is  parEally  based  on  a  stylised  portrait  of  the  arEst  himself  .  .  .  DOB  is  an  abbreviaEon  for  why  and  reflects  Murakamis  criEcal  aotude  towards  the  empEness  of  consumer  society.  Its  flatness  references  tradiEonal  Japanese  painEng  and  links  his  work  to  the  two-­‐dimensional  character  of  much  contemporary  media  imagery  and  computer  graphics.”  Queensland  Art  Gallery   Takashi  Murakami,  Mr  DOB  All  Stars  (Oh  My  the  Mr.  DOB),  1998   Rubell  Family  CollecEon  
  11. 11. Takashi  Murakami  Also  makes  sculpture,  T-­‐shirts,  toys,  keychains,  and  limited  ediEon  Louis  Vui_on  handbags   Takashi  Murakami  at  the  Geffen  Contemporary  at  MOCA   h_p://cubeme.com/blog/2007/11/07/takashi-­‐murakami-­‐retrospecEve-­‐moca/  
  12. 12. Takashi  Murakami   Recent  notoriety  fort  two  life-­‐size   sculptures  called  My  Cowboy  and   Hiropon  “Hiropon  is    .  .  .  caught  in  mid-­‐skip  while  her  milk,  spurEng  from  enormous  breasts,  circles  her  body  like  a  jump  rope  .  .  .  My  Lonesome  Cowboy,  whose  semen  swirls  above  his  head  like  a  lasso,  is  simplisEcally  macho.”  Roberta  Smith  h_p://www.nyEmes.com/1999/02/05/arts/art-­‐in-­‐review-­‐takashi-­‐murakami.html   Takashi  Murakami  at  the  Geffen  Contemporary  at  MOCA   h_p://cubeme.com/blog/2007/11/07/takashi-­‐murakami-­‐retrospecEve-­‐moca/  
  13. 13. Takashi  Murakami  In  2008  Lonesome  Cowboy  sold  for  $15.2  million  dollars   Takashi  Murakami,  Lonesome  Cowboy,  1998   Image  source:    h_p://design-­‐style.org/2010/11/11/sexuality-­‐and-­‐transcendence/  
  14. 14. Sculpture   MarEn  Puryear  –  Postminimalist   preoccupaEon  with  materials  and   process  "Mr.  Puryear  is  a  formalist  in  a  Eme  when  that  is  something  of  a  dirty  word.”  Roberta  Smith   MarEn  Puryear  retrospecEve  at  MOMA   Image  source:    h_p://www.nyEmes.com/slideshow/2007/11/01/arts/1102-­‐PURY_2.html  
  15. 15. Sculpture   His  works  evoke  African  tribal  craas   and  ritual  objects  "A  mysterious  seducEve  blackness  permeates  Mr.  Puryears  work,  as  seen  in  "Confessional"  (1996-­‐2000),  a  monolith  made  of  wire  mesh,  tar  and  various  woods.”  Roberta  Smith   MarEn  Puryear  retrospecEve  at  MOMA   Image  source:    h_p://www.nyEmes.com/slideshow/2007/11/01/arts/1102-­‐PURY_2.html  
  16. 16. David  Hammons   Works  appear  “formalist,”  but  reveal   deeper  commentary  about  race  “Rock  Head,  is  a  smooth,  elongated  oval  boulder  on  a  metal  stand  in  a  Perspex  box.  Hair  swept  from  a  Harlem  barbershop  floor  has  been  glued  on  to  the  top  of  the  rock,  then  given  a  professional  clip  and  snazzy  razor-­‐cut  by  the  barber  himself.”  h_p://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2002/oct/05/artsfeatures   David  Hammons,  Rock  Head,  2005   Museum  of  Modern  Art    
  17. 17. David  Hammons,  Un1tled,  1992  Whitney  Museum  
  18. 18. David  Hammons,  UnEtled,  (1989)  Glass  wine  bo_les  and  silicon  glue  
  19. 19. Sculpture  Anish  Kapoor  –  BriEsh  sculptor  of  Indian  descent   Anish  Kapoor,  Un1tled,  2007   Metropolitan  Museum  
  20. 20. Anish  Kapoor,  As  if  to  celebrate,  I  discovered  a  mountain  blooming  with  red  flowers,  1981  Tate  Gallery   Anish  Kapoor,  Marsyas,  2002  Turbine  Hall,  Tate  Modern   Source:    h_p://www.anishkapoor.com/works/gallery/2002marsyas/index.htm  
  21. 21. Anish  Kapoor,  Cloudgate,  2004,  Millenium  Park,  Chicago  h_p://www.anishkapoor.com/works/gallery/2004cloudgate/index.htm  
  22. 22. Rachel  Whiteread  Got  her  start  with  a  concrete  cast  she  made  of  an  east-­‐end  London  house  scheduled  for  demoliEon  Sculptures  of  negaEve  space  –  permanent  monuments  to  absence   Rachel  Whiteread,  Un1tled  (House)    1993  
  23. 23. Rachel  Whiteread   Judenplatz  Holocaust  Memorial,   Austria:    outside  is  lined  with  cast   library  shelves  turned  inside  out  “The  shelves  of  the  memorial  appear  to  hold  endless  copies  of  the  same  ediEon,  which  stand  for  the  vast  number  of  the  vicEms,  as  well  as  the  concept  of  Jews  as  "People  of  the  Book."  The  double  doors  are  cast  with  the  panels  inside  out,  and  have  no  doorknobs  or  handles.”  h_p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judenplatz_Holocaust_Memorial   Rachel  Whiteread,  Judenplatz  Holocaust  Memorial  (The  Naemless  Library),  2000   memorial  to  the  65,000  murdered  Austrian  Jews  in  the  Holocaust  at  Judenplatz  in  Vienna   Source:    h_p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judenplatz_Holocaust_Memorial  
  24. 24. Shadow  of  a  passerby  at  the  memorial.  Source:    h_p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judenplatz_Holocaust_Memorial  
  25. 25. Rachel  Whitread,  Water  Tower,  1998  Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  26. 26. Janine  Antoni  Minimalist  cubes  of  chocolate  and  lard,  bi_en  and  chewed  by  the  arEst   Janine  Antoni,  Gnaw,  1992   Museum  of  Modern  Art    
  27. 27. Janine  Antoni,  Gnaw,  1992  Source:    h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture28.html  
  28. 28. Janine  Antoni  Used  mouthfuls  to  mold  heart-­‐shaped  chocolate  boxes  and  lipsEcks   Janine  Antoni,  Gnaw,  1992   Museum  of  Modern  Art    
  29. 29. Janine  Antoni  Portrait  busts  of  the  arEst  molded  with  chocolate  and  soap  Features  erased  by  process  of  licking  and  washing   Janine  Antoni,  Lick  and  Lather,  1993   Brooklyn  Museum    
  30. 30. Ron  Mueck  BriEsh  YBA  Super-­‐realisEc  resin  sculptures  that  play  with  scale   Ron  Mueck,  Dead  Dad,  1996-­‐97   Source:    h_p://www.saatchi-­‐gallery.co.uk/blogon/art_news/space_is_the_place_by__paul_farley/5786  
  31. 31. Ron  Mueck,  Two  Women,  2005  hDp://www.melbourneplaces.com/melbourne/ron-­‐mueck’s-­‐sculptures-­‐at-­‐the-­‐ngv-­‐a-­‐confron1ng-­‐and-­‐haun1ng-­‐experience/  
  32. 32. Ron  Mueck,  Two  Women,  2005  hDp://www.melbourneplaces.com/melbourne/ron-­‐mueck’s-­‐sculptures-­‐at-­‐the-­‐ngv-­‐a-­‐confron1ng-­‐and-­‐haun1ng-­‐experience/  
  33. 33. Ron  Mueck,  A  Girl,  2006  Source:    h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture29.html  
  34. 34. Maurizio  CaDelan  Gained  internaEonal  notoriety  for  his  sculpture  of  the  Pope  struck  down  by  a  meteor  at  the  Royal  Academy    The  work  sold  at  ChrisEes  for  3  million   Maurizio  Ca_elan,  La  Nona  Ora  (The  Ninth  Hour),  1999       Source:    h_p://www.terminartors.com/artworkprofile/Ca_elan_Maurizio-­‐La_Nona_Ora_The_Ninth_Hour  
  35. 35. Jake  and  Dinos  Chapman  BriEsh  YBA  collaboraEve  team  of  brothers  Outrageous  sculptures  of  mannequins  of  mutant  adolescent  girls   Jake  and  Dinos  Chapman,  Tragic  Anatomies:  Sad  Doggy,  1996    Fibreglass,  resin,  paint   Saatchi  Gallery    
  36. 36. Robert  Gober   Makes  the  ordinary  seem   uncomfortably  strange  “These  works  oaen  evoke  the  paradoxical  phenomenon  that  Sigmund  Freud  called  "the  uncanny"—something  ordinary  that,  through  even  a  slight  disorientaEon,  reveals  a  hidden  strangeness,  bringing  out  long-­‐forgo_en  fears  and  collapsing  long-­‐established  certainEes.”  Museum  of  Modern  Art   Robert  Gober,  1tled.  (1989-­‐90.)  Wax,  coDon,  leather,  human  hair,  and  wood   Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  37. 37. Photography  Legacy  of  the  pictures  generaEon  conEnues  to  have  an  impact  on  contemporary  arEsts  Man  Ray,  Marcel  Duchamp  as  Rrose  Selavy,  1921   Yasumasa  Morimura  Doublannage  (Marcel),  1988   h_p://www.artnet.com/usernet/awc/awc_thumbnail.asp? aid=424262577&gid=424262577&works_of_art=1&cid=75405  
  38. 38. Photography  Japanese  arEst  Yasumasa  Morimura  uses  Cindy  Sherman’s  “dress-­‐up”  strategies  to  insert  himself  into  iconic  female  roles  from  art  history  and  the  media   Yasumasa  Morimura  Self  Portrait  Acer  Marilyn,  1996   hDp://www.saatchi-­‐gallery.co.uk/ar1sts/yasumasa_morimura.htm  
  39. 39. Photography   Yasumasa  Morimura  Portrait  (Futago),  1988;  photograph;  chromogenic  print  with  acrylic  paint   and  gel  medium   SFMOMA    Yasumasa  Morimura  An  Inner  Dialogue  with  Frida  Kahlo  (Hand  Shaped  Earring),  2001  Brooklyn  Museum  
  40. 40. Carrie  Mae  Weems  Photo-­‐essay  involving  re-­‐photography  of  archival  photos  J.T.  Zealy.  Delia,  American  born,  daughter  of  Renty,  Congo.    1850.    Daguerreotype.   Carrie  Mae  Weems,  From  Here  I  Saw  What  Happened  and  I  Cried,  1995  h_p://preserve.harvard.edu/exhibits/ Museum  of  Modern  Art  daguerreotype/images/woman.jpg  
  41. 41. Carrie  Mae  Weems,  From  Here  I  Saw  What  Happened  and  I  Cried,  1995  h_p://www.30americans.com/ArEst/Carrie_Mae_Weems/Weems2.jpg  
  42. 42. New  Approaches  to  Photography  Canadian  arEst  Jeff  Wall  uses  photography  to  create  large  scale  arEficial  realiEes  modeled  on  high  art   Jeff  Wall,  A  Sudden  Gust  of  Wind  (Acer  Hokusai),  1993   Tate  Gallery  
  43. 43. “Amateur  actors  play  the  odd  assortment  of  rural  and  city  characters,  surprised  by  the  forces  of  nature.  It  required  over  100  photographs,  taken  over  the  course  of  more  than  a  year,  to  achieve  a  seamless  montage  that  gives  the  illusion  of  capturing  a  real  moment  in  Eme.”  Tate  Gallery  
  44. 44. Andreas  Gursky  German  photographer  Large-­‐scale  images  that  evoke  the  dehumanizaEon  of  high  tech  industry  and  global  market  economy   Andreus  Gusky,  99  Cent,  1999   Source:    h_p://asuartmuseum.asu.edu/2001/gursky/  
  45. 45. Andreus  Gursky,    Chicago  Board  of  Trade,  1999  
  46. 46. Rhine  II  by  Andreas  Gursky  sold  for  $4.3  million  at  Chris-es  in  New  York  
  47. 47. Image  source:    h_p://www.freakingnews.com/Andreas-­‐Gursky-­‐s-­‐Rhine-­‐II-­‐Pics-­‐102730.asp  
  48. 48. Postmodernism  Hybridity  “For  arEsts  today,  the  choice  of  materials  and  media  for  creaEng  art  is  wide  open.  Some  arEsts  conEnue  to  use  tradiEonal  media  such  as  paint,  clay,  or  bronze,  but  others  have  selected  new  or  unusual  materials  for  their  art,  such  as  industrial  or  recycled  materials,  and  newer  technologies  such  as  photography,  video,  or  digital  media  offer  arEsts  even  more  ways  to  express  themselves.  Many  arEsts  working  today  incorporate  more  than  material  or  technique  in  ways  that  create  hybrid  art  forms.  CombinaEons  of  sEll  image,  moving  image,  sound,  digital  media,  and  found  objects  can  create  new  hybrid  art  forms  that  are  beyond  what  tradiEonal  arEsts  have  ever  imagined.”  hDp://schools.walkerart.org/arDoday/index.wac?id=2377   Cia  Guo-­‐Qiang,  Innoportune:    Stage  One,  2004   Sea_le  Art  Museum  (as  seen  in  Guggenheim  installaEon,  I  Want  to  Believe  
  49. 49. Damien  Hirst  Damien  Hirst,  one  of  the  stars  of  the  Brooklyn  SensaEons  show  featuring  the  YBAs  (“Young  BriEsh  ArEsts”)  in  the  Charles  Saatchi  collecEon   Damien  Hirst  with  For  the  Love  of  God,  a  plaEnum  skull  covered  with  8,601  diamonds  –  purported  to  be   the  most  expensive  work  of  art  ever  made  -­‐  £15  million  producEon  costs  and  a  £50  million  price  tag     Image  source:    h_p://www.getkempt.com/tag/damienhirst  
  50. 50. Damien  Hirst  Works  involving  dead  animals  preserved  in  formaldehyde  “Dead  animals  are  frequently  used  in  Hirst’s  installaEons,  forcing  viewers  to  consider  their  own  and  society’s  aotudes  to  death.”  Museum  of  Modern  Art   Damien  Hirst,    Away  from  the  Flock,  1994   NaEonal  Galleries  of  Scotland  
  51. 51. Damien  Hirst  Life  cycle:    maggots  hatch  and  feed  on  dead  cow’s  head   Damien  Hirst,  A  Thousand  Years,  1990   Steel,  glass,  flies,  maggots,  MDF,  insect-­‐o-­‐cutor,  cows  head,  sugar,  water   Charles  Saatchi   Image  source:    h_p://www.artchive.com/artchive/h/hirst/hirst_thousand.jpg.html   Interview  on  YouTube:    h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rESmxFXAd8  
  52. 52. Image  source:    h_p://www.flickr.com/photos/wurzeltod/210464828/  
  53. 53. Damien  Hirst   Commissioned  by   Charles  Saatchi  in  1991   for  £50,000   In  2004  it  was  sold  for   £7  million  “In  keeping  with  the  piece’s  Etle,  the  shark  is  simultaneously  life  and  death  incarnate  in  a  way  you  don’t  quite  grasp  unEl  you  see  it,  suspended  and  silent,  in  its  tank.”  h_p://www.nyEmes.com/2007/10/16/arts/design/16muse.html   Damien  Hirst,  The  Physical  Impossibility  of  Death  in  the  Mind  of    Someone  Living,  1991   On  display  at  Metropolitan  Museum  2007-­‐2010  
  54. 54. Sarah  Lucas  BriEsh  YBA    Uses  common  materials  to  evoke  pointed  comments  on  gender   Sarah  Lucas,  Au  Naturel,  1994   Saatchi  CollecEon  
  55. 55. Sarah  Lucas,  Bunny  Gets  Snoockered,  1997   Source:    hDp://ar1ntelligence.net/review/?p=65  Sarah  Lucas,  Bunny  Gets  Snoockered  #10,  1997  Source:    hDp://www.museum-­‐joanneum.at/de/presse/projekte_4/thyssen-­‐bornemisza_art_contemporary_sammlung_als_aleph  
  56. 56. Mike  Kelley,  More  Love  Hours  Than  Can  Ever  be  Repaid,  and  The  Wages  of  Sin,  1987  Whitney  Museum    
  57. 57. Tracy  Emin  Turner  prize  winner  and  tabloid  star   Orlando  Bloom  gets  friendly  with  Tracey  Emin  at  he  launch  of  her  latest  exhibiEonRead   more:   h_p://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/arEcle-­‐1041390/Steady-­‐Orlando-­‐-­‐art-­‐loving-­‐actor-­‐ gets-­‐grips-­‐Tracey-­‐Emin-­‐exhibiEon.html#ixzz17vnAJzaK  
  58. 58. Tracy  Emin  Work  in  the  SensaEons  exhibiEon  was  a  tent,  with  the  names  of  everyone  she  ever  slept  with  on  the  inside   Tracy  Emin,  Everyone  I  have  Ever  Slept  With.  1963-­‐1975,  1997   Source:    h_p://images.artnet.com/artwork_images_424046260_129602_tracey-­‐emin.jpg  
  59. 59. Tracy  Emin,    My  Bed,  1998  Saatchi  CollecEon  
  60. 60. Installa-on  Art  Synthesis  of  painEng,  sculpture,  architecture  Walk-­‐in  environments   Judy  Pfaff,  #D,  installaEon  at  Holly  Solomon  Gallery,  1983   h_p://www.judypfaff.org/gallery/installaEons?page=4  
  61. 61. Installa-on  Art  Judy  Pfaff  and  Jessica  Stockholder  –  formalist  concerns  Walk-­‐in  painEngs;  focus  on  color,  shape,  form   Jessica  Stockholder,  Skin  Toned  Garden  Mapping,  1991InstallaEon  at  the  Renaissance  Society,  Chicago,  IllinoisPaint,  red  carpet,  2  x  4s,   roofing  tar,  refrigerator  doors,  hardware,  yellow  bug  lights  and  fixtures,  cloth,  vinyl  composiEon  floor  Eles,  concrete  and  Enfoil,  3140   square  feet  overall     h_p://www.pbs.org/art21/slideshow/popup.php?slide=807  
  62. 62. Ilya  Kabakov   Emmigrated  from  Russia  aaer  the   collapse  of  the  Soviet  Union   InstallaEons  create  complex  narraEve   situaEons  “The  lonely  inhabitant  of  the  room,  as  becomes  clear  from  the  story  his  neighbor  tells,  was  obsessed  by  a  dream  of  a  lonely  flight  into  space  .  .  .  .”  Text  accompanying  Ilya  Kabakov’s  The  Man  Who  Flew  Into  Space  from  His  Apartment,  1981-­‐88   Ilya  Kabakov,  The  Man  Who  Flew  Into  Space  from  His  Apartment,  1981-­‐88  
  63. 63. The  Starn  Twins  Many  installaEons  are  site  specific,  as  in  Mike  and  Doug  Starn’s  big  bamboo  on  the  roof  of  the  Met  The  work  no  longer  exists  aaer  the  exhibiEon  closes   Doug  works  on  his  Big  Bambu  structure  on  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Arts  Iris  and  B.  Gerald  Cantor   Roof  Garden  June  18,  2010  in  New  York  City   Source:    h_p://www.life.com/image/102207341  
  64. 64. Kara  Walker  Uses  19th  century  format  of  the  silhoue_e  in  wall-­‐size  installaEons  to  tell  the  epic  story  of  black  slavery   Kara  Walker.    Detail  from  Gone,  An  Historical  Romance  of  a  Civil  War  As  It  Occurred     Between  the  Dusky  Thighs  of  One  Young  Negress  and  Her  Heart.    1994   InstallaEon  view  at  the  Walker  Art  Center,  Courtesy  of  Sikkema  Jenkins  &  Co.   Source:    h_p://www.artnet.com/magazineus/features/saltz/saltz11-­‐13-­‐07_detail.asp?picnum=1  
  65. 65. Kara  Walker  “From  lea  to  right,  a  genteel  white  couple  bends  to  kiss;  a  pickaninny  offers  a  headless  chicken  to  a  topless  black  girl  who  floats  on  her  back  in  water;  a  severed  head  of  a  white  man  looks  at  a  young  black  girl  on  her  knees  performing  fellaEo  on  a  white  boy;  a  black  girl  lias  her  leg  as  two  babies  drop  out  of  her;  a  white  man  performs  analingus  on  a  black  servant.  Rising  above  this  ro_en  bog  of  cruelty  and  desire  is  a  full  moon  and  a  black  figure  with  a  grotesquely  swollen  penis.”  Jerry  Salz   Kara  Walker.    Detail  from  Gone,  An  Historical  Romance  of  a  Civil  War  As  It  Occurred    h_p://www.artnet.com/magazineus/ Between  the  Dusky  Thighs  of  One  Young  Negress  and  Her  Heart.    1994  features/saltz/saltz11-­‐13-­‐07.asp   InstallaEon  view  at  the  Walker  Art  Center,  Courtesy  of  Sikkema  Jenkins  &  Co.   Source:    h_p://www.artnet.com/magazineus/features/saltz/saltz11-­‐13-­‐07_detail.asp?picnum=1  
  66. 66. Kara  Walker,  Slavery!    Slavery!    1997  Source:    h_p://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/feminist_art_base/archive/images/201.699.jpg  
  67. 67. Fred  Wilson  ArEst  Fred  Wilson  creates  art  by  curaEng  exhibiEons   Fred  Wilson   Source:    h_p://nashermuseumblogs.org/?p=1080  
  68. 68. Fred  Wilson  1992  “curatorial”  work  juxtaposed  luxury  items  from  the  museum’s  collecEon  with  arEfacts  that  point  to  the  hidden  history  of  slavery   Fred  Wilson,  "Mining  the  Museum"    Maryland  Historical  Society,  1992  
  69. 69. Fred  Wilson  Guarded  Condi1on  consists  of  4  headless  black  male  figures  in  various  types  of  uniforms  Their  “invisibility”  points  to  the  way  persistent  stereotypes  erase  the  achievements  of  African  American  men   Fred  Wilson,  Guarded  View,  1991.  Wood,  paint,  steel,  and  fabric,  dimensions  variable   Whitney  Museum  of  American  Art  
  70. 70. Fred  Wilson  In  a  recent  exhibiEon,  this  work  was  juxtaposed  with  a  replica  of  the  Demoiselles  d’Avignon,  to  which  was  added  a  real  African  mask   Fred  Wilson:  Objects  and  InstallaEons  1979–2000,  2002   Center  for  Art,  Design  and  Visual  Culture,  UMBC  
  71. 71. Ann  Hamilton  Ann  Hamilton’s  installaEons  combine  performance,  photography,  video,  texEles,  and  sculpture  "Unlike  an  object,  which  we  are  very  comfortable  standing  outside  of  and  looking  at,  to  work  in  installaEon  is  to  work  in  relaEon  to  a  parEcular  place  and  all  of  the  confluences  and  complexiEes  of  whatever  it  is...And  so,  as  a  viewer,  to  come  in,  its  the  experience  the  minute  you  cross  the  threshold:  its  the  smells,  its  the  sounds,  its  the  temperature...”  Ann  Hamilton   Ann  Hamilton,  Ghost  .  .  .  a  border  act,  2000   InstallaEon  at  the  former  Ix  Factory,  Charlo_esville,  Virginia.  Silk  organza,  tables,  video  projecEon,  and   sound,  dimensions  variable.  Photo  by  Tom  Cogill    
  72. 72. Ann  Hamilton  This  piece  incorporates  the  history  of  the  building  (a  former  bakery)  Entrance  li_ered  with  wine-­‐soaked  rags;  wall  stacked  with  bed  linens;  arEst  engages  in  repeEEve  task  of  molding  bread  dough  to  her  mouth  and  placing  in  a  wicker  casket  “The  piece  referred  to  the  larger  social  history  of  the  neighborhood  .  .  .  SoHo  was  an  industrial  neighborhood  and  home  to  New  Yorks  thriving  clothing  industry.  This  industry  depended,  however,  on  an  easily  exploitable  workforce  of  immigrants,  woman,  and  children  .  .  .  The  meditaEve,  reverent   Ann  Hamilton,  Maledic1on,  Louver  Gallery,  New  York  December  7,  1991  -­‐  January  4,  1992  acEons  of  the  arEst  are  comparable  to   hDp://www.pbs.org/art21/ar1sts/hamilton/card2.html  a  form  of  prayer,  while  the  bread  and  wine  have  associaEons  with  religion  and  the  act  of  communion”    PBS  Art:21  
  73. 73. Ann  Hamilton  “For  this  piece,  the  arEst  worked  with  engineers  to  create  walls  that  siaed  red  pigment  down  the  sides  and  onto  floor  below.  There  was  an  inEmate  and  site-­‐specific  play  between  the  bleeding  walls  and  the  Jeffersonian  building,  a  type  of  architecture  Eed  to  democracy,  but  also  to  the  emoEonal  pain  of  slavery.  The  walls  were  covered  with  large  Braille  dots,  which  captured  the  pigment  that  trickled  down,  and  in  the  process  the  Braille  dots  were  stained  with  the  red-­‐blood  powder”  h_p://artandtech.osu.edu/551/rinaldo/assignment/invenEon.html   Ann  Hamilton,  Maledic1on,  Myein,  1999  Venice  Bieniale  
  74. 74. Mona  Hatoum   PalesEnian  born  arEst  living  in  exile  in   the  UK   Metaphoric  objects  –  transform  the   commonplace  into  psychologically   charged  dramas  “Mona  Hatoums  .  .  .  Interior  Landscape  [is]  .  .  .  an  austere  bedroom  that  "imagines  the  conflict  between  the  dreams  and  aspiraEons  of  a  PalesEnian  individual  juxtaposed  with  the  harsh  reality  they  have  to  face.””  h_p://universes-­‐in-­‐universe.org/eng/nafas/arEcles/2009/mona_hatoum   Mona  Hatoum,  Interior  Landscape,  2008   Steel  bed,  pillow,  capelli  human  hair,  table,  cardboard  tray,  cut-­‐up  map,  wire  hanger   h_p://brayhamcontemporaryart.blogspot.com/2009/08/mona-­‐hatoums-­‐interior-­‐landscapes-­‐at.html  
  75. 75. Mona  Hatoum  PalesEnian  born  arEst  living  in  exile  in  the  UK  Metaphoric  objects  –  transform  the  commonplace  into  psychologically  charged  dramas   Mona  Hatoum,  Interior  Landscape,  2008   Steel  bed,  pillow,  capelli  human  hair,  table,  cardboard  tray,  cut-­‐up  map,  wire  hanger   h_p://brayhamcontemporaryart.blogspot.com/2009/08/mona-­‐hatoums-­‐interior-­‐landscapes-­‐at.html  
  76. 76. Mona  Hatoum   Barbed  wire  and  other  materials  that   suggest  physical  restraint,  danger,  or   torture,  are  common  in  her  work  Mona  Hatoum,  Grater  Divide,  2002   Mona  Hatoum,  Impenetrable,  2009  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  Boston   h_p://brayhamcontemporaryart.blogspot.com/2009/08/mona-­‐hatoums-­‐interior-­‐landscapes-­‐at.html  
  77. 77. Mona  Hatoum  InstallaEons  evoke  sensaEons  of  insEtuEonal  authority,  torture,  and  imprisonment   Mona  Hatoum,  Light  Sentence,  1992   Metropolitan  Museum  
  78. 78. Performance  Performance  conEnues  to  engage  contemporary  arEsts   ArEst  Marina  Abramovic  (L)  performs  during  the  "Marina  Abramovic:  The  ArEst  is  Present"  exhibiEon   opening  night  party  at  The  Museum  of  Modern  Art  on  March  9,  2010  in  New  York  City   h_p://www.zimbio.com/pictures/upoNbvTpFo9/MoMA+Celebrates+Marina+Abramovic+ArEst+Present  
  79. 79. Janine  Antoni  Loving  Care  –  feminist  update  on  “acEon  painEng”   Janine  Antoni,  Loving  Care,  1993   Brooklyn  Museum    
  80. 80. Performance   Twenty  professional  models  on   “display”  in  the  Guggenheim  Museum  “All  wore  full  body  makeup  to  be_er  fulfill  the  air-­‐brushed  perfecEon  demanded  by  contemporary  paradigms  of  beauty  .  .  .  .For  two  and  a  half  hours,  under  the  glare  of  a  helium  balloon  spotlight,  they  displayed  the  unachievable,  media-­‐constructed  standards  by  which  legions  of  impressionable  women  regularly  measure  their  self-­‐esteem.”  Linda  Weintraub   Vanessa  Beecroa,  Show,  1998   Live  Performance,  Guggenheim  Museum  
  81. 81. Kate  Gilmore  “Walk  the  Walk  by  arEst  Kate  Gilmore  is  a  dynamic  installaEon  acEvated  by  a  group  of  seven  women  who  will  walk,  shuffle,  and  stomp  on  the  roof  of  an  eight-­‐foot-­‐high  cubic  structure.  Clothed  in  simple  yellow  dresses  and  beige  pumps,  Gilmores  performers  transform  the  workday  into  a  visual  spectacle  and  dissonant  symphony.  Once  inside  the  structure,  visitors  will  hear  the  reverberaEons  of  the  stomping  feet  overhead.    Drawing  a_enEon  to  the  vast  number  of  women  who  work  each  day  in  the  City,  Gilmores  installaEon  quesEons  noEons  of  work,  its  limitaEons  and  possibiliEes,  and  makes  us  aware  of  assumpEons  about  appropriate  behavior  and  the  limits  of  self  expression.”  h_p://www.bryantpark.org/plan-­‐your-­‐visit/calendar.html?evt=1720   Kate  Gilmore,  Walk  the  Walk,  Bryant  Park,  2010   h_p://nyclovesnyc.blogspot.com/2010/05/performance-­‐based-­‐art-­‐by-­‐kate-­‐gilmore.html  
  82. 82. Performance  Tehching  Hsieh  –  one  year  performance  consisted  of  the  arEst  living  in  a  cage  in  his  studio  for  one  year   Tehching  Hsieh.  One  Year  Performance.  1978–79  
  83. 83. Performance  “Hsieh  moved  from  a  year  of  solitary  confinement  without  any  communicaEon,  to  a  year  in  which  he  punched  a  worker’s  Eme  clock  in  his  studio  on  the  hour  every  hour,  to  a  year  spent  living  without  any  shelter  on  the  streets,  to  a  year  in  which  he  was  Eed  closely  to  the  arEst  Linda  Montano  without  ever  touching  and,  lastly,  to  a  year  of  total  abstenEon  from  art  acEviEes  and  influences.”  h_p://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?_ype=2&Ed=11674   Tehching  Hsieh,  One  Year  Performance  1980-­‐1981   Source:       h_p://artscurriculum.guggenheim.org/lessons/thirdmind_L7.php  
  84. 84. Performance  “In  1986  Hsieh  announced  that  he  would  spend  the  next  thirteen  years  making  art  but  not  showing  it  publicly.  This  final  lifework—an  immense  act  of  self-­‐affirmaEon  and  self-­‐erasure—came  to  a  close  at  the  turn  of  the  millennium.”  h_p://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?_ype=2&Ed=11674   Tehching  Hsieh.  Installa1on  at  MOMA,  2009   h_p://www.nyEmes.com/slideshow/2009/03/01/arts/20090301_HSIEH_SLIDESHOW_2.html  
  85. 85. Video  Like  performance,  video  is  becoming  more  prominent  as  galleries  and  museums  adjust  to  methods  of  collecEng  and  display   h_p://www.guggenheim.org/new-­‐york/exhibiEons/on-­‐view/haunted-­‐contemporary-­‐ photography-­‐video-­‐performance  
  86. 86. David  Hammon   Video  of  the  arEst  kicking  a  bucket   down  the  street  “The  video’s  rough,  grainy  texture  communicates  the  harsh  reality  of  life  on  the  streets  and    .  .  .    the  acEon  of  kicking  the  bucket  suggests  the  man’s  potenEally  unfortunate  fate.  At  once  jarring  and  poeEc,  Hammons’s  simple  gesture  becomes  an  act  of  symphonic  proporEon,  a  compelling  metaphor  for  one  kind  of  contemporary  black  urban  experience.”  hDp://www.ar1c.edu/aic/collec1ons/artwork/185068     David  Hammons,  Phat  Free  (Kick  the  Bucket),  1995/99   Art  Ins1tute  of  Chicago    
  87. 87. Paul  McCarthy   Uses  video  to  record  performances   that  recall  the  extreme  acEons  of  the   Viennese  acEonists  “The  1974  video  "Hot  Dog"  shoots  to  the  heart  of  the  adolescent  "gross-­‐out"  as  McCarthy  tapes  his  penis  into  a  hot  dog  bun,  then  packs  his  pie  hole  full  of  franks  and  wraps  himself  in  gauze.  Another  piece  from  the  70s  called  "Sailors  Meat"  finds  the  arEst  dressed  as  a  blonde  hooker  smeared  with  blood  and  "knowing"  a  pile  of  raw  meat.”  Paul  McCarthy  @  Art  +  Culture     Paul  McCarthy,  Hot  Dog,  1974   h_p://www.themoorespace.org/oldmoorespace/cefm/cefm.html  
  88. 88. William  Kentridge  Uses  animated  drawings  to  construct  powerful  epics  that  address  social  issues  such  as  Apartheid  in  South  Africa   William  Kentridge   Image  source:    hDp://folksonomy.org.uk/?keyword=10  
  89. 89. h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q1sPLXMg1BQ  
  90. 90. Tony  Oursler  Videos  projected  onto  surfaces   Tony  Oursler,  Rubio,  (Performer  Vanessa  Carreras),  1994   Source:     h_p://www.artnet.com/artwork/426043987/367/tony-­‐oursler-­‐rubio-­‐performer-­‐vanessa-­‐ carreras.html  
  91. 91. Tony  Oursler,  Troubler,  1996  Source:    h_p://www.artnet.com/artwork/425982917/425931877/troubler.html  
  92. 92. Tony  Oursler,  Rubio,  (Performer  Vanessa  Carreras),  1994  Source:    h_p://www.tonyoursler.com/individual_work_slideshow.php?allTextFlg=true&navItem=work&startDateStr=Feb.%206,%202010&subSecEon=InstallaEons&Etle=Number%207,%20Plus%20or%20Minus%202&workId=8  
  93. 93. Tony  Oursler,  Number  7,  Plus  or  Minus  2  Source:    h_p://www.tonyoursler.com/individual_work_slideshow.php?navItem=work&workId=8&startDateStr=Feb.%206,%202010&subSecEon=InstallaEons&allTextFlg=false&Etle=Number%207,%20Plus%20or%20Minus%202  
  94. 94. Video  Bill  Viola  –  video  installaEons  that  invoke  tradiEonal  religious  themes  on  a  grand  operaEc  scale   Bill  Viola,  The  Crossing,  1996   Guggenheim  Museum    
  95. 95. “The  violent  annihilaEon  of  a  human   Video  figure  by  the  opposing  natural  forces  of  fire  and  water  is  projected  simultaneously  on  the  front  and  back  of  a  double-­‐sided  screen.  One  one  side,  a  man  approaches  from  a  long  distance  in  slow  moEon.  He  finally  stops  and  stands  sEll.  A  small  flame  appears  at  his  feet  and  quickly  spreads  to  consume  his  enEre  body.  At  the  same  Eme  on  the  other  side,  the  man  approaches,  stops,  and  a  trickle  of  water  begins  pouring  down  on  his  head  from  above.  It  soon  becomes  a  raging  torrent  that  completely  inundates  his  body.  When  all  finally  subsides,  he  has  completely  disappeared  —  small  flickering  flames  on  a  burnt  floor  and  a  few  lingering  drops  of  water  falling  from  above  are  all  that  remain.”   Bill  Vila,  The  Crossing,  1996    h_p://www.sfmoma.org/media/features/viola/BV01.html  
  96. 96. Bill  Viola  Figures  swimming  upside  down,  dria  in  and  out  of  frames,  and  are  reflected  in  polished  slabs  of  granite  “The  thirteenth-­‐century  Persian  poet  Jahal  al-­‐Din  Rumi,  a  favorite  author  of  the  arEst,  proclaimed:  “With  every  moment  a  world  is  born  and  dies.  And  know  that  for  you,  with  every  moment  comes  death  and  renewal.”  Likewise,  in  StaEons  there  is  no  ending  or  beginning—every  instant  is  a  meditaEon  on  the  conEnual  cycles  of  life,  death,  and  rebirth.”  Museum  of  Modern  Art     Bill  Viila,  Sta1ons,  2007   Museum  of  Modern  Art    
  97. 97. Video  Douglas  Gordon  –  Scoosh  24  Hour  Psycho  –  Alfred  Hitchcock  film  in  slow  moEon   Douglas  Gordon,  24  Hour  Psycho,  1993   Image  source:    h_p://www.naEonalgalleries.org/whatson/exhibiEon/5:368/4366/4419  
  98. 98. Video   Doug  Aitken  –  walk-­‐in  video   installaEons  “The  blinking  traffic  lights,  panning  video  cameras,  and  automaEc  car  windows  create  an  environment  of  jerky,  acceleraEng    .  .  .  Electric  Earth  is  itself  an  immersive  landscape  of  moEon  and  fractured  informaEon,  which  viewers  are  meant  to  experience  as  much  as  to  watch.”  h_p://findarEcles.com/p/arEcles/mi_m0268/is_9_38/ai_65649374/   Doug  Aitken,  Electric  Earth,    1999   hDp://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/electric-­‐earth/  
  99. 99. h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSziysd2Duk  
  100. 100. Video  Shirin  Neshat  –  Iranian  born  Islamic  RevoluEon  1979  Trilogy  of  split-­‐screen  video  installaEons-­‐-­‐Turbulent  (1998),  Rapture  (1999)  and  Fervor  (2000)-­‐-­‐  meditaEons  on  the  male/female  dynamic  in  Islamic  socieEes   Shirin  Neshat,  Turbulent,  1998   h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCAssCuOGls  
  101. 101. Globalism   Artworld  is  increasingly  global  “Zhang  (in  his  performance  piece  To  Raise  the  Water  Level  in  a  Fishpond)  invited  people  who  had  lost  their  jobs  in  a  recent  ruthless  modernizaEon  of  Chinese  industry  to  stand  in  a  pond,  raising  the  level  of  the  water  –  a  poeEc  asserEon  of  their  social  presence.”  Jonathan  Fineberg,  p.  485-­‐6   Zhang  Huan  To  Raise  the  Water  Level  in  a  Fishpond  1997     Image  source:    hDp://www.canadianart.ca/online/see-­‐it/2008/07/10/zhang-­‐huan/  
  102. 102. Yinka  Shonibare  Nigerian  arEst  Figures  dressed  in  costumes  evoking  the  elite  of  the  age  of  colonialism  –  but  the  fabrics  “read”  as  African  Discovered  that  so-­‐called  “African  fabrics”  were  actually  invented  in  Holland  Becomes  a  metaphor  for  the  “invenEon”  of  concepts  like  racial  idenEty   Yinka  Shnibare,  Victorian  Couple,  1999   Norton  Museum  of  Art    
  103. 103. Globalism  Recent  retrospecEve  of  Cai  Guo-­‐Qiang  at  the  Guggenheim  reflects  the  increasing  globalizaEon  of  the  art  world   Cai  Guo-­‐Qiang,  Inopportune:  Stage  One,  2004   Image  source:     h_p://www.sawf.org/bin/Eps.dll/geop?Epid=13168&arch=0&user=Sawf +Visuals&class=Visuals&pn=Visuals  
  104. 104. Post  Human  Many  contemporary  arEsts  interested  in  the  concept  of  the  cyborg  –  morphing  of  the  human  figure  into    a  futurisEc  blend  of  human/machine   Stelarc     Source:    h_p://www.maska.si/en/?redirect=330  
  105. 105. Post  Human  Ma_hew  Barney  –  Cremaster  Cycle  Five  feature-­‐length  films  created  1994-­‐2002   Ma_hew  Barney  -­‐  Cremaster  4,  The  Loughton  Candidate  
  106. 106. Post  Human  Cremaster -- muscle that controls thecontraction and relaxation of thetestes in response to different physicalor psychological stimuli like increasedtemperature or fearCycle reflects on the period duringearly development of the fetus whengender has not been decided,a moment of pure potential for BarneyIn the first several weeks of life, thefetus has no anatomical or hormonalsex (sex can only be determined bygenes)About the 10th week, externalgenitalia begins to differentiateAbout 15th week, first spermatogniaand ovarian follicles form28th week, testes descend out of thebody cavityhttp://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1onedaylecturepresentations/lecture1-15.html Cremaster  muscle  in  red   h_p://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Musculus_cremaster.png  
  107. 107. Post  Human  “Barney  –  like  many  other  arEsts  of  the  1990s  –  suggests  a  new,  post-­‐human  world  in  which  the  body  itself  is  understood  as  a  public  sphere.    Here  the  relaxaEon  and  even  suspension  of  sharp  differenEaEon  between  genders,  sexualiEes,  and  ethniciEes  may  offer  an  alternaEve  to  a  world  that  has  been  hemmed  in  by  the  commercializaEon  of  virtually  every  act,  thought,  and  emoEon.”  David  Joselit   Ma_hew  Barney  -­‐  Cremaster  4,  The  Loughton  Candidate  
  108. 108. Post  Human  Barney’s  aestheEc  speaks  the  language  of  a  new  technologically  saavy  generaEon  .  .  .  .  .   h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgk360PZJ7w   Andrew  Huang,  Doll  Face,   h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zl6hNj1uOkY   h_p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EjAoBKagWQA  
  109. 109. Postmodernism  What  unifies  postmodern  art,  if  anything,  is  a  reacEon  to  modernism—at  Emes  destroying  or  debunking  tradiEonally  held  rules  or  canons  of  modern  art;  at  other  Emes  copying  masterworks  of  the  past  in  new  ways.  h_p://schools.walkerart.org/ar_oday/index.wac?id=2362   h_p://schools.walkerart.org/ar_oday/index.wac?id=2362  
  110. 110. Postmodernism  “Instead  of  pure  form  and  color,  the  values  of  criEcism,  analysis,  cogniEon,  social  commentary,  wit,  humor,  surprise  and  reversal  now  prevail.”      Arthur  Danto,  “Value  in  an  Age  of  Chaos,”  in  Linda  Weintraub,  Art  on  the  Edge  and  Over,  p.  254-­‐58.  
  111. 111. Postmodernism   Formalist  principles  no  longer  apply  For  much  contemporary  art  or  art  being  made  today,  the  content  or  meaning  is  more  important  than  the  materials  or  forms  used  to  make  it  .  .  .  .  interested  in  engaging  viewers  conceptually  through  ideas  and  issues.  The  elements  of  art,  while  sEll  present  at  Emes,  are  oaen  not  adequate  to  understanding  the  meaning  of  contemporary  art.    h_p://schools.walkerart.org/ar_oday/index.wac?id=2362   Image  source:     h_p://ihateblogs123.blogspot.com/2009/03/elements-­‐and-­‐principles-­‐of-­‐design.html  
  112. 112. Postmodernism  1.  “AXer”  Modernism;  “aaer”   1968  2.  Skep-cal:    quesEons  belief  in   given  truths  3.  Non-­‐Formalist:    focus  on   meaning/content  rather  than   form  4.  Hybrid:    blurring  of   disEncEons  between  genres   and  media  (rejecEon  of   categories/pigeon-­‐holes)  5.  Plural:  accepEng  of  plurality,   mulEplicity,  diversity   Image  source:    h_p://farisyakob.typepad.com/blog/2007/02/pseudomodern_co.html  
  113. 113. Postmodernism  RejecEon  of  most  of  our  beliefs  about  “art”   Sarah  Maple,  Art  is  Crap   Image  source:    h_p://isiria.wordpress.com/2008/12/13/sarah-­‐maple-­‐art/  
  114. 114. The  Avant  Garde  From  its  incepEon,  avant-­‐garde  art  has  engaged  with  what  is  taboo  to  challenge  boundaries,  and  to  open  up  new  spaces  for  thinking   Andres  Serrano,  installaEon  of  Shit  photographs  Donald  Kuspit,  “ The  Triumph  of  Shit”  h_p://www.artnet.com/magazineus/features/kuspit/kuspit9-­‐11-­‐08.asp   Paul  McCarthy,  Complex  Shit,  2008    Zentrum  Paul  Klee,  Bern  
  115. 115. Technology  Wim  Delvoye  –  Belgian  arEst  Cloaca  –  machine  that  duplicates  the  human  digesEve  system  At  New  Museum  was  fed  with  food  from  local  restaurants  Got  some  bad  food  and  got  sick   Wim  Delvoye,  Cloaca,    New  Museum,  2002  
  116. 116. Chris  Ofili.    Shithead.  1993  h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture31.html  
  117. 117. Kiki  Smith,  Pee  Body,  1992   h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture28.html  Cindy  Sherman,  Un1tled,  1987  h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture28.html   Kiki  Smith,  Tale,  1992   Source:    hDp://www.learn.columbia.edu/fa/images/large/kc_femart_smith_k_1.jpg  
  118. 118. Kiki  Smith,  Un1tled,  1986  h_p://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture28.html   Seven  Dirty  Words:    The  Life  and  Crimes  of  George  Carlin      
  119. 119. The  Concept  of  the  Avant  Garde  Avant-­‐garde  art  challenges  accepted  values  in  order  to  make  us  think  differently   Image  source:    h_p://www.noordinarylife.biz/CreaEve_Mind_Mapping.html  
  120. 120. The  Concept  of  the  Avant  Garde  Courbet’s  work  looks  like  “art”  now  because  he  changed  the  definiEon  of  what  could  be  art   Gustave  Courbet,  The  Stone  Breakers,  1849  

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