French Nouveau RealismArt 109A: Art since 1945Westchester Community CollegeFall 2012Dr. Melissa Hall
Postwar European ArtRegistered immediate trauma ofwarFocus on existential condition ofhumanity
Marshall PlanRecovery of European economyGlobal capitalismRise of le culture de masse
La Culture de MasseCinemaFashionAdvertising                      Jacques Villegle, Rues Desprez et                      Ve...
La Culture de MasseRoland Barthes: father of “culturalstudies”Influenced by semiotics                                     ...
La Culture de MasseMedia produces “falseconsciousness”“We inhabit a world, then, of signswhich support existing powerstruc...
The Society of the  Spectacle  Guy Debord argued that in a media  saturated society, “images” replace  reality“In societie...
Nouveau RéalismeFrench Nouveau Réalisme (NewRealism) was launched in Paris in1960                                    Meeti...
Nouveau Réalisme“New Realism = newperceptions of the real”                           Manifesto 27 October, 1960.
Nouveau RéalismeReaction against media-saturated“reality”                                   Jacques Villegle, Rues Desprez...
“The passionateadventure of thereal perceived initself and notthrough the prismof conceptual orimaginativetranscription.”P...
Nouveau RéalismeThe “junk sculptures” of Armanexemplify the Nouveau Réalisteaesthetic of an unmediatedencounter with real ...
Nouveau Réalisme“Accumulations” – accumulations ofmassed produced consumer items                                     Arman...
Arman, Accumulation, 1968Arman, Malheur aux Barbus, 1960
Arman, Doorbells, 1961                         Arman, Home Sweet Home, 1962Hirshhorn Museum
Arman, Alarm Clocks, 1960Image source: http://jacindarussellart.blogspot.com/2011/09/chicago.html
Commodity Fetishism“Fetishism in anthropology refers tothe primitive belief that godly powerscan inhere in inanimate thing...
Nouveau RéalismePoubelles: accumulations of trash                                    Arman, Dechets Bourgeois (Bourgeois T...
Arman, Les Poubelles des Halles, 1961Image source:http://anetcha-parisienne.blogspot.com/2010/08/volumes-contemporains.html
Arman, Hommage a la Cuisine Fransaise, 1960Image source:http://humanscribbles.blogspot.com/2011/03/trash-master.html
Nouveau RéalismePortrait robots: portraits ofindividuals using objectsassociated with them                                ...
Arman, Portrait robot dIris ClertImage source:http://www.galerie-melki.fr/page/artists-works-archive?page=18
Nouveau RéalismeAs George Carlin suggests, we aredefined by our “stuff”                                    Arman, Poubelle...
Nouveau RéalismeFor an exhibition at the Iris ClertGallery in 1960 called Le Plein,Arman filled the gallery with junk     ...
Nouveau RéalismeThe invitation was placed in asardine can filled with trash                                 Arman, Le Plei...
Nouveau Réalisme Daniel Spoerri: “trap pictures”“Spoerri, a self–proclaimed "pasterof found situations," made thisassembla...
“This is displayed on the wall so it "defies the laws of                                           gravity" and "the view ...
Daniel Spoerri, Kichka’s Breakfast, 1960                                 Museum of Modern ArtRobert Rauschenberg, Bed, 195...
Nouveau RéalismeCésar – “compression sculptures”made from crushed car bodies andindustrial scraps                         ...
Nouveau RéalismeJacques Villeglé and his friendRaymond Hains began makingworks of art from torn billboardposters          ...
Nouveau RéalismeThey called their “reverse collage”technique “décollage” – literally,“taking off”“Décollage, in art, is th...
Raymond Hains, Pour la Paix La Démocratie le Progrés Social, 1962
Nouveau Réalisme“These were ready-madeabstractions; the bits were unalteredso the layering was a matter ofchance, not orch...
“At the same time, his works most immediately bring to mind whatsome of the American Abstract Expressionists were doing in...
Nouveau RéalismeThe sculptor Jean Tinguely mademechanical sculptures from scrapmetal, electrical lightbulbs, andother rand...
Nouveau RéalismeThe “Metamatics” were machinesthat made art                                 Jean Tinguely, Metamatic No. 6...
Michael Landy with Jean Tinguelyswork at Tate Liverpool. Photo: MinakoJackson. Jean Tinguely Méta-maticNo.17, 1959 Moderna...
Loomis Dean, Exhibition of Jean Tinguely’s Meta-Matics, Iris Clert Gallery, Paris, 1959LIFE Magazine
Loomis Dean, Artist Jean Tinguely (Fore) at Iris Clert Gallery, 1959LIFE Magazine
Loomis Dean, Exhibition of Jean Tinguely’s Meta-Matics, Iris Clert Gallery, Paris, 1959LIFE Magazine
“I’ll tell you what’s going to happen . . . Thepublic will keep on buying more and moreart, and husbands will start bringi...
Jean Tinguely, Cyclograveur, 1960
Loomis Dean, Exhibition of Jean Tinguely’s Meta-Matics, Iris Clert Gallery, Paris,1959LIFE Magazine
Nouveau RéalismeHomage to New York was a self–constructing and self–destroyingwork of art composed of bicyclewheels, motor...
Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York, 1960Museum of Modern Art, David Gahr
New York Times, October 4, 1957                                  Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York, 1960                  ...
Tinguelys Study for the End of theWorld, was performed before anaudience in the desert outside LasVegas in 1962           ...
With the assistance of Niki deSainte Phalle he planted explosivedevices that were detonated for atelevised live audience  ...
Alan Grant, Desert Near Las Vegas, Nevada And Show Of Auto-Destructive Art Work Of Artist Jean Tinguely, 1962Life Magazine
Photographers and reporters gather near Frenchman Flat to observe the Priscilla nuclear test, June 24,1957. During the 195...
"Jean Tinguely’s anomalously early desertartwork, Study for an End of the World No.2 (1962), provides a lucid aperture ont...
Nouveau RéalismeA former fashion model, Niki deSaint Phalle was the only femalemember of the French NouveauRéaliste group ...
Nouveau RéalismeShe began making art by shootingat canvases filled with sacks ofpaint and other materials                 ...
Harry Shunk, Niki de Saint Phalle and others using guns to create a painting, ImpasseRonsin, Paris, June 1961Image source:...
Niki de Saint Phalle Untitled from Edition Mat 64, 1964   Niki de Saint Phalle Shooting Picture, Tirage 1961Walker Art Cen...
Nouveau Réalisme  She claimed to be shooting against  all men, society, the church . . . .“Performing public ‘shoot-outs’ ...
Niki de Saint Phalle, Feu au volonte (Fire at Will), Gallery J, Paris, 1961Image source: http://artintelligence.net/review...
Tir de Robert Rauschenberg, 1961   Tir de Jasper Johns, 1961
Nouveau RéalismeOne of the most significantmembers of the Nouveau Réalisteswas Yves Klein                                 ...
Nouveau RéalismeOne of his first “works” was thepublication of a catalog, with apreface by Pascal Claude andplates illustr...
The preface consisted of linesrather than words. It was followedby plates consisting ofmonochrome rectangles affixed tothe...
Nouveau RéalismeAfter this, he launched a successfulcareer as a monochrome painter“Yves Klein took up monochromepainting a...
Nouveau RéalismeKlein then began paintingmonochrome blue canvases usinga pigment he later patented as IKB(International Kl...
Nouveau RéalismeKlein believed the colorrepresented the immateriality of thecosmos -- a kind of pure spirituality         ...
“Blue has no dimensions, it isbeyond dimensions . . . bluesuggests at most the sea and sky,and they, after all, are in act...
Nouveau RéalismeSince it cannot be accuratelyreproduced, the color must beactually “experienced”                          ...
“Each blue world of each painting,although the same blue and treated inthe same way, presented a completelydifferent essen...
Nouveau RéalismeWhen the paintings were shown atIris Clert’s gallery in 1957 the artistreleased 1,001 blue balloons intoth...
Nouveau RéalismeKlein’s next exhibition at Clert’sgallery was titled: La spécialisationde la sensibilité à l’état matièrep...
“The object of this endeavor: to create,establish, and present to the public apalpable pictorial state in the limits of ap...
Nouveau Réalisme3,000 guests arrived to experiencethe pure immateriality of “the void”                                    ...
Nouveau RéalismeThey were served blue cocktailsthat turned their urine blue -- proofthey had been filled with a newspiritu...
Nouveau RéalismeKlein also experimented withapplying his IKB pigment to othersurfaces  Yves Klein, Blue Sponge, 1959     Y...
“Thanks to the sponges—raw living matter—I was going to be able to make portraits of the observers of mymonochromes, who ....
Living Brush series The “living brush” series began with an experiment in the apartment of a friend“Yves covered in blue p...
First experiment of the living brushes in Robert Godet’s apartment, relle Regrattier, Paris, June 5th, 1958Yves Klein Arch...
First experiment of the living brushes in Robert Godet’s apartment, relle Regrattier, Paris, June 5th, 1958Yves Klein Arch...
Anthropométries  For his Anthropométries series, he  covered the bodies of models with  IKB blue, and had them imprint  th...
The Living BrushSeriesIn 1960 Klein staged a performanceat the Galerie internationale d’artcontemporaine that echoes theHa...
The Living BrushSeriesDressed in formal attire, Klein gavehis models instructions, whilemusicians performed his “MonotoneS...
The Living BrushSeries“Yves Klein had three nudemodels cover themselves in bluepaint and affix their body prints onthe whi...
Yves Kleins Untitled Anthropometry (ANT 100) (1960)                                                   Hirshhorn MuseumYves...
The Living Brush series The living brush series was often compared to Action Painting, but Klein adamantly denied the conn...
The Living Brushseries“It would never cross my mind tosoil my hands with paint.Detached and distant, the work ofart must b...
Leap Into the VoidIn 1960 Klein and the Americanphotographer Harry Shunk staged afamous photograph of the artistleaping in...
Leap Into the VoidThe photograph was published inDimanche -- a self-producednewspaper that was sold atnewsstands throughou...
Leap Into the VoidKlein claimed to be literally enteringthe “void”“To paint space, I owe it to myself togo there, to that ...
Zones of ImmaterialityIn another performance piece Kleincontrived a scheme for packagingand selling “immateriality”       ...
Zones of ImmaterialityTitled Zone of Immaterial PictorialSensibility, the work involved thesale of “immaterial space,” whi...
Zones of ImmaterialityAfter the transaction was made, theowner would burn the certificateand the artist would toss the mon...
4.5 nouveau realism
4.5 nouveau realism
4.5 nouveau realism
4.5 nouveau realism
4.5 nouveau realism
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4.5 nouveau realism

  1. 1. French Nouveau RealismArt 109A: Art since 1945Westchester Community CollegeFall 2012Dr. Melissa Hall
  2. 2. Postwar European ArtRegistered immediate trauma ofwarFocus on existential condition ofhumanity
  3. 3. Marshall PlanRecovery of European economyGlobal capitalismRise of le culture de masse
  4. 4. La Culture de MasseCinemaFashionAdvertising Jacques Villegle, Rues Desprez et Vercingétorix - "La Femme", 1966
  5. 5. La Culture de MasseRoland Barthes: father of “culturalstudies”Influenced by semiotics Roland Barthes, Mythologies, 1957
  6. 6. La Culture de MasseMedia produces “falseconsciousness”“We inhabit a world, then, of signswhich support existing powerstructures and which purport to benatural. The role of themythologist . . . is to expose thesesigns as the artificial constructs thatthey are”Roland Bartheshttp://seacoast.sunderland.ac.uk/~os0tmc/myth.htm
  7. 7. The Society of the Spectacle Guy Debord argued that in a media saturated society, “images” replace reality“In societies where modern conditions ofproduction prevail, all of life presentsitself as an immense accumulation ofspectacles. Everything that was directlylived has moved away into arepresentation.”Guy Debordhttp://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/debord/society.htm Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, 1967
  8. 8. Nouveau RéalismeFrench Nouveau Réalisme (NewRealism) was launched in Paris in1960 Meeting of the French Nouveau Réalistes at the apartment of Yves Klein 27 October, 1960. From left to right: Arman, Tinguely, Rotraut Uecker, Spoerri, Villeglé, Restany.
  9. 9. Nouveau Réalisme“New Realism = newperceptions of the real” Manifesto 27 October, 1960.
  10. 10. Nouveau RéalismeReaction against media-saturated“reality” Jacques Villegle, Rues Desprez et Vercingétorix - "La Femme", 1966
  11. 11. “The passionateadventure of thereal perceived initself and notthrough the prismof conceptual orimaginativetranscription.”Pierre Restanyhttp://www.yveskleinarchives.org/documents/bio_content_us.html
  12. 12. Nouveau RéalismeThe “junk sculptures” of Armanexemplify the Nouveau Réalisteaesthetic of an unmediatedencounter with real “things” ratherthan representations Arman, Accumulation, 1961
  13. 13. Nouveau Réalisme“Accumulations” – accumulations ofmassed produced consumer items Arman, Accumulation, 1973 Museum of Modern Art
  14. 14. Arman, Accumulation, 1968Arman, Malheur aux Barbus, 1960
  15. 15. Arman, Doorbells, 1961 Arman, Home Sweet Home, 1962Hirshhorn Museum
  16. 16. Arman, Alarm Clocks, 1960Image source: http://jacindarussellart.blogspot.com/2011/09/chicago.html
  17. 17. Commodity Fetishism“Fetishism in anthropology refers tothe primitive belief that godly powerscan inhere in inanimate things (e.g., intotems). Marx borrows this concept tomake sense of what he terms"commodity fetishism.” . . . People in acapitalist society . . . begin to treatcommodities as if value inhered in theobjects themselves, rather than in theamount of real labor expended toproduce the object . . .”http://www.cla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/marxism/modules/marxfetishism.html Prada Hobo Bag, $1,495.00 @ saks.com
  18. 18. Nouveau RéalismePoubelles: accumulations of trash Arman, Dechets Bourgeois (Bourgeois Trash), 1959 Galerie Valois
  19. 19. Arman, Les Poubelles des Halles, 1961Image source:http://anetcha-parisienne.blogspot.com/2010/08/volumes-contemporains.html
  20. 20. Arman, Hommage a la Cuisine Fransaise, 1960Image source:http://humanscribbles.blogspot.com/2011/03/trash-master.html
  21. 21. Nouveau RéalismePortrait robots: portraits ofindividuals using objectsassociated with them Arman, Premier Portrait-robot dYves Klein, 1960 Image source: http://humanscribbles.blogspot.com/2011/03/trash-master.html
  22. 22. Arman, Portrait robot dIris ClertImage source:http://www.galerie-melki.fr/page/artists-works-archive?page=18
  23. 23. Nouveau RéalismeAs George Carlin suggests, we aredefined by our “stuff” Arman, Poubelle de Jim Dine, 1961
  24. 24. Nouveau RéalismeFor an exhibition at the Iris ClertGallery in 1960 called Le Plein,Arman filled the gallery with junk Arman, Le Plein exhibition at the Galerie Clert, Paris, 1960
  25. 25. Nouveau RéalismeThe invitation was placed in asardine can filled with trash Arman, Le Plein invitation, 1960 Museum of Modern Art
  26. 26. Nouveau Réalisme Daniel Spoerri: “trap pictures”“Spoerri, a self–proclaimed "pasterof found situations," made thisassemblage from his girlfriendKichkas leftover breakfast whilewaiting for some visitors. "I pastedtogether the mornings breakfast,which was still there by chance”Museum of Modern Art Daniel Spoerri, Kichka’s Breakfast, 1960 Museum of Modern Art
  27. 27. “This is displayed on the wall so it "defies the laws of gravity" and "the view to which we are accustomed,"Daniel Spoerri, Kichka’s Breakfast, 1960 the artist says.Museum of Modern Art Museum of Modern Art
  28. 28. Daniel Spoerri, Kichka’s Breakfast, 1960 Museum of Modern ArtRobert Rauschenberg, Bed, 1955Museum of Modern Art
  29. 29. Nouveau RéalismeCésar – “compression sculptures”made from crushed car bodies andindustrial scraps César, Compression, 1966 National Gallery of Scotland
  30. 30. Nouveau RéalismeJacques Villeglé and his friendRaymond Hains began makingworks of art from torn billboardposters Jacques Villeglé, Comrades, 1956
  31. 31. Nouveau RéalismeThey called their “reverse collage”technique “décollage” – literally,“taking off”“Décollage, in art, is the opposite ofcollage; instead of an image beingbuilt up of all or parts of existingimages, it is created by cutting,tearing away or otherwise removing,pieces of an original image.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decollage Jacques Villeglé, Rues Desprez et Vercingétorix - "La Femme", 1965 Centre Pompidou
  32. 32. Raymond Hains, Pour la Paix La Démocratie le Progrés Social, 1962
  33. 33. Nouveau Réalisme“These were ready-madeabstractions; the bits were unalteredso the layering was a matter ofchance, not orchestrated by theartists, although obviously they chosewhich bits to take. Mr. Villegledescribed wanting spontaneous,iconoclastic gestures of passers-by --a whole repertory of rips, scratches,slashes, scrawls, smears, gashes,gougings, abrasions, inscriptions andover-pastings.’Michael Kimmelman, “Art in Review: JacquesVillegle,” NYTimes, Sep 24, 1999 Raymond Hains, L’Affiche au Coup de Pied, 1960
  34. 34. “At the same time, his works most immediately bring to mind whatsome of the American Abstract Expressionists were doing in the1950’s . . . and they anticipate, in their focus on popular imageryand the culture of the street, Pop . . . 70s public art, graffiti art andon and on.’Michael Kimmelman, “Art in Review: Jacques Villegle,” NYTimes, Sep 24, 1999
  35. 35. Nouveau RéalismeThe sculptor Jean Tinguely mademechanical sculptures from scrapmetal, electrical lightbulbs, andother random materials Jean Tinguely, Narva, 1961 Metropolitan Museum
  36. 36. Nouveau RéalismeThe “Metamatics” were machinesthat made art Jean Tinguely, Metamatic No. 6, 1959. Museum Tingeuly, Basel Image source: http://www.gg-art.com/news/photoshow/8432l1.html
  37. 37. Michael Landy with Jean Tinguelyswork at Tate Liverpool. Photo: MinakoJackson. Jean Tinguely Méta-maticNo.17, 1959 Moderna Museet,Stockholm
  38. 38. Loomis Dean, Exhibition of Jean Tinguely’s Meta-Matics, Iris Clert Gallery, Paris, 1959LIFE Magazine
  39. 39. Loomis Dean, Artist Jean Tinguely (Fore) at Iris Clert Gallery, 1959LIFE Magazine
  40. 40. Loomis Dean, Exhibition of Jean Tinguely’s Meta-Matics, Iris Clert Gallery, Paris, 1959LIFE Magazine
  41. 41. “I’ll tell you what’s going to happen . . . Thepublic will keep on buying more and moreart, and husbands will start bringing homelittle paintings to their wives on their wayfrom work, and we’re all going to drown in asea of mediocrity. Maybe Tinguely and a fewothers sense this and are trying to destroyart before its too late.”Marcel Duchamp commenting on Jean Tinguely’sHomage to New York Marcel Duchamp
  42. 42. Jean Tinguely, Cyclograveur, 1960
  43. 43. Loomis Dean, Exhibition of Jean Tinguely’s Meta-Matics, Iris Clert Gallery, Paris,1959LIFE Magazine
  44. 44. Nouveau RéalismeHomage to New York was a self–constructing and self–destroyingwork of art composed of bicyclewheels, motors, a piano, anaddressograph, a go–cart, abathtub, and other cast–off objects. Jean Tinguely at work on Homage to New York (1960) Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York, 1960 Courtesy Museum Tinguely, Basel, and The New York Times Museum of Modern Art Tate Gallery
  45. 45. Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York, 1960Museum of Modern Art, David Gahr
  46. 46. New York Times, October 4, 1957 Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York, 1960 Museum of Modern Art
  47. 47. Tinguelys Study for the End of theWorld, was performed before anaudience in the desert outside LasVegas in 1962 Alan Grant, Desert Near Las Vegas, Nevada And Show Of Auto- Destructive Art Work Of Artist Jean Tinguely, 1962 Life Magazine
  48. 48. With the assistance of Niki deSainte Phalle he planted explosivedevices that were detonated for atelevised live audience Alan Grant, Desert Near Las Vegas, Nevada And Show Of Auto- Destructive Art Work Of Artist Jean Tinguely, 1962 Life Magazine
  49. 49. Alan Grant, Desert Near Las Vegas, Nevada And Show Of Auto-Destructive Art Work Of Artist Jean Tinguely, 1962Life Magazine
  50. 50. Photographers and reporters gather near Frenchman Flat to observe the Priscilla nuclear test, June 24,1957. During the 1950s, the spectacle of nuclear testing attracted curious members of the public from allover the country, including media members and military personnel. Las Vegas capitalized on the test site’sclose proximity with beauty pageants, special events and bomb-viewing vacation packages.“TV Audience Views Atomic Bomb Test for the First Time, Las Vegas Sun 22 April 1952
  51. 51. "Jean Tinguely’s anomalously early desertartwork, Study for an End of the World No.2 (1962), provides a lucid aperture onto twotechnologies that emerged in the decadesfollowing World War II and profoundlyimpacted the period: the atomic bomb(representing the potential end to alltechnology) and television (representing thepotential translation of all into spectacle). HisNevada “study” addressed bothsimultaneously, critically mimicking atomictests and their mass mediation ontelevision."http://visualartsmediaarchitecture.wordpress.com/2012/04/01/welcoming-dr-emily-scott/ Alan Grant, Desert Near Las Vegas, Nevada And Show Of Auto-Destructive Art Work Of Artist Jean Tinguely, 1962 Life Magazine
  52. 52. Nouveau RéalismeA former fashion model, Niki deSaint Phalle was the only femalemember of the French NouveauRéaliste group Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely Image source: http://eaobjets.wordpress.com/2007/12/18/niki-de-saint-phalle-jean-tingely- ausstellungnur-noch-bis-6-januar/
  53. 53. Nouveau RéalismeShe began making art by shootingat canvases filled with sacks ofpaint and other materials Niki de Saint Phalles exhibition Feu a volonte, Galerie J, Paris, 1961 Image source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3675483/Niki-de-Saint-Phalle.html
  54. 54. Harry Shunk, Niki de Saint Phalle and others using guns to create a painting, ImpasseRonsin, Paris, June 1961Image source: http://artintelligence.net/review/?p=497
  55. 55. Niki de Saint Phalle Untitled from Edition Mat 64, 1964 Niki de Saint Phalle Shooting Picture, Tirage 1961Walker Art Center Plaster, paint, string, polythene and wire on wood Tate Gallery
  56. 56. Nouveau Réalisme She claimed to be shooting against all men, society, the church . . . .“Performing public ‘shoot-outs’ inFrance and America, Saint Phalledefied all that angered her. Sheshot at patriarchal society andpolitical crisis. Driven bycontemporary events, as much asby personal anguish, many of theShooting Paintings have a politicalresonance.”Tate Gallery Niki de Saint Phalle making one of her shooting pictures. Image source: http://www.laboratoiredugeste.com/spip.php?article32
  57. 57. Niki de Saint Phalle, Feu au volonte (Fire at Will), Gallery J, Paris, 1961Image source: http://artintelligence.net/review/?p=497
  58. 58. Tir de Robert Rauschenberg, 1961 Tir de Jasper Johns, 1961
  59. 59. Nouveau RéalismeOne of the most significantmembers of the Nouveau Réalisteswas Yves Klein Yves Klein, 1961. Image courtesy Yves Klein Archives. Image source: http://newsdesk.si.edu/photos/yves-klein
  60. 60. Nouveau RéalismeOne of his first “works” was thepublication of a catalog, with apreface by Pascal Claude andplates illustrating his work Yves Klein, Yves Peintures, 1954
  61. 61. The preface consisted of linesrather than words. It was followedby plates consisting ofmonochrome rectangles affixed tothe page and identified by year andlocation — Nice, London, Madrid,Tokyo.
  62. 62. Nouveau RéalismeAfter this, he launched a successfulcareer as a monochrome painter“Yves Klein took up monochromepainting at the end of 1949. At thetime he described this activity as"a means of painting that isagainst painting, against all theanxieties of life, againsteverything" [Stich 1994, pp.23/253]”http://radicalart.info/nothing/space/klein/index.html Opening of the exhibition Yves Peintures, Club des Solitaires, Éditions Lacostes, Paris, October 15th 1955. Yves Klein Archives
  63. 63. Nouveau RéalismeKlein then began paintingmonochrome blue canvases usinga pigment he later patented as IKB(International Klein Blue) Yves Klein, Untitled Blue Monochrome (IKB 82), 1959 Guggenheim
  64. 64. Nouveau RéalismeKlein believed the colorrepresented the immateriality of thecosmos -- a kind of pure spirituality Yves Klein, Blue Monochrome, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  65. 65. “Blue has no dimensions, it isbeyond dimensions . . . bluesuggests at most the sea and sky,and they, after all, are in actual,visible nature what is mostabstract.”Yves Klein Yves Klein, Untitled Blue Monochrome (IKB 82), 1959 Guggenheim
  66. 66. Nouveau RéalismeSince it cannot be accuratelyreproduced, the color must beactually “experienced” Yves Klein, Blue Monochrome, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  67. 67. “Each blue world of each painting,although the same blue and treated inthe same way, presented a completelydifferent essence and atmosphere . . .The prices were all different, ofcourse.”Yves Kleinhttp://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?cgroupid=999999961&workid=8143&tabview=text&texttype=10 Yves Klein, IKB 79 1959 Tate Gallery
  68. 68. Nouveau RéalismeWhen the paintings were shown atIris Clert’s gallery in 1957 the artistreleased 1,001 blue balloons intothe sky to celebrate the advent ofhis “Blue Period”He called it an “aerostaticsculpture” Yves Klein, Sculpture aérostatique, Paris, 1957 Yves Klein Archives
  69. 69. Nouveau RéalismeKlein’s next exhibition at Clert’sgallery was titled: La spécialisationde la sensibilité à l’état matièrepremière en sensibilité picturalestabilisée, Le Vide(The Specialization of Sensibility inthe Raw Material State intoStabilized Pictorial Sensibility, TheVoid) Yves Klein, Le Vide, Galerie Clert, Paris, 1958 Yves Klein Archives
  70. 70. “The object of this endeavor: to create,establish, and present to the public apalpable pictorial state in the limits of apicture gallery. In other words, creation ofan ambience, a genuine pictorial climate,and, therefore, an invisible one.”Yves Kleinhttp://web.tiscali.it/nouveaurealisme/ENG/klein5.htm Yves Klein, Le Vide, Galerie Clert, Paris, 1958
  71. 71. Nouveau Réalisme3,000 guests arrived to experiencethe pure immateriality of “the void” “Iris Clert invites you to honor, with all your affective presence, the lucid and positive advent of a certain reign of the sensitive. This manifestation of perceptive synthesis confirms Yves Kleins pictorial quest for an ecstatic and immediately communicable emotion. Monday April 28, 9 pm.” Pierre Restany
  72. 72. Nouveau RéalismeThey were served blue cocktailsthat turned their urine blue -- proofthey had been filled with a newspiritual essence Yves Klein, Le Vide, Galerie Clert, Paris, 1958
  73. 73. Nouveau RéalismeKlein also experimented withapplying his IKB pigment to othersurfaces Yves Klein, Blue Sponge, 1959 Yves Klein. Bas-reliefs dans une forêt d’éponges Guggenheim (Bas-reliefs in a sponge forest), at Iris Clert Gallery, Paris, 1959
  74. 74. “Thanks to the sponges—raw living matter—I was going to be able to make portraits of the observers of mymonochromes, who . . . after having voyaged in the blue of my pictures, return totally impregnated in sensibility,as are the sponges.”http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_work_md_76_1.html
  75. 75. Living Brush series The “living brush” series began with an experiment in the apartment of a friend“Yves covered in blue paint thenaked body of a young woman,who, through a series of rotatingmovements, left her bodily printson a sheet of paper set on thefloor, until the support was fullysaturated. The result was a bluemonochrome.”Yves Klein Archive First experiment of the living brushes in Robert Godet’s apartment, rel le Regrattier, Paris, June 5th, 1958 Yves Klein Archive
  76. 76. First experiment of the living brushes in Robert Godet’s apartment, relle Regrattier, Paris, June 5th, 1958Yves Klein Archive
  77. 77. First experiment of the living brushes in Robert Godet’s apartment, relle Regrattier, Paris, June 5th, 1958Yves Klein Archive
  78. 78. Anthropométries For his Anthropométries series, he covered the bodies of models with IKB blue, and had them imprint their bodies on paper“February 23: at his home, in thepresence of Pierre Restany, Yves Kleindid imprints of Rotraut and Jacquelinewho pressed the blue stamp of theirbodies onto a large sheet of white paperfastened to the wall. The participantsnamed the work Célébration d’unenouvelle Ere anthropométrique(Celebration of a New AnthropometricPeriod). With these imprints inscribed ona support, Klein sought to capture themarks of fleeting "states-moments offlesh.”Yves Klein Archive Creation of an Anthropométrie, rue Campagne Première, Paris, 1960 Yves Klein Archive
  79. 79. The Living BrushSeriesIn 1960 Klein staged a performanceat the Galerie internationale d’artcontemporaine that echoes theHappenings then taking place inNew York Anthropométries de lépoque bleue, Galerie internationale dart contemporain, Paris, March 9, 1960. Yves Klein Archive
  80. 80. The Living BrushSeriesDressed in formal attire, Klein gavehis models instructions, whilemusicians performed his “MonotoneSymphony” -- a musical workconsisting of a single prolongednote Anthropométries de lépoque bleue, Galerie internationale dart contemporain, Paris, March 9, 1960. Yves Klein Archive
  81. 81. The Living BrushSeries“Yves Klein had three nudemodels cover themselves in bluepaint and affix their body prints onthe white papers, laid out on thegallery walls and floor. A complexbody language, staged by Kleinhimself, brought the figures to lifein a sort of strange ballet, in whichthe actresses rolled and draggedtheir hands on the ground, beforethe audience’s eyes. The formallydressed audience, made up ofnumerous artists, collectors, andcritics, was subsequently invitedto take part in a generaldiscussion, in which GeorgesMathieu and Pierre Restanyparticipated.”Yves Klein Archive Anthropométries de lépoque bleue, Galerie internationale dart contemporain, Paris, March 9, 1960 Yves Klein Archive
  82. 82. Yves Kleins Untitled Anthropometry (ANT 100) (1960) Hirshhorn MuseumYves Klein, Anthropometry: Princess Helena, 1960Museum of Modern Art
  83. 83. The Living Brush series The living brush series was often compared to Action Painting, but Klein adamantly denied the connection“Many critics claimed that by thismethod of painting I was doingnothing more than recreating themethod that has been called "actionpainting". But now, I would like tomake it clear that this endeavor isdistinct from "action painting" in sofar as I am completely detachedfrom all physical work during thetime of creation.”Yves KleinThe Chelsea Hotel Manifesto Anthropométries de lépoque bleue, Galerie internationale dart contemporain, Paris, March 9, 1960 Yves Klein Archive
  84. 84. The Living Brushseries“It would never cross my mind tosoil my hands with paint.Detached and distant, the work ofart must be completed under myeyes and under my command. Asthe work begins its completion, Istand there - present at theceremony, immaculate, calm,relaxed, perfectly aware of what istaking place and ready to receivethe art being born into the tangibleworld..”Yves KleinThe Chelsea Hotel Manifesto Anthropométries de lépoque bleue, Galerie internationale dart contemporain, Paris, March 9, 1960 Yves Klein Archive
  85. 85. Leap Into the VoidIn 1960 Klein and the Americanphotographer Harry Shunk staged afamous photograph of the artistleaping into thin air Yves Klein, Leap into the Void 1960. Photograph: Harry Shunk Metropolitan Museum
  86. 86. Leap Into the VoidThe photograph was published inDimanche -- a self-producednewspaper that was sold atnewsstands throughout Paris forone day Yves Klein, Dimanche, Sunday, 27 November, 1960
  87. 87. Leap Into the VoidKlein claimed to be literally enteringthe “void”“To paint space, I owe it to myself togo there, to that very space… withoutillusions or tricks, nor with a plane ora parachute or a rocket ship: [thepainter of space] must go there byhis own means, with an independentindividual force, in a word, he mustbe capable of levitation.””Yves Klein Yves Klein, Leap into the Void 1960. Photograph: Harry Shunk Metropolitan Museum
  88. 88. Zones of ImmaterialityIn another performance piece Kleincontrived a scheme for packagingand selling “immateriality” Yves Klein and Dino Buzzati engaged in the ritual transfer of immateriality, January 26, 1962
  89. 89. Zones of ImmaterialityTitled Zone of Immaterial PictorialSensibility, the work involved thesale of “immaterial space,” whichwas certified by a check issued bythe artist A cheque used to certify the purchase of a Zone de Sensibilité Picturale Immatérielle. This copy was bought by Jacques Kugel December 7, 1959
  90. 90. Zones of ImmaterialityAfter the transaction was made, theowner would burn the certificateand the artist would toss the moneyinto the Seine“Through the Ritual Rules for the Transferof Zones of Immaterial Pictorial Space,Yves Klein examined societal notions ofownership and purchase. For the first timein art history, buyers and collectors wereexpected to buy artwork that wasintangible. The art could not be displayed,resold, or even escalate in value. Part ofthe reason for this is that there was nosubstantial proof that one owned the work.Klein insisted that in order to own theactual "void," the receipt (the materialobject which verified the existence of theexchange and the space itself) must beburned. The gold used for the purchasewas then tossed into the Seine river as ameans of solidifying the "contract."http://www.uwo.ca/visarts/projects/kleinmystery/galleries/jen.htm Yves Klein and Dino Buzzati engaged in the ritual transfer of immateriality, January 26, 1962
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